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The Origin-Destination analysis of KORUS trade volume using spatial information (공간정보를 활용한 한-미 교역액의 기종점 분석)

  • Kang, Hyo-Won
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.47-72
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    • 2016
  • The Government of Korea has always focused on developing and maintaining a surplus on the balance of payments as a successful trade policy. The focus should now be on spatial information hiding, revealing patterns in trade activities that enable viewing trade in a more sophisticated manner. This study utilizes trade statistical data such as the United States-South Korea imports and exports from 2003 to 2015 officially released by the two countries. It allows us to analyze and extract the spatial information pertaining to the origin, transit, and destination. First, in the case of export data to the United States, the origin of the trade goods has expanded and decentralized from the metropolitan area. With regard to transit, in 2003, most of the exported goods were shipped by ocean vessels and arrived at the ports on the western coast of the United States. However, trade patterns have changed over the 12-year period and now more of that trade has moved to the southern ports of the United States. In terms of destination, California and Texas were importing goods from South Korea. With the development of the automotive industry in Georgia and Alabama, these two states also imported huge volumes of automobile parts. Second, in case of import data, most imported goods from the United States originated from California and Texas. In this case, 40% of goods were shipped by air freight and arrived at the Incheon-Seoul International Airport; most ocean freight was handled at the Port of Busan. The purpose of this study is to decompose the spatial information from the trade statistics data between Korea and the United States and to depict visualized bilateral trade structure by origin, transit, and destination.

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A study on the Activation Schemes of Cold Chain Logistics System in Incheon Port (인천항 콜드체인 물류체계 활성화 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-seop;Shang, Yufei
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.19-40
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    • 2019
  • Ports have been facing the adverse impacts of the global recession. In terms of imports, with a vast consumption hinterland, the Incheon Port has developed as the metropolitan's gateway. Additionally, the port's exports to China has been increasing due to a consistent increase in the demand of cold chain foods in the country. Considering the short distance between the Incheon Port and the ports in Northern China, the Incheon Port can serve as a logistics hub and a distribution center for exporting processed foodstuffs to China. The establishment of a cold chain logistics system at the Incheon Port will prove to be a robust strategy. After reviewing studies and interviews from various departments, this study suggested strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) facing the Incheon Port, based on a SWOT analysis; it also recommended competitive strategies for the port. Additionally, the study used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to identify important factors such as the infrastructural, operational, cost, and technology factors. This study identified the infrastructural factor to be highly critical to the activation of the Incheon Port's cold chain system. Based on the results, the study proposed policies and strategy directions.

An Analysis of Economic Impacts of Korea-US FTA on Hallabong Market (한·미 FTA가 한라봉 시장에 미치는 경제적 파급영향 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Ryun;Kim, Hwa-Nyeon;Kim, Bae-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.725-731
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the impact of increasing orange imports on the domestic fruit markets, focusing on the period January to May when oranges were imported and sold intensively after implementation of the Korea-US FTA. In this study, only citrus fruits that compete with U.S. oranges were limited to domestic fruits; of these, Hallabong, which is consistent with consumption of U.S. oranges, was selected as an analysis target. A dynamic recursive simulation model was established to evaluate the ex-post effects of the Korea-U.S. FTA, and to conduct mid and long-term forecasts for the Hallabong market. In addition, major policy simulations were performed on the Hallabong market to assess the effect of each scenario. The ex-post impact evaluation reveals that between December and February, Hallabong had no effect on the seasonal tariff of oranges. However, from 2012 to 2017, the actual import decreased by 21.9 billion won annually due to the TRQ, with the accumulated 6-year decrease being 131.5 billion won. Major policy simulation analysis shows that the change in the unit cost of import due to the U.S orange crop and the increase of Hallabong export will help in expanding the market, and thus effectively increase income.

