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An Inter-industry Analysis of the Korean Railway with Input-Output Statistics: A Decade Comparison (철도운송산업의 산업연관 분석 2003~2013년, 지난 10년의 비교)

  • Yoon, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.815-825
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    • 2016
  • The inter-industrial inducement effects of the Korean railway services on the output, value-added, and imports of 383 industrial sectors of the Korean economy have been computed by the input-output analysis technique utilizing the '2013 Input-Output Statistics', which was published most recently in December 2015 by the Bank of Korea. The research results are, then, compared and contrasted with the former research results with the '2003 Input-0utput Statistics', which were published in the Journal of the Korean Society for Railway, August, 2008. The economic inducement effects computed in this study are as follows. The Korean railway service industry produced \5,841 billion worth of passenger and freight railroad services in the year 2013, and it induced \8,511 billion worth of output, \84 billion worth of value-added, and \1,050 billion worth of imports for Korean industry as a whole.; the production inducement multiplier, value-added multiplier, and imports inducement multiplier of 2013 results are shown to be quite different from 2003 multipliers.; it has been shown that it is necessary to utilize the most recent Input-Output Statistics for the computation of the most recent inter-industrial analysis.

An Analysis on Changing Factors of World Soybean Markets (세계 대두시장 변화요인 분석 및 시사점)

  • Lee, Sang Hyeon;Ahn, Soojung
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2017
  • As economic growth has occurred in Asia over the last several decades, the demand for soybeans, soybean meal and soyoil have also increased. Over the last 50 years, the cultivation of soybeans in the U.S., Brazil, and Argentina increased dramatically. Consequently, these three countries have become the major soybean producers and exporters in the world. The growth in soybean production in those countries over the years, however, has been insufficient to meet the demand. With the opening of China's market to soybean and soybean products trade in 1995/96 and the accession of China to that trade agreement in 2001, Asian soybean imports began to increase dramatically. Korea opened its soyoil market in 1991 and it brought about a great change not only in soyoil market but in soymeal and soybean market as well. As imports of soyoil expanded, the increased consumption was covered by imports and this caused burden cost to soybean manufacturers leading to decrease in soybean purchase. Since that time, consumption of Korean soybeans has become stagnant and due to this reason, production of soymeal, which is byproduct of soybeans, also decreased replacing increased domestic consumption with imported soymeal. This implies that market openness of soyoil, has brought negative effect in soybean and soymeal market. As a result, decrease in soybean consumption led to decrease in self-sufficiency of soybean products.

A Study of the Effects of Trade between North Korea and China on the Conflict between South Korea and North Korea (북한·중국 간 교역이 남한·북한 간 분쟁관계에 미친 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Ju, Sung Whan
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.361-383
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    • 2009
  • This study extends theoretically the expected utility model of trade-conflict developed by Polacheck if a third country is involved, and analyses empirically how trade between North Korea and China affects to the political conflict between South and North Korea. The results of empirical analysis show that North Korea's exports to South Korea and China do not affect the conflict or cooperative relations between South and North Korea. But North Korea's imports from South Korea and China affect to the conflict between South and North Korea: increasing of North Korea's imports to South Korea reduce conflict between South and North Korea, but increasing of North Korea's imports to China increase conflict between South and North Korea.

A Study on Korean FDI in China by Industries and Intra Industry Trade between Two Countries (한국의 대 중국 업종별 FDI와 산업내무역에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Seong Ki;Kang, Han Gyoun
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.759-780
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of Korean FDI(1990-2008) in China by industries on exports and imports between two countries. We use time series regression, Vector Error Correction Model and Impulse Response Function as methodologies. Our findings through empirical tests are as follows. First Korean FDI in China increases Korean exports with China but shows a tendency to decrease due to the local content of China. Second Korean FDI in China increases Korean imports in SITC 8 with China. Finally Korean trade surplus caused by Korean FDI in China shrinks due to the decreasing of exports and increasing of imports in Korea. Korean FDI in China should be oriented host country's market oriented rather than production efficiency oriented because of unfriendly foreign investment environments in China.

Economic Impact of the Tariff Reform : A General Equilibrium Approach (관세율(關稅率) 조정(調整) 경제적(經濟的) 효과분석(效果分析) : 일반균형적(一般均衡的) 접근(接近))

  • Lee, Won-yong
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.69-91
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    • 1990
  • A major change in tariff rates was made in January 1989 in Korea. The benchmark tariff rate, which applies to about two thirds of all commodity items, was lowered to 15 percent from 20 percent. In addition, the variation in tariff rates among different types of commodities was reduced. This paper examines the economic impact of the tariff reform using a multisectoral general equilibrium model of the Korean economy which was introduced by Lee and Chang(1988), and by Lee(1988). More specifically, this paper attempts to find the changes in imports, exports, domestic production, consumption, prices, and employment in 31 different sectors of the economy induced by the reform in tariff rates. The policy simulations are made according to three different methods. First, tariff changes in industries are calculated strictly according to the change in legal tariff rates, which tend to over-estimate the size of the tariff reduction given the tariff-drawback system and tariff exemption applied to various import items. Second, tariff changes in industries are obtained by dividing the estimated tariff revenues of each industry by the estimated imports for that industry, which are often called actual tariff rates. According to the first method, the import-weighted average tariff rate is lowered from 15.2% to 10.2%, while the second method changes the average tariff rate from 6.2% to 4.2%. In the third method, the tariff-drawback system is internalized in the model. This paper reports the results of the policy simulation according to all three methods, comparing them with one another. It is argued that the second method yields the most realistic estimate of the changes in macro-economic variables, while the third method is useful in delineating the differences in impact across industries. The findings, according to the second method, show that the tariff reform induces more imports in most sectors. Garments, leather products, and wood products are those industries in which imports increase by more than 5 percent. On the other hand, imports in agricultural, mining and service sectors are least affected. Domestic production increases in all sectors except the following: leather products, non-metalic products, chemicals, paper and paper products, and wood-product industries. The increase in production and employment is largest in export industries, followed by service industries. An impact on macroeconomic variables is also simulated. The tariff reform increases nominal GNP by 0.26 percent, lowers the consumer price index by 0.49 percent, increases employment by 0.24 percent, and worsens the trade balance by 480 million US dollars, through a rise in exports of 540 million US dollars and a rise in imports of 1.02 billion US dollars.

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U.S. FRESH SALMON MARKET (미국의 연어 시장 가격 예측에 관한 연구)

  • Dae-Kyum Kim
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.99-114
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    • 1987
  • U. S. commercial landings of wild salmon have remained relatively stable for the past 5 years, averaging 300,000 MT. While the same period, U. S. imports of fresh salmon have increased over ten fold from 1.8 to over 19 million pounds. Over 70 percent of the new supplies of fresh salmon come from Norway. Norway exports to the United States were negligible in 1980 and 1981. However, U. S. imported 1,768 M. T. in 1983, 3,896 M. T. in 1984, and 6,272 M. T. in 1985. Over the past 5 years, import price of fresh wild salmon from Canada has declined steadily from $2.58 per pound to $1.25 per pound in 1985, while those from Norway had remained unchanged, ranging from $3.28 to $3.45 over the same period. Norway's cultured salmon entered the United States in 1985 at about $3.35/1b., roughly triple the price of Canadian fresh wild salmon imports. U. S. apparent consumption of fresh and frozen salmon has sharply increased from 50,000 MT in 1981 to 92,000 MT in 1985, up 86 percent over the five years. Annual per capita consumption has increased steadily from 0.47 pounds in 1981 to 0.85 pounds in 1985. The estimated demand models show that the annual wholesale price of fresh salmon in the U. S. market would be declined by increase in supplies and would be raised by increase in the U. S. GNP. The empirical results in this study show that wholesale price of fresh salmon in 1990 would remain unchanged at the 1985 level, under the following condition: 1) Norwegian production of Atlantic fresh salmon would reach 80,000 MT (176 million pounds by 1990) 2) Imports of Norwegian Atlantic fresh salmon would keep the same percentage (21%) of Norwegian productions in 1990 3) Imports from other countries and U. S. domestic production would increase and maintain the same level of 25% of U. S. total supplies in 1990 4) U. S. GNP would increase by $200 billion annually, slightly less than in the past years.

