• 제목, 요약, 키워드: imports

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FTA가 유가공업에 미치는 영향과 원유 수급 전망 (The Effect on Dairy Industry of FTA and the Raw Milk Demand and Supply Outlook)

  • 신승열;김현중;최세균
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.131-141
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    • 2004
  • The FTA(Free Trade Agreements) are loading the world trade liberalization. Entering into FTA with Chile on 1 Apr 2004, Korea is trying to tie with Singapore and Japan in FTA. It also has a long-term plan for free-trading with China, USA, ASEAN, Canada and India. The portion of the dairy products imported from Chile, Japan and Singapore is under 1% of total dairy product imports. However, in the long run the conclusion of FTA with dairy product exporting countries such as USA, Australia, New Zealand and Netherlands will give a big impact on the dairy industry with abrupt increment in dairy product imports. Especially, whole and skim milk powder imports which are imported on the high tariff rate expect to increase. Furthermore mixed milk powder(Food preparations of goods and other whey powders) imports which domestic price is higher than world market also will dramatically increase. The milk powder stocks have increased since 2002. That made the government carry out some policies. Those include slaughtering milking cow(2002) and terminating the dairy farm enterprise and decreasing in milk production(2003). Also the case of artificial insemination by a Hanwoo fertilized egg has increased with the rise of Hanwoo farm price in 2003. By those reason, it is forecasted that the downward trend in the number of cow will be continued in 2004. It is also forecasted that the raw milk production in 2004 will decrease 4.4% compared to last year due to decreasing in the number of milking cow and raw milk collecting quota.

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교육비 지출이 성장에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 (An Effects of Education Expenditures on the Economic Growth)

  • 조우성;최혁준
    • 통상정보연구
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.185-198
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    • 2014
  • 본 연구는 교육비 지출, 경제성장, 수출, 수입간의 인과관계 및 상호영향을 대하여 알아보았다. 우선 Granger causality test를 실시한 결과 교육비 지출은 수출입에 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났으며, 다른 변수들간에는 인과관계가 없다는 결과가 나타났다. 또한 충격반응함수로 본 교육비지출과 변수들간의 관계는 교육비 지출은 수출에 초기 (-)의 영향을 주나 일정시기가 지나면 (+)의 영향을 주는 것을 알 수가 있고, 수입의 경우에는 초기(-)의 영향을 주면, 차츰 0으로 수렴되는 경향이 있음을 알 수 있다. 마지막으로 교육비 지출은 GDP에 (+)의 영향을 주는 것으로 나타나고 있다. 따라서 본 연구를 통하여, 수출입이 증가함에 따라, 즉 개방이 가속하 됨으로 인하여 고급인력의 수요가 증가하여 교육에 대한 새로운 투자가 증가하는 것으로 판단되어지며, 이는 고급인력의 수요를 맞추기 위하여 정부가 외국어, 연구인력 등을 위한 교육투자가 선행되어져야 함을 알 수 있다.

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생산모형(生産模型)을 이용(利用)한 수출(輸出)·수입함수(輸入函數)의 가격탄성치(價格彈性値) 추정(推定) (An Estimation of Price Elasticities of Import Demand and Export Supply Functions Derived from an Integrated Production Model)

  • 이홍구
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.47-69
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    • 1990
  • 수출(輸出) 수입량(輸入量)이 여러 변수(變數)들에 의해서 동시적(同時的)으로 결정(決定)되는 경우 수출(輸出) 수입함수(輸入函數)를 독립적(獨立的)으로 추정(推定)하는 것보다는 이들을 다른 경제활동수준과 함께 동시적(同時的)으로 추정(推定)하는 것이 보다 바람직하다. 본고(本稿)에서는 이에 착안하여 생산모형(生産模型)에 근거한 수출(輸出) 수입함수(輸入函數)의 가격탄성치(價格彈性値)를 추정(推定)하였다. 생산모형(生産模型)에서 수출재(輸出財)는 생산부문(生産部門)의 산출물(産出物)로, 수입재(輸入財)는 투입물(投入物)로 상정(想定)되며 이러한 생산부문(生産部門)을 분석(分析)하고 모형화(模型化)하는 데 GNP함수(函數)가 사용된다. GNP함수(函數)에 약분리성(弱分離性) 제약(制約)이 가해지면 생산모형(生産模型)의 공급(供給) 수요체계(需要體系)에 관한 미시적 정보를 사용하여 이로부터 보다 세분(細分)된 수출(輸出) 수입항목별(輸入項目別) 가격탄성치(價格彈性値)를 도출할 수 있다. 본고(本稿)는 GNP함수(函數)가 약분리성(弱分離性)을 가질 때, 이단계극대화(二段階極大化) 과정(過程)을 통해서 얻을 수 있는 수출공급(輸出供給) 수입수요(輸入需要) 국내공급(國內供給) 노동수요(勞動需要)의 가격탄성치(價格彈性値)와 세분된 수출(輸出) 수입항목(輸入項目)의 가격탄성치(價格彈性値)를 추정하였다. 상부모형(上部模型)의 추정(推定)에서는 국내공급(國內供給)과 수출공급(輸出供給)은 서로 대체관계(代替關係), 수입수요(輸入需要)와 노동수요(勞動需要)는 보완관계(補完關係)에 있으며, 투입요소(投入要素)로서 노동(勞動)과 수입재(輸入財)는 각각 국내공급(國內供給) 및 수출공급(輸出供給)과 서로 보완관계(補完關係)에 있는 것으로 나타났다. 하부모형(下部模型)에서는 세분(細分)된 수출(輸出) 수입항목(輸入項目) 상호간에는 대체(代替) 보완관계(補完關係)가 동시에 나타나는 것으로 추정되었다.

