• Title/Summary/Keyword: in vitro starch digestibility

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Digestibility and Antioxidant Activity of Instant Cooked Rice with Seaweed for Home Meal Replacement (해조류 첨가 가정간편식(HMR) 즉석밥의 소화율 및 항산화 활성)

  • Choi, Youngjin;Choi, Hyein;Kim, Soo Min;Kim, Hyun Jung;Lim, Sangbin;Oh, Myung-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2020
  • In recent years, the home meal replacement (HMR) market has expanded and the consumption of ready-to-heat (RTH) rice has significantly increased. In this study, RTH rice products containing seaweed were prepared with different types of grain: white rice, a mixture of white rice and barley, barley, and mixed grains. The control was a commercial RTH white rice without seaweed. The proximate components, total dietary fiber, in vitro starch digestibility, and antioxidant activity were compared. The ash content of the RTH seaweed rice was higher than that of the control (P<0.05). The total dietary fiber of the RTH seaweed rice was in the range of 1.03-6.57%, which directly impacted the in vitro starch digestibility. The in vitro antioxidant activity including total phenolic content, reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity of the seaweed rice with barley and the white rice/barley mixture was greater than that of the other rice products (P<0.05). These results indicate that the in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of the HMR RTH seaweed rice were greater than those of the control. In addition, when the RTH seaweed rice was prepared with barley, the functional activity improved.

Rheological Behaviors of White and Brown Rice Flours During In-vitro Simulation of Starch Digestion (In-vitro 전분 소화 모델에서 백미와 현미 가루의 물성학적 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyeon Ji;Lee, Jeom-Sig;Ko, Sanghoon;Lee, Suyong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.793-796
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    • 2015
  • The in-vitro starch digestibility of white and brown rice flours was continuously characterized from a rheological point of view. Specifically, the in-vitro viscosities of the rice digesta samples were monitored under simulated oral, gastric, and intestinal conditions. A trend of decreasing viscosities in all the digesta samples was observed during the in-vitro digestion. After cooking, the brown rice sample exhibited lower viscosity than that of the white rice flour due to the presence of more non-starch components. A similar tendency was observed during the simulated oral and gastric digestions. However, the viscosity crossover between the white and brown rice samples was observed during intestinal digestion. In addition, the amount of glucose released from the brown rice flour was significantly lower than that from the white rice flour. Thus, the slower rate of starch hydrolysis in the brown rice flour could be related to its in-vitro rheological behaviors.

Studies for Physicochemical and In Vitro Digestibility Characteristics of Flour and Starch from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

  • Chung, Hyun-Jung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.339-347
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    • 2011
  • Flour and isolated starch from chickpea (desi type, 328S-8) were evaluated for their in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties. The protein content, total starch content and apparent amylose content of chickpea flour and isolated starch were 22.2% and 0.6%, 45.8% and 91.5%, and 11.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Chickpea starch granules had an oval to round shape with a smooth surface. The X-ray diffraction pattern of chickpea starch was of the C-type and relative crystallinity was 24.6%. Chickpea starch had only a single endothermic transition (13.3 J/g) in the DSC thermogram, whereas chickpea flour showed two separate endothermic transitions corresponding to starch gelatinization (5.1 J/g) and disruption of the amylose-lipid complex (0.7 J/g). The chickpea flour had a significantly lower pasting viscosity without breakdown due to low starch content and interference of other components. The chickpea starch exhibited significant high setback in the viscogram. The average branch chain length, proportion of short branch chain (DP 6~12), and long branch chains (DP${\geq}$37) of isolated chickpea starch were 20.1, 20.9% and 9.2%, respectively. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents of chickpea flour and starch were 9.9% and 21.5%, 28.7% and 57.7%, and 7.1% and 9.3%, respectively. The expected glycemic index (eGI) of chickpea flour (39.5), based on the hydrolysis index, was substantially lower than that of isolated chickpea starch (69.2).

Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content (아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Kim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

Changes in Quality Characteristics of Jeungpyun containing different Levels of Malt Extract during Storage (엿기름 추출액의 첨가량에 따른 증편의 저장 중 품질 특성 변화)

  • Jung, Kyoung-Wan;Kim, Yoo-Kyung;Lee, Gui-Chu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.521-529
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    • 2011
  • This study evaluated the effects of different levels of malt extract on the hardness, moisture, water soluble starch (WSS) contents, and in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) of Jeungpyun during storage at room temperature ($25{\pm}1^{\circ}C$) and refrigeration temperature ($4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$). Resistant starch (RS) and soluble starch (non-RS) contents were also evaluated. During storage at both temperatures, hardness increased in Jeungpyuns with the malt extract-added Jeungpyun groups (malt-added Jeungpyuns) exhibiting lower hardness than the control. The rate of retrogradation was faster upon storage at refrigeration temperature. Moisture and WSS contents as well as IVSD of Jeungpyuns decreased, whereas these levels were higher in malt-added Jeungpyuns compared to control. Storage increased RS contents in Jeungpyuns stored for up to 4 days, particularly at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas there was a decrease in RS content after 7 days of storage. However, RS content was lower in malt-added Jeungpyuns compared to control. Soluble starch (SS) contents of Jeungpyuns decreased. However, SS content was higher in malt-added Jeungpyuns than that of control. The reduced hardness and RS content as well as the rate of increase in other parameters of malt-added Jeungpyuns were dependent on the concentration of malt extract. These results reveal that addition of malt extract delayed retrogradation of Jeungpyun, whereas retrogradation possibly increased the content of RS during storage at both temperatures, however, that of RS decreased with increasing level of malt extract, suggesting that the level of malt extract as well as the storage conditions are important for obtaining acceptable texture and retaining the RS content of Jeungpyun, which is known to possess physiological activity.

