• Title, Summary, Keyword: in-vivo imaging

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In Vivo Non Invasive Molecular Imaging for Immune Cell Tracking in Small Animals

  • Youn, Hyewon;Hong, Kee-Jong
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2012
  • Clinical and preclinical in vivo immune cell imaging approaches have been used to study immune cell proliferation, apoptosis and interaction at the microscopic (intra-vital imaging) and macroscopic (whole-body imaging) level by use of ex vivo or in vivo labeling method. A series of imaging techniques ranging from non-radiation based techniques such as optical imaging, MRI, and ultrasound to radiation based CT/nuclear imaging can be used for in vivo immune cell tracking. These imaging modalities highlight the intrinsic behavior of different immune cell populations in physiological context. Fluorescent, radioactive or paramagnetic probes can be used in direct labeling protocols to monitor the specific cell population. Reporter genes can also be used for genetic, indirect labeling protocols to track the fate of a given cell subpopulation in vivo. In this review, we summarized several methods dealing with dendritic cell, macrophage, and T lymphocyte specifically labeled for different macroscopic whole-body imaging techniques both for the study of their physiological function and in the context of immunotherapy to exploit imaging-derived information and immune-based treatments.

Variations of imaging depth and chloroplast emission spectrum of Arabidopsis thaliana with excitation wavelength in two-photon microscopy (이광자현미경 여기 광 파장에 따른 Arabidopsis thaliana 촬영 깊이 및 엽록체 형광 스펙트럼의 변화)

  • Joo, Yongjoon;Son, Si Hyung;Kim, Ki Hean
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Visualization
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2014
  • Two-photon microscopy (TPM) has been used in plant research as a high-resolution high-depth 3D imaging modality. However, TPM is known to induce photo-damage to the plant in case of long time exposure, and optimal excitation wavelength for plant imaging has not been investigated. Longer excitation wavelength may be appropriate for in vivo two-photon imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, and effects of longer excitation wavelength were investigated in terms of imaging depth, emission spectrum. Changes of emission spectrum as a function of exposure time at longer excitation wavelength were measured for in vivo longitudinal imaging. Imaging depth was not changed much probably because photon scattering at the cell wall was a limiting factor. Chloroplast emission spectrum showed its intensity peak shift by 20 nm with transition of excitation wavelength from 849 nm or below to 850 nm or higher. Emission spectrum showed different change patterns with excitation wavelengths in longitudinal imaging. Longer excitation wavelengths appeared to interact with chloroplasts differently in comparison with 780 nm excitation wavelength, and may be good for in vivo imaging.

A Rapid and Convenient Method for in Vivo Fluorescent Imaging of Protoscolices of Echinococcus multilocularis

  • Yang, Tao;Wang, Sibo;Zhang, Xuyong;Xia, Jie;Guo, Jun;Hou, Jixue;Zhang, Hongwei;Chen, Xueling;Wu, Xiangwei
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2016
  • Human and animal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are important helminth infections endemic in wide areas of the Northern hemisphere. Monitoring Echinococcus multilocularis viability and spread using real-time fluorescent imaging in vivo provides a fast method to evaluate the load of parasite. Here, we generated a kind of fluorescent protoscolices in vivo imaging model and utilized this model to assess the activity against E. multilocularis protoscolices of metformin (Met). Results indicated that JC-1 tagged E. multilocularis can be reliably and confidently used to monitor protoