• Title, Summary, Keyword: imports

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Import Penetration and Job Stability: A Micro-Level Analysis for Korea (산업별 수입침투율이 일자리 안정성에 미친 영향)

  • Hwang, Sun-Oong;Kim, Jae-Duck;Kim, Hyok-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.197-220
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    • 2017
  • This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of increasing import penetration on the job stability of Korean workers. The main results are as follows. First, import penetration negatively affects job stability. If an industry's ratio of imports to total supply increases by 1 percentage point, the turnover probability of workers in that industry increases by 4.5 percentage points. Second, the effect of trade liberalization is not symmetric between imports and exports. Unlike the case of imports, an industry's ratio of exports to output does not have a significant effect on job stability. Third, the impact of import penetration is not uniform across different types of workers. The negative impact is greater for workers in small firms, less educated workers, and those not protected by labor unions.

Analysis of China's trade dependency on the countries participating in the Belt and Road initiative (일대일로 참여국가에 대한 중국의 무역 의존성 분석과 시사점)

  • Song, Min-Geun
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.189-200
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of China's trade relationships with and dependency on the countries participating in the Belt and Road initiative and to present some implications. This study collected annual total imports, exports, and GDP data from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on 198 countries and the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBS) on 221 countries from 1995 to 2015. China's imports and exports have expanded considerably from the mid-1990s to the present, and China's dependence on imports and exports with the US and Japan has declined, while its dependence on the Middle East, South Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia has increased. China has a very high level of dependence on imports from and exports to the countries participating in the Belt and Road initiative, and as the Belt and Road project progresses, the mutual trade dependency between China and the other participating countries is expected to strengthen and expand.

An Estimation of Price Elasticities of Import Demand and Export Supply Functions Derived from an Integrated Production Model (생산모형(生産模型)을 이용(利用)한 수출(輸出)·수입함수(輸入函數)의 가격탄성치(價格彈性値) 추정(推定))

  • Lee, Hong-gue
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.47-69
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    • 1990
  • Using an aggregator model, we look into the possibilities for substitution between Korea's exports, imports, domestic sales and domestic inputs (particularly labor), and substitution between disaggregated export and import components. Our approach heavily draws on an economy-wide GNP function that is similar to Samuelson's, modeling trade functions as derived from an integrated production system. Under the condition of homotheticity and weak separability, the GNP function would facilitate consistent aggregation that retains certain properties of the production structure. It would also be useful for a two-stage optimization process that enables us to obtain not only the net output price elasticities of the first-level aggregator functions, but also those of the second-level individual components of exports and imports. For the implementation of the model, we apply the Symmetric Generalized McFadden (SGM) function developed by Diewert and Wales to both stages of estimation. The first stage of the estimation procedure is to estimate the unit quantity equations of the second-level exports and imports that comprise four components each. The parameter estimates obtained in the first stage are utilized in the derivation of instrumental variables for the aggregate export and import prices being employed in the upper model. In the second stage, the net output supply equations derived from the GNP function are used in the estimation of the price elasticities of the first-level variables: exports, imports, domestic sales and labor. With these estimates in hand, we can come up with various elasticities of both the net output supply functions and the individual components of exports and imports. At the aggregate level (first-level), exports appear to be substitutable with domestic sales, while labor is complementary with imports. An increase in the price of exports would reduce the amount of the domestic sales supply, and a decrease in the wage rate would boost the demand for imports. On the other hand, labor and imports are complementary with exports and domestic sales in the input-output structure. At the disaggregate level (second-level), the price elasticities of the export and import components obtained indicate that both substitution and complement possibilities exist between them. Although these elasticities are interesting in their own right, they would be more usefully applied as inputs to the computational general equilibrium model.