Quality Characteristics and Storage Properties of Hobakpyeon with Different Amounts of Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata D.) Powder (늙은 호박(Cucurbita moschata D.) 가루 첨가량에 따른 호박편의 품질특성 및 저장성)

  • Jung, Kyoung-Wan;Kim, Yoo-Kyung;Lee, Gui-Chu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different amounts of pumpkin powder on the quality characteristics of hobakpyeon using physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as on its retrogradation rate during storage. As the amount of pumpkin powder increased, the following effects on the quality characteristics were observed: moisture and amylose contents decreased while protein content increased (p<0.05), and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) decreased (p<0.05). Levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch fractions increased, while the content of rapidly digestible starch decreased. The starch digestion index and rapidly available glucose content also decreased. Among the physical properties, the L-value decreased while the b-value increased (p<0.05). Texture profile analysis revealed that all textural properties except adhesiveness decreased, and presented significant differences in hardness and chewiness (p<0.05). Sensory properties such as color, flavor, and sweetness increased while others such as wetness and chewiness decreased (p<0.05). Effects on the physicochemical properties during refrigerated storage were also compared between the control and 9% hobakpyeon (9%HP). According to the results, moisture content gradually decreased in the 9%HP compared to the control. Amylose content significantly increased in 9%HP whereas no significant changes were observed in the control. In both types of hobakpyeon, IVSD decreased significantly, showing higher values in 9%HP, whereas mechanical hardness increased, showing lower values in 9%HP. The L-value decreased significantly in the 9%HP whereas no significant changes were observed in the control. In conclusion, the above results suggest that hobakpyeon with low IVSD may be obtained by the addition of 9% pumpkin powder, and also showed that pumpkin powder delayed the rate of retrogradation in 9%HP during storage.

Effect of the Cooking Condition on Enzyme-resistant Starch Content and in vitro Starch and Protein Digestibility of Tarakjuk (Milk-rice Porridge) (타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량과 in vitro 전분 및 단백질 분해율에 대한 가열조건의 영향)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Lim, Seung-Taik;Yoon, Hyun-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.765-772
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    • 2004
  • Cooking condition of Tarakjuk (milk-rice porridge) was established based on gelatinization temperature using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of roasted Ilpum rice flour, which has highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS) content. Effect of cooking temperature and time on DSC characteristics, crystallity with X ray diffractogram, RS content, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD), amino acid composition, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of Tarakjuk were determined. Tarakjuk was cooked at 50, 56.5, 64, and $69^{\circ}C$ for various durations. Rice flour ingredient used was Ilpum, previously roasted at $185^{\circ}C$ for 25 min. Tarakjuk cooked at 50 and $56.5^{\circ}C$ showed two thermal transitions between $63.7-125.2^{\circ}C$ as determined by DSC, corresponding to endotherms of starch gelatinization $(63.7-73.8^{\circ}C)$ and melting of amylose-lipid complex (AM-lipid complex, $97.7-125.2^{\circ}C$), whereas that cooked at 64 and $69^{\circ}C$ showed only AM-lipid complex melting transition between $96.9-127.6^{\circ}C$. As cooking temperature increased, RS content of Tarakjuk decreased, whereas IVSD increased. Total amino acid content was between 11,558-15,601mg/100g, depending on cooking condition used. Compared with conventionally made control, contents of essential amino acids, such as lysine and tryptophane, were higher at 50 and $56.5^{\circ}C$, and IVPD showed higher increase. Results reveal degree of gelatinization in Tarakjuk with high RS content as well as low IVSD and high IVPD, which are important from physiological and nutritional point of view, can be produced by controlling cooking condition.

Quality Characteristics of Tarakjuk (milk-rice porridge) with different Roasting Conditions during Refrigerated Storage (볶음조건을 달리한 타락죽의 저장 시 품질의 변화)