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Factors affecting consumers' preferences for US beef

  • Yoo, Jeongho;Kim, Sounghun;Yoo, Juyoung
    • 농업과학연구
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.905-916
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting US beef consumption intention in the future, to identify the causes of US beef import growth and to derive implications and strategies for domestic beef producers. Since the KORUS FTA was signed in 2012, US beef imports in 2017 totaled 379,064 tons, an annual increase of 3.5 percent. US beef imports have been steadily increasing due to cuts in FTA tariffs and changes in consumer preferences. The data used in this study utilized a sample of 3,290 grocery purchasers from the Korea Rural Economic Institute's 2016 Food Consumption Behavior Survey. The analytical method used the Ordered Logit Model to analyze what factors influence a consumer's subjective evaluation. As a result, the major factors affecting US beef consumption intention in the future are price, taste and safety. In particular, it has to do with the recent surge in U.S. imports of good-tasting chilled meat. Because chilled meat does not differentiate the market from Hanwoo beef produced in Korea, it is necessary to have differentiated taste and low price through cost reduction. By age and family group, people aged 30 - 40 years and single-person households are the main consumption group. As a result of this study, it is necessary to establish marketing strategies for producers such as rational pricing, safety, taste promotion, and small-scale sales to extend the demand for Hanwoo beef in the younger generation to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic beef market.

최근 경제위기들과 ASEAN 주요국의 무역 (Recent Economic Crises and Foreign Trade in Major ASEAN Countries)

  • 원용걸
    • 동남아시아연구
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.41-64
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    • 2010
  • The recent global financial crisis triggered by the sub-prime mortgage debacle in the United States hit hard most ASEAN countries that have just recovered from the unprecedented economic crisis ten years ago. This paper, using individual time-series and panel data from 1990 to 2009, intends to investigate and compare the impacts of the two aforementioned economic crises on trade in the four developing ASEAN countries that encompass Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. In doing so, the paper traces the behaviors of main macroeconomic variables before and after the crises on graphs, and then estimates classical export and import demand functions that include real exchange rate, home and foreign GDPs as explanatory variables. In the estimation functions, two dummy variables are added to consider the effects of the two economic crises separately. Individual country data analyses reveal that by and large the 1997 economic crisis seems hit those ASEAN countries' exports and imports harder than the recent global financial crisis. Surprisingly the recent financial crisis turns out more or less statistically insignificant for those countries' export and import performances. The fixed effect model estimation using panel data of those four ASEAN countries also shows that the 1997 economic crisis had affected exports and imports of those countries negatively while the recent global financial crisis was not statistically significant. These results indicate that overall the effect from the 1997 crisis was more devastating than that of the recent global crisis for those ASEAN countries.

Determinants of Trade Flows and Trade Structure between Korea and ASEAN

  • Truong, Hoan Quang;Dong, Chung Van;Nguyen, Hoang Huy
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.55-88
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    • 2019
  • Our paper contributes to existing literature by empirically investigate the trade structure and trade performance between Korea and ASEAN. Overall, trade activities between Korea and almost major ASEAN economies have significantly focused on capital goods, medium and high technology goods, while the remaining ASEAN countries' exports over Korea have been mainly primary and low technology goods. There has been a higher complementarity in between Korea's exports and ASEAN's imports compared with between ASEAN's exports and Korea's imports. Estimation results show that ASEAN's GDP and income have larger impacts than those of Korea on aggregate trade flows as well as sectoral level between two sides. Additionally, geographical conditions are critical factors impeding Korea-ASEAN trade. Meanwhile, other factors in the estimation model have mixed impacts on components of Korea-ASEAN trade structure. Finally, there is a significant room for Korea's trade expansion with ASEAN, particularly new and less developed members in future.

양파와 마늘가격 예측모형의 예측력 고도화 방안 (Improving Forecasting Performance for Onion and Garlic Prices)

  • 하지희;서상택;김선웅
    • 농촌계획
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to present a time series model of onion and garlic prices. After considering the various time series models, we calculated the appropriate time series models for each item and then selected the model with the minimized error rate by reflecting the monthly dummy variables and import data. Also, we examined whether the predictive power improves when we combine the predictions of the Korea Rural Economic Institute with the predictions of time series models. As a result, onion prices were identified as ARMGARCH and garlic prices as ARXM. Monthly dummy variables were statistically significant for onion in May and garlic in June. Garlic imports were statistically significant as a result of adding imports as exogenous variables. This study is expected to help improve the forecasting model by suggesting a method to minimize the price forecasting error rate in the case of the unstable supply and demand of onion and garlic.