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Structure of Export Competition between Asian NIEs and Japan in the U.S. Import Market and Exchange Rate Effects (한국(韓國)의 아시아신흥공업국(新興工業國) 및 일본(日本)과의 대미수출경쟁(對美輸出競爭) : 환율효과(換率效果)를 중심(中心)으로)

  • Jwa, Sung-hee
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.3-49
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    • 1990
  • This paper analyzes U.S. demand for imports from Asian NIEs and Japan, utilizing the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) developed by Deaton and Muellbauer, with an emphasis on the effect of changes in the exchange rate. The empirical model assumes a two-stage budgeting process in which the first stage represents the allocation of total U.S. demand among three groups: the Asian NIEs and Japan, six Western developed countries, and the U.S. domestic non-tradables and import competing sector. The second stage represents the allocation of total U.S. imports from the Asian NIEs and Japan among them, by country. According to the AIDS model, the share equation for the Asia NIEs and Japan in U.S. nominal GNP is estimated as a single equation for the first stage. The share equations for those five countries in total U.S. imports are estimated as a system with the general demand restrictions of homogeneity, symmetry and adding-up, together with polynomially distributed lag restrictions. The negativity condition is also satisfied for all cases. The overall results of these complicated estimations, using quarterly data from the first quarter of 1972 to the fourth quarter of 1989, are quite promising in terms of the significance of individual estimators and other statistics. The conclusions drawn from the estimation results and the derived demand elasticities can be summarized as follows: First, the exports of each Asian NIE to the U.S. are competitive with (substitutes for) Japan's exports, while complementary to the exports of fellow NIEs, with the exception of the competitive relation between Hong Kong and Singapore. Second, the exports of each Asian NIE and of Japan to the U.S. are competitive with those of Western developed countries' to the U.S, while they are complementary to the U.S.' non-tradables and import-competing sector. Third, as far as both the first and second stages of budgeting are coneidered, the imports from each Asian NIE and Japan are luxuries in total U.S. consumption. However, when only the second budgeting stage is considered, the imports from Japan and Singapore are luxuries in U.S. imports from the NIEs and Japan, while those of Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong are necessities. Fourth, the above results may be evidenced more concretely in their implied exchange rate effects. It appears that, in general, a change in the yen-dollar exchange rate will have at least as great an impact, on an NIE's share and volume of exports to the U.S. though in the opposite direction, as a change in the exchange rate of the NIE's own currency $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar. Asian NIEs, therefore, should counteract yen-dollar movements in order to stabilize their exports to the U.S.. More specifically, Korea should depreciate the value of the won relative to the dollar by approximately the same proportion as the depreciation rate of the yen $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar, in order to maintain the volume of Korean exports to the U.S.. In the worst case scenario, Korea should devalue the won by three times the maguitude of the yen's depreciation rate, in order to keep market share in the aforementioned five countries' total exports to the U.S.. Finally, this study provides additional information which may support empirical findings on the competitive relations among the Asian NIEs and Japan. The correlation matrices among the strutures of those five countries' exports to the U.S.. during the 1970s and 1980s were estimated, with the export structure constructed as the shares of each of the 29 industrial sectors' exports as defined by the 3 digit KSIC in total exports to the U.S. from each individual country. In general, the correlation between each of the four Asian NIEs and Japan, and that between Hong Kong and Singapore, are all far below .5, while the ones among the Asian NIEs themselves (except for the one between Hong Kong and Singapore) all greatly exceed .5. If there exists a tendency on the part of the U.S. to import goods in each specific sector from different countries in a relatively constant proportion, the export structures of those countries will probably exhibit a high correlation. To take this hypothesis to the extreme, if the U.S. maintained an absolutely fixed ratio between its imports from any two countries for each of the 29 sectors, the correlation between the export structures of these two countries would be perfect. Therefore, since any two goods purchased in a fixed proportion could be classified as close complements, a high correlation between export structures will imply a complementary relationship between them. Conversely, low correlation would imply a competitive relationship. According to this interpretation, the pattern formed by the correlation coefficients among the five countries' export structures to the U.S. are consistent with the empirical findings of the regression analysis.

