• Title, Summary, Keyword: imports

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Expanding the Imports of North Korean Fishery Products (북한산 수산물 반입제약요인 및 확대전략)

  • Sung, Souk-Kyung;Hong, Seong-Gul
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 2009
  • South Korea imports more than one hundred tons of fishery products every year from China, Japan, North Korea, etc. However, imported North Korean fishery products was only 4% of the total fishery products imported in 2007. Though South-North Trade as inter-Korean trade is exempted from tax, imports of North Korean fishery products have not been activated owing to import restrictions, insufficient quality control etc. Expanding imports of North Korean fishery products seems, however, to contribute to lessen the supply and demand unbalance in fishery products of South Korea. It will especially gratify a part of fresh and cold fishery products demand. Therefore, we need to expand the imports of North Korean fishery products by quality control improvement, reformation of origin certifying system, import liberalization etc. This study researches the demand and supply of fishery products of South and North Korea, the actual conditions of imports of North Korean fishery products, and suggests strategies to expand their imports. As the greatest reason to oppose imports of North Korean fishery products is the pricing pressure of domestically produced fishery products due to imports of North Korean fishery products, we need to research and analyze the distribution channels, retail markets, sales prices of imported North Korean fishery products to verify that imports of North Korean fishery products has not caused lower pricing of domestically produced fishery products.

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Quantitative Analysis of the Structure and Behavior of Imports in Korea

  • Shin, Hwang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Statistical Society
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 1975
  • There have been a number of studies and analysis designed to explain imports and exports disaggregated by commodities in many countries. These analyses, however, all concentrate on the trading patterns of industrial countries, and there has been very little of systematic analyses of the imports and exports by types of commodities for developing countries. There is, of course, an obvious reason for ignoring these countries, and that has to do with the availability, or rather paucity, of adequate data; it is widely known that the data on prices of disaggregated imports and exports are most difficult to obtain. The purpose of this paper is to study and analyze the behavior of the imports of Korea at disaggregated levels during the period 1965-1974. Data on imports at a disaggregated level have recently been made available in Korea for a seven-commodity breakdown. These seven categories cover some 90% of the total Korean imports.

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Estimating Import Demand Function for the United States

  • Yoon, Il-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Min
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2019
  • This paper aims to empirically examine the short-run and long-run aggregate demand for the US imports using quarterly economic data for the period 2000-2018 including aggregate imports, final expenditure components, gross fixed capital formation and relative price of imports. According to the results of both multivariate co-integration analysis and error correction model, the above variables are all cointegrated and significant differences are found to exist among the long-run partial elasticities of imports as regards different macro components of final expenditure. Partial elasticities with respect to government expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, exports and relative price of import are found to be positive while imports seems to respond negatively to changes in private consumption, implying that an increase in private consumption could result in a significant reduction in demand for imports in the long run. With regard to the relative import prices, the results appear to indicate a relatively insignificant influence on the aggregate imports in the US in the long run. However, an error correction model designed for predicting the short-term variability shows that only exports have an impact on the imports in the short run.

A Study on Damage from the Distributed Imports with the Infraction of the Country of Origin Indication (원산지표시위반 수입물품 유통으로 인한 피해의 연구)

  • Chung, Jae-Wan
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.50
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    • pp.251-275
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    • 2011
  • This study represents the current situation on the Korean Government's investigation into the imports with the infraction of the country of origin indication law, showing how much those imports affect the purchasers as well as the domestic competitors in Korea. According to the HS 4 unit, the range of imports with the country of origin indication should be 55.2% of all imports, but it turned out there were actually 87.6% of them, according to the number of the import declarations in the first half year of 2010. The government's investigation on the infraction of the country of origin indication is conducted in the stages of customs and distribution into market. As a result of recent 4 years government's investigation into the imports with the infraction of the country of origin indication, the rate of inspection was averagely 3.6% of the reported number of imports in the stage of customs, the rate of the infraction of the country of origin indication cases was 0.14% of the total reported number, and 3.85% of the total actually inspected number. The investigation in the stage of distribution was below 20% level of the stage of customs inspection, on the number of caught cases basis. A survey of 4 categorized imports such as Watches, Tools, Glasses frames, and Clothes, which are assumed to happened frequently with the infraction cases, shows that the decreased sales rate of the domestic competitors was averagely 18.8% and the extent of the damage on consumers was 34.7% of the purchased prices, with both rates resulted from the investigation in the stage of distribution into market.