Calculating virtual water for international water transactions : Korea focused international trade analysis (국제 물거래 대비 가상수 거래량 산정 : 한국 중심 국제교역량 분석)

  • Park, Sungje;Lee, Minhyeon;Park, Kyeyoung;Shin, Jihye
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.53 no.9
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    • pp.691-699
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    • 2020
  • South Korea's available water resources per capita is very small compared to global average as there is a high population on small land. Thus, it is imperative to secure water resources for the safe livelihood of the citizens. As an advanced, industrialized country, South Korean economic dependence on agricultural has greatly lowered. Unless South Korea utilizes foreign water resources, it is impossible to provide agricultural and livestock products the same as current levels. However, virtual water-related research in South Korea is still inadequate. When establishing the water resources plan, it does not consider the international trade of virtual water. This research aims to solve this issue by analyzing the international virtual water trends focusing on South Korea. Consequently, the export and import of virtual water trade was identified according to country and item for 248 countries and South Korea. According to the results, South Korea's agricultural and livestock virtual water has much higher imports than exports, which outputs with agricultural by-products being the main import. In 2018, South Korea imported 72.2 billion ㎥, which is 29 times the exported amount of 2.5 billion ㎥. The research results can be used as baseline data for establishing the national water resources plan in the future.

Economic Effects of Eliminating Trade Barriers under Imperfect Competition (불완전경쟁하(不完全競爭下)에서의 무역장벽(貿易障壁) 완화효과(緩和效果))

  • Lee, Hong-gue
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.29-54
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    • 1992
  • Recent studies on the economic effects of trade liberalization and economic integration have emphasized the significant gains associated with product differentiation and scale economies. Securing access to markets in other countries will make it possible to increase product variety and capture scale economies, thus, expanding the gains from trade. Liberalization is also expected to introduce foreign competition into the previously closed market. Concurrently, the liberalization will improve the competitive market environment for firms selling in the domestic market. Firms will be pressed to either exit or reduce cost. The output per firm, then, will increase due to the exit of rival firms, and the average total cost will decline due to the economies of scale. 'Rationalization' of the production process will eventually follow. This paper addresses the economic effects of (counterfactual) bilateral tariff elimination between Korea and Japan. It computationally assesses the gains from liberalization as well as the resource allocations and welfare effects associated with the tariff reduction. The endogenous determination of the key parameters distinguishes this paper from others. The firm's perceived elasticity of demand and elasticity of substitution in the present model are calibrated to be consistent with the base year data. Korea, Japan, and the rest of the world are modeled explicitly. The sectoral coverage of the model includes twenty-three tradable product categories based on three-digit SITC industries and seven nontradable categories based on one-digit SITC industries. Product categories are also classified into perfectly competitive and imperfectly competitive ones. In the imperfectly competitive industries, product differentiation exists at the firm level, while the perfectly competitive industries are characterized by national product differentiation. The simulation results of bilateral tariff reduction are reported. Tariff elimination tends to increase intra-industry trade flows so that the total amount of exports and imports of both countries expand. Yet, Japan is expected to increase the bilateral trade surplus in the wake of the mutual tariff reduction. Terms-of-trade for Korea will not change, while for Japan it will deteriorate. Equivalent variations reflecting the change in consumer surplus (welfare) will favor Korean consumers. Total output, however, will not change substantially, recording 0.5 and 0.6% for Japan and Korea, respectively. An interesting finding in the analysis is that the gains from increased competition and scale efficiency are not as prevailing as expected in theory.

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An Analysis of Imports by Domestic Producers of Competing Goods (메이커에 의한 수입(輸入)의 문제점(問題點)과 대응방안(對應方案))

  • Nam, Il-chong
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.55-75
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    • 1992
  • At the outset of import liberalization, most economists expected a significant drop in the prices of domestic goods that faced foreign competition. However, it is now generally acknowledge that a significant drop in prices of those goods has not occurred. A common claim is that the prices did not drop significantly because the major importers of many imported goods were also the domestic producers of competing goods. The objective of this paper is to analyze the welfare effect of importation by domestic firms that produce competing goods, to identify the factors that facilitate such business practices, and to formulate a policy that could improve the welfare. We proved that importation by competing domestic firms definitely raises the prices of both imported and domestic goods compared to the situation where foreign goods are imported by non-producers, ceteris paribus. The intuition behind this result is that since a producer-importer is essentially a cartel, its overall profit maximization requires reduced competition between the products that it sells. On the other hand, if a producer-importer is more efficient at distrinbution than a simple importer, the comparison between the two cases is a priori indeterminate. We also find that the industries in which domestic producers are actively involved in importing competing goods are the ones in which the distribution channels are tightly controlled by importer-producers. This finding suggests that exclusive dealing contracts, which work as an entry barrier, may be the source of importing by domestic producers. We argue that in a country such as Korea, where financial market is highly incomplete, tight control of the distribution channels by oligopolistic manufacturers is likely to be an effective entry barrier that leads to importing by domestic producers of similar goods. We further argue that seemingly superior distribution costs of importer-producers is likely to be a result of market foreclosure which would disappear once the entry barrier of exclusive dealing contracts is removed. Above findings suggest that market imperfections are the source of importation by domestic competitors, which in turn constitutes a market imperfection in itself and reduces consumer welfare. As potential remedies, we considered three alternatives; direct price control by the government over the imported goods sold by major domestic producers, regulation of trade itself between major producers, and regulation of exclusive dealing contracts. For reasons both theoretical and pratical, we find that the last alternative is the most attrative. Prohibiting exclusive contracts between manufacturers and dealers in industries where exclusive dealing contracts are a significant entry barrier is expected to break up the importer-producer cartel and improve the welfare.

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Strategic Antitrust Policy Promoting Mergers to Enhance Domestic Competitiveness (기업결합규제(企業結合規制)와 국제경쟁력(國際競爭力))

  • Seong, So-mi
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.153-172
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    • 1990
  • The present paper investigates the potential value of strategic antitrust policy in an oligopolistic international market. The market is characterized by a non-cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium and by asymmetry in costs among firms in the world market. The model is useful for two reasons. First, it is important in the context of policy-making to examine the conditions under which it may be beneficial to relax antitrust law to enhance competitiveness. Second, the explicit derivation of the level of cost-saving required for a gain in total domestic surplus provides an empirical rule for excluding industries that do not satisfy the requirements for a socially beneficial antitrust exemption. Results of the analysis include a criterion that tells how the cost-saving and concentration effects of a merger offset each other. The criterion is derived from fairly general assumptions on demand functions and is simple enough to be applied as a part of the merger guidelines. Another interesting policy implication of our analysis is that promoting mergers would not be a beneficial strategy in a net importing industry where cost-saving opportunities are thin. Cost-saving domestic mergers are more likely to increase national welfare in exporting industries. The best candidate industries for application of strategic antitrust policy are those with the following characteristics: (i) a large potential for efficiency enhancement; (ii) high market concentration at the world but not the domestic level; (iii) a high ratio of exports to imports. Recently, many policymakers and economists in Korea have also come to believe that the appropriate antitrust policy in an era of increased foreign competition may actually be to encourage rather than to prohibit domestic mergers. The Industry Development Act of 1986 and the proposed bill for Mergers and Conversions in the Financial Industry of 1990 reflect this changing perspective on antitrust policy. Antitrust laws may burden domestic firms in the sense that they have a more constrained strategy set. Expenditures to avoid antitrust attacks could also increase costs for domestic firms. But there is no clear evidence that the impact of antitrust policy is significant enough to harm the competitiveness of domestic firms. As a matter of fact, it is necessary for domestic financial institutions to become large in scale in this era of globalization. However, the absence of empirical evidence for efficiency enhancement from mergers suggests caution in the relaxation of antitrust standards.

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Consideration about LINAC movable range by H&N patient immobilization device manufacture (두경부환자 고정기구제작을 통한치료기 가동범위에 관한 고찰)