  • 이귀주;김정은;김소정
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.342-351
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    • 2004
  • Rice flour was roasted at different temperatures and times and tarakjuk was made from these roasted rice flours. Chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and protein digestibility (IVPD) of the roasted rice flours and tarakjuk were determined. Changes in quality characteristics such as pH, viscosity, IVSD and IVPD of tarakjuk during refrigerated storage were also investigated. For roasted rice non, the protein content ranged from 6.52∼7.13% on a dry basis, while for tarakjuk, the range was 3.74 ∼4.0%. On the other hand, the Ca level of tarakjuk ranged from 1,278.36∼1,340.87 ppm. Rice flours showed decreasing IVSD and increasing IVPD on roasting at 145$^{\circ}C$ and 165$^{\circ}C$, whereas they showed increasing IVSD and decreasing IVPD at 185$^{\circ}C$, respectively. Roasting also influenced the pH, viscosity, IVSD md IVPD of tarakjuk made from these roasted rice flours. As the roasting temperature and time increased, tarakjuk showed lower pH and viscosity, however it showed higher IVSD and IVPD. The pH of tarakjuk, except that of control, decreased with storage, whereas viscosity increased significantly. IVSD decreased up to 4 days of storage, after which it increased again until 14 days of storage. On the other hand IVPD increased up to 7 days of storage, but there was no additional significant increase after 14 days of storage. These results suggest that depending on the nutritional purpose, appropriate conditions for roasting of rice flour and storage of tarakjuk may be recommended for the commercialization of tarakjuk.

In vitro Digestibility and Sensory Properties of different Bap(Cooked Rice) (밥의 종류에 따른 in vitro 분해율 및 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, Yoon-Sun;Lee, Gui-Chu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.820-826
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    • 2007
  • Different types of bap(cooked rice) was cooked using barley or/and SoRiTae with rice as the base. Total(TS), rapidly digestible(RDS), slowly digestible(SDS) and resistant(RS) starch fractions were determined. Other physicochemical properties such as moisture, protein, amylose contents, protein digestion in vitro and color values as well as sensory properties of different bap were also investigated. Cooked rice with SoRiTae(RiSo) showed the highest moisture content of 63.9%, whereas other bap showed simillar content ranging from 62.3-63.0%. Crude protein content of RiSo was the highest, while that of cooked rice(Ri) was the lowest(p<0.05). Amylose content of RiBa was the highest, while that of RiSo was the lowest(p<0.05). In in vitro protein digestibility(IVPD), cooked rice with barley and SoRiTae(RiBaSo) was the highest, while Ri was the lowest, showing no significant difference at p<0.05. In starch fractions, as barley or/and SoRiTae were added to rice, a decrease in RDS content and increases in SDS and RS contents were observed. In addition, starch digestion index(SDI), which derived as an indicator of their in vitro starch digestibility and rapidly available glucose(RAG) value, which determined as a predictor of potential glycemic response decreased. A decrease in L value from RiSo and RiBaSo, which comprised of SoRiTae and increases in a and b values in RiSo and RiBa were observed, respectively. All sensory parameters involving color, glossiness, sweet taste, wetness, roughness, hardness and stickiness were shown to be a significant difference except sweet taste among different bap(p<0.05). L value of instrumental characteristic was negatively correlated with color of sensory characteristic and a value was positively correlated. Significant negative correlation was found between RS content and glossiness, however, positive correlation with roughness and hardness, respectively. These results suggested that cooked rice mixed with barley and SoRiTae contain significant RS and SDS contents and may improve diabetes and hyperlipidemia, due to the lowering RDS and RAG, respectively.

Effect of Xylanase on Performance and Apparent Metabolisable Energy in Starter Broilers Fed Diets Containing One Maize Variety Harvested in Different Regions of China

  • O'Neill, H.V. Masey;Liu, N.;Wang, J.P.;Diallo, A.;Hill, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.515-523
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in broiler performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal digestible energy (IDE) between five different maize samples fed with and without xylanase at 16,000 U/kg. Various in vitro characterisations were conducted to determine if any could predict performance or AME. Samples of the maize were harvested in five diverse regions and fed individually in a mash diet as follows (g/kg): test maize 608.3; soya bean meal (SBM) 324.1; poultry fat 25.2; salt 4.6; met 2.6; lys 1.6; thr 0.5; limestone 9.7, dical 18.4; vit/min 5.0; CP 210 and ME (kcal/kg) 3,085. The diets were fed to 720 broilers with 6 replicates, each containing 12 birds per treatment, from 0 to 18 d of age. Maize samples were analysed for starch, protein, crude fibre, fat, protein solubility index (PSI) and vitreousness using near infra red reflectance spectroscopy (NIR). They were also assayed using an in vitro starch digestibility method. The results showed that there was no effect of harvest region on the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers over the 18 d period (p = 0.959, 0.926, 0.819 respectively). There was an improvement in all parameters with the addition of xylanase (FI p = 0.011; BWG and FCR p<0.001). There was a significant positive effect of xylanase on IDE, AME, IDE Intake (IDEI) and AME intake (AMEI) (p<0.0001 in all cases). Although there was no significant effect of maize source, there was a strong trend towards variability in IDE (p = 0.066) and AME (p = 0.058). There were no significant correlations (p<0.05) between any proximate or physiochemical values and any performance or AME values. This may suggest that none of those selected were suitable predictors for performance or AME. The broilers performed well according to the breed guidelines, with slightly increased FI, increased BWG and similar FCR prior to the addition of xylanase. When FCR and BWG were analysed with FI as a covariate, xylanase addition remained significant suggesting that the improvement in BWG and FCR was driven by an increase in digestibility and nutrient availability.