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A Study on Interpretation of the "Causal Link" under WTO Safeguard Agreement (세이프가드협정하의 인과관계의 해석원칙에 관한 연구)

  • Ha, Choong-Lyong;Kim, Sun-Ok
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.209-227
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    • 2006
  • This paper analyse current interpretation of the "causal link" that in particular, focuses principally on the so-called "non-attribution" requirement of Article 4.2(b) of the Safeguards Agreement. The safeguard measures are justified as a temporary economic adjustment to harm that is caused by an increase in imports. The problem with this justification is that there are other kinds of economic forces that may injure domestic industries, such as changes in consumer tastes, government spending or a lack thereof, and economic downturns. These problems do not justify government-imposed remedies. When factors therefore other than increased imports are causing injury to the domestic industry at the same time, such injury shall not be attributed to increased imports. The Appellate Body stressed that a contribution of third-party imports to the existence of serious injury must be sufficiently clear as to establish the existence of the causal link required, it found that Article 4.2(b) does not suggest that increased imports be the sole cause of the serious injury, or that other factors causing injury must be excluded from the determination of serious injury. The interest in separation is to ensure that a measure is not applied to remedy harm not caused by imports, but this basic point assumes that the harm is distinguishable in the first place. It also assumes that the safeguard is designed to respond to harm caused by imports. In fact safeguards were never intended to respond to this kind of unfair trade, but rather to provide whatever emergency relief might assist an ailing domestic industry if imports happened to be a part of that injury. The Appellate Body's insistence in breaking cause and effect down to minutia in the non-attribution analysis seems to be so overly intricate that it conflicts with it's broader focus on evaluating factors that effect harm on the industry as a whole.

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Analysis on the inhibitory effects of frozen pepper imports from China by tariff-rate quota, a trade policy tool using a structural equation model

  • Hong, Seungjee;Han, Sukho;Jang, Heesoo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.337-347
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    • 2020
  • Since 2012, despite the fact that tariff rate quotas (TRQ) in the form of dried peppers has not been imported, the imports of pepper-related items such as low- tariff frozen peppers (27%) and other sauces (45%) have increased, there has been a problem in the domestic pepper industry, in which the domestic self-sufficiency rate has declined. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the operation of chili pepper TRQ has the effect of suppressing the imports of pepper-related items from China. We analyzed the import substitution effect (import suppression effect) through causal analysis of the imports of red pepper TRQ, frozen peppers, and other sauces using the structural equation model analysis method. As a result of the hypothetical scenario analysis, when the government imports and releases 7,185 tons of pepper TRQ in 2019/20 (scenario), private imports were estimated to decrease by only 3,060 tons. In other words, the import substitution effect between imported items was estimated to decrease about 2,079 tons of private dried peppers, and about 981 tons of imported pepper-related items. There was an effect of suppressing the imports of pepper-related items such as frozen peppers, but it was analyzed to be insignificant. That reason was that the replacement substitution elasticity of the pepper-related items for TRQ import was less than 1 (inelastic). Therefore, it is judged that the government's operation of the pepper TRQ is preferably focused on stabilizing domestic prices rather than focusing on import control of pepper-related items.