  • Jung DoHyung;Shim JinSeop;Youm DuSeok;Choi GyeSuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : New therapy technique appeared in 3D-CRT or IMRT according to a radiation treatment developing and worked. Such treatment technique requires the radiation irradiation of many direction. It has many restriction at radiation irradiation of many direction to the linear acceleration deception of now actually. Consequently We make new fix device and measure consequently the improvement of the activate range. Method and Material : We upload the fix device on a linear accelerator Couch. We fixed Gantry at 45, 90, 135 and Couch is spin and measure the clearance of the equipment. Couch is fixed at 0 45 90 and measures the clearance of Gantry. We upload the Extended head holder(EHH) on a linear accelerator Couch. and We measure with the experiment of the front. Result : The action range did not have big difference to increase Gantry45. but The activate range of Couch increases the angle in Gantry 90 and Gantry 135 when it uses EHH. The activate range of Gantry increases the angle in Couch 45 when it uses EHH. We showed good activate situation all in Couch 0 and Couch 90. The utility of EHH could keep a behind radiation diminution. Conclusion : The radiation irradiation of many direction comes to be possible the utility of the fix instrument(EHH). The safety space between the patient and equipment or between equipment and equipment increased the utility of the fix device. Also, The manufacture is possible imports to rather cheap price. and We could bring the frugality of the treatment expendable supplies.

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Structural Decomposition Analysis on Changes in Industrial Energy Use in Korea, 1980~2000 (구조분해분석을 통한 국내 산업별 에너지 소비 변화요인 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Heo, Eunnyeong
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.257-290
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    • 2005
  • Korean energy use in industrial sector has increased more rapidly than other sectors during 1980~2000 periods. Relatively higher increases in industrial sector energy consumption raise questions whether government policy of rationalization of industrial energy use has been effective. In this study, we use 80-85-90 and 90-95-00 constant price input-output table to analyze increases in industrial energy use. Using an adjusted version of structural decomposition model introduced by Chen and Rose (1990), we decompose Changes of energy use into 17 elements. We classify entire industry sector into 32 sectors including four energy sectors (coal and coal products, refined petroleum, electricity and town gas). We then analyze changes of energy use by industrial level to check differences among industrial energy demand structures. Finally, we compare three industries, electronic product manufacturing, metal manufacturing and construction, that represent technology and capital intensive, energy and material intensive and labor and capital intensive industry. As results, we find that high energy using industries make the most effort to reduce energy use. Primary metal, petrochemical and mon-metal industries show improvements in elements such as energy and material productivity, energy and material imports, energy substitution and material substitutions towards energy saving. These results imply that although those industries are heavy users of energy, they put the best effort to reduce energy use relative to other industries. We find various patterns of change in industrial energy use at industrial level. To reduce energy use, electronic product manufacturing industry needs more effort to improve technological change element while construction industry needs more effort to improve material input structure element.

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6th Industry Management Body Develop Managerial and Technical Level Metrics - by Applying AHP Analysis - (6차산업화 경영체 경영.기술수준 평가지표 개발 -AHP 분석을 적용하여-)

  • Seo, Yoon Jeong;Park, Jeong Woon;Han, Sang Yeon;Hwang, Dae Yong;Yang, Jung Hyun
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.177-191
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    • 2013
  • 6th Industry reduced agricultural income and rural areas, the economic downturn is going to be activated is attracting attention as an alternative. 6th industry means that the integrated or linked, the manufacture and processing of secondary industry based on primary industry, the distribution and service of tertiary industry. Park Geun-hye government to realize the creative economy in agriculture as an alternative to specifically evaluate the 6th industries and suggests various policy alternatives. In addition, to support the development of models and analysis of best practices, including sleep studies are in progress. However, the 6th Industry management body for performing management level, technical level, the leader in comprehensive evaluation of competencies and indicators on the development of an evaluation study is insufficient. In this regard, the present study performed 6th industry management body for the management level, technical level, the leader competency evaluation indicators to develop a comprehensive evaluation by utilizing AHP method was developed indicators. The results achieved in Korea As different countries and the FTA as cheap agricultural imports increased 6th industry revenues associated with the management body is very likely to be worse. The endless competition to survive in the most important of the strategy for each individual project management body to operate on their own, rather than to strengthen internal capacity by strengthening linkages with other industries, products, and services that promote the sale will be. This also is that you need to improve revenue management body. Thus, all 6th industry management body at the location of their efforts to gain the trust of consumers will require, moreover, for each management body to build cooperation between the various measures will be sought. In addition to the smart era rapidly changing needs of customers, depending on the life cycle of products and services are getting faster and the new consumer is getting more and more tend to find new products. Thus, customers and management body 6th industry changes quickly and accurately predict market trends, and also to market new products and services that further efforts would be needed.

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