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Recent Economic Crises and Foreign Trade in Major ASEAN Countries (최근 경제위기들과 ASEAN 주요국의 무역)

  • Won, Yongkul
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.41-64
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    • 2010
  • The recent global financial crisis triggered by the sub-prime mortgage debacle in the United States hit hard most ASEAN countries that have just recovered from the unprecedented economic crisis ten years ago. This paper, using individual time-series and panel data from 1990 to 2009, intends to investigate and compare the impacts of the two aforementioned economic crises on trade in the four developing ASEAN countries that encompass Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. In doing so, the paper traces the behaviors of main macroeconomic variables before and after the crises on graphs, and then estimates classical export and import demand functions that include real exchange rate, home and foreign GDPs as explanatory variables. In the estimation functions, two dummy variables are added to consider the effects of the two economic crises separately. Individual country data analyses reveal that by and large the 1997 economic crisis seems hit those ASEAN countries' exports and imports harder than the recent global financial crisis. Surprisingly the recent financial crisis turns out more or less statistically insignificant for those countries' export and import performances. The fixed effect model estimation using panel data of those four ASEAN countries also shows that the 1997 economic crisis had affected exports and imports of those countries negatively while the recent global financial crisis was not statistically significant. These results indicate that overall the effect from the 1997 crisis was more devastating than that of the recent global crisis for those ASEAN countries.

Factors affecting consumers' preferences for US beef

  • Yoo, Jeongho;Kim, Sounghun;Yoo, Juyoung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.905-916
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting US beef consumption intention in the future, to identify the causes of US beef import growth and to derive implications and strategies for domestic beef producers. Since the KORUS FTA was signed in 2012, US beef imports in 2017 totaled 379,064 tons, an annual increase of 3.5 percent. US beef imports have been steadily increasing due to cuts in FTA tariffs and changes in consumer preferences. The data used in this study utilized a sample of 3,290 grocery purchasers from the Korea Rural Economic Institute's 2016 Food Consumption Behavior Survey. The analytical method used the Ordered Logit Model to analyze what factors influence a consumer's subjective evaluation. As a result, the major factors affecting US beef consumption intention in the future are price, taste and safety. In particular, it has to do with the recent surge in U.S. imports of good-tasting chilled meat. Because chilled meat does not differentiate the market from Hanwoo beef produced in Korea, it is necessary to have differentiated taste and low price through cost reduction. By age and family group, people aged 30 - 40 years and single-person households are the main consumption group. As a result of this study, it is necessary to establish marketing strategies for producers such as rational pricing, safety, taste promotion, and small-scale sales to extend the demand for Hanwoo beef in the younger generation to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic beef market.

The Application of Optimal Control Through Fiscal Policy on Indonesian Economy

  • SYAHRINI, Intan;MASBAR, Raja;ALIASUDDIN, Aliasuddin;MUNZIR, Said;HAZMI, Yusri
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.741-750
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    • 2021
  • The budget deficit is closely related to expansionary fiscal policy as a fiscal instrument to encourage economic growth. This study aims to apply optimal control theory in the Keynesian macroeconomic model for the economy, so that optimal growth can be found. Macroeconomic variables include GDP, consumption, investment, exports, imports, and budget deficit as control variables. This study uses secondary data in the form of time series, the time period 1990 to 2018. Performing optimal control will result in optimal fiscal policy. The optimal determination is done through simulation, for the period 2019-2023. The discrete optimal control problem is to minimize the objective function in the form of a quadratic function against the deviation of the state variable and control variable from the target value and the optimal value. Meanwhile, the constraint is Keynes' macroeconomic model. The results showed that the optimal value of macroeconomic variables has a deviation from the target values consisting of: consumption, investment, exports, imports, GDP, and budget deficit. The largest deviation from the average during the simulation occurs in GDP, followed by investment, exports, and the budget deficit. Meanwhile, the lowest average deviation is found in imports.

The Trade Effect of Korea-EU FTA on the Fishery Sector (한국-EU 자유무역협정의 수산부문 무역효과 추정)

  • Kim, Nam-Doo;Hwang, Sang-In
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.49-65
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    • 2010
  • We have analyzed the trade effect of Korea-EU FTA on the Korean fishery sector, after reviewing the trade pattern and the tariff barriers of fishery sector between Korea-EU. For the trade effects, we have categorized into three cases: 1) the complete tariff elimination of all items, 2) the half tariff reduction on top ten valued items, with complete tariff elimination of other items, and 3) the complete tariff elimination, except unbinding top three valued items. The effect of the complete tariff elimination of all items implies the effect of the full achievement of FTA. For other two cases, these effects imply the effects of the transitional phenomenon of FTA since the complete tariff elimination happens gradually over more than ten years. For the complete elimination of tariff, we found that imports are increased by 1.1 billion dollars which is 12.9% increase in average imports during years 2006-2009. Also, exports are increased by 1.3 billion dollars which is 14.5% increase in average exports during same years.

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