Petroleum Imports and Exchange Rate Volatility (원유수입과 환율변동성)

  • Mo, Soo-Won;Kim, Chang-Beom
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.397-414
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    • 2002
  • This paper presents an empirical analysis of exchange rate volatility, petroleum's import price and industrial production on petroleum imports. The GARCH framework is used to measure the exchange rate volatility. One of the most appealing features of the GARCH model is that it captures the volatility clustering phenomenon. We found one long-run relationship between petroleum imports, import price, industrial production, and exchange rate volatility using Johansen's multivariate cointegration methodology. Since there exists a cointegrating vector, therefore, we employ an error correction model to examine the short-run dynamic linkage, finding that the exchange rate volatility performs a key role in the short-run. This paper also apply impulse-response functions to provide the dynamic responses of energy consumption to the exchange rate volatility. The results show that the response of energy consumption to exchange rate volatility declines at the first month and dies out very quickly.

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Different Types of Liberalization and Jobs in South Korean Firms

  • Kim, Hyuk-Hwang;Lee, Hongshik
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.71-97
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    • 2015
  • This study examines the effects of several factors indicating economic openness-imported intermediate goods, total imports, IFDI (inward foreign direct investment), and foreign ownership-on regular, irregular jobs and the ratio of irregular employment to regular employment. Findings revealed that imported intermediate inputs and IFDI affected neither regular nor irregular job figures. However, an increase in total imports led to a decrease in the number of irregular jobs without affecting regular full time jobs, leading to a decrease in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. On the other hand, changes in foreign ownership structure had a contrary effect, that is, a decrease in the number of regular jobs and an increase in irregular ones, and, thus, an increase in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. Overall results showed that a rise in imports results in depressed overall employment, irregular employment in particular, while more IFDI results in more irregular jobs replacing regular ones, effectively exacerbating job insecurity. The implication of this analysis is that greater economic openness may have a negative impact on the South Korean labor market overall.

Analysis of Factors Affecting Market Opening and Import of Agricultural Products Following the Implementation of FTAs (FTA 이행에 따른 시장개방과 농산물 수입에 영향을 미치는 요인분석)

  • Ji, Seong-Tae;Lee, Suh-Wan
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.146-156
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the causal relationship between the main factors influencing the import of agricultural products and the changes in agricultural imports was investigated. In addition, we compared the magnitude of the impact of each factor on the changes in agricultural imports. It was found that the import liberalization rate, which represents the FTA factors and reflects the per capita GDP, the conditions of supply and demand of agricultural products in exporting countries and the changes in exchange rates, affects the changes of the agricultural products imports. However, the factors affecting the change of the imports by agricultural product category and the magnitude of the influence by each factor were different. This shows that various factors, other than the FTA factors, are compounding the changes in the agricultural imports. In the future, the market openings due to the implementation of the FTA will be further enlarged and the economic territory of the FTA will be further expanded, due to the implementation of additional FTAs, and the changes in the imports of agricultural products will cause damage to the domestic agricultural sector.

Economic Effects of Korea-Singapore Free Trade Agreement on the Fisheries Sector (한ㆍ싱가포르 FTA 체결에 따른 수산부문의 영향분석)

  • Choi Sung-Il;Choi Hong-Bae
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.71-90
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    • 2004
  • According to this study, overall economic impacts of the FTA between Korea and Singapore upon fish and fishery products of our country were likely to be very small and insignificant. When the tariff on fish and fishery products between the two borders were completely eliminated, if no roundabout exports from other ASEAN countries were practicing, then this study calculated that the increase of imports from Singapore in the 12 chief items was estimated to be only about 250,000kg, which comes to the amount of 1.1 billion won. The 12 items used here account for over 90% imports of fish and fishery products from Singapore. This study also revealed that imports of fish and fishery products from Singapore would be substituted for domestic products more than 100,000kg in the 7 items produced domestically. The substitution effect represents fishermen's demage by replacing domestic products by imports in terms of income which comes to the amount of 438 million won. As the results of the study shows, establishing an FTA between the two countries will not exert so much adverse effects on our fisheries because relative importance of fish and fishery products in both countries are very small. But the contents of the agreement on fish and fishery products between the two countries are very important, as concluding the negotiation and signing the agreement between Korea and Singapore would be a precedent in future negotiations with other asian countries, especially with China and ASEAN countries.

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