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The Competitiveness of Korea-China-Japan agricultural products and Korea-China FTA Agricultural Trade impacts (한·중·일 농산물 경쟁력과 한·중 FTA 농산물 교역량증가 효과)

  • Nam, Kuk-Hyun;Li, Tianguo
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.71-83
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of agricultural products in Korea, China and Japan and the effect of increasing imports from Korea and China. and then we discussed how to cooperate in the agricultural trade field between the three countries. The results are summarized as follows. First, The intra-industry trade of agricultural products was the most active in Korea and China, followed by the intra-industry trade index between Korea and Japan. The intra-industry trade between China and Japan were the lowest. Second, The mutual complementarity of agricultural products trade between Korea, China and Japan is mostly high. Among them, Korea and Japan are the highest, while Japan and China have the lowest complementarity. Third, it was found that in tariff elimination, imports of rice and meat products increased the most, while the import growth rate of green tea, meat products and ginseng increased the most. Finally, the three countries in Korea, China, and Japan can consider the way to increase the trade of agricultural products in the region by internalizing the trade of complementary items while maintaining a constant level of production of mutually competitive products.

An Analysis on Trade Competitiveness between Korea and China (한.중간 무역경쟁력 분석 -섬유.전기전자.운송.기계산업을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sung-Ah;Shin, Kyung-Soo
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.45-69
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    • 2006
  • First, the trade competitiveness of the textile industries in South Korea has been weakening, whereas, the counterpart in China has been growing as the main export industries. Second, the trade competitiveness of the mechanics industries in South Korea has been increasing and appearing as the new promising strategic export industries. And, the counterpart in China also shows that it has been rising, while the country’s level of the imports specialization index has been weakening. Third, the trade competitiveness of the transportation industries in South Korea has been rising as the export-oriented and at the same time, privileged industries. And, China has also been rising as South Korea has been in the case, whereas, imports specialization index has been weakening. Fourth, the trade competitiveness of the electrical and electronic industries in South Korea has relatively been at the very high level, giving rise to the core export-privileged industries in the South Korea. And, China has been emerging as the new strategic export industries, as its industry structure has been shifted from the import- specialization and export-specialization industries. Fifth, it is indicated that the trade in the both South Korean and Chinese industries of fable materials, mechanics goods for computer & office, and goods for electric mechanics has been going favorable and brisk.

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Interpretation of Domestic Industry under Safeguard Agreement (세이프가드협정상의 국내산업 범위에 대한 해석)

  • Lee, Eun-Sup;Kim, Sun-Ok
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.211-226
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    • 2006
  • This paper discusses the definition of the term "domestic industry" in relation to the application of the safeguards provisions of the WTO through the judicial interpretation made by the WTO Appellate Body and panel. The requirements for the imposition of safeguards include a rapid increase in import quantity, the existence of serious injury or threat of serious injury to the domestic industry, and a causal relationship between the increase in imports and the industrial injury. The domestic industry refers to the producers that account for a considerable portion of the total national production, or the national producers who produce articles "like" or "directly competitive" with the specific imports. Chronically, there have been controversial disputes relating to the interpretation of the term "like" or "directly competitive". Reviewing the disputes relating to the term "domestic industry" in application of the safeguards provisions since the establishment of the WTO, the interpretation of the term "like" has been made imposing weight on the physical characteristics of the products. This interpretation is in contrast with that of the interpretation of the term "directly competitive" which has been interpreted with imposed weight on the commercial elasticity of substitution which can be measured by the final use or consumer's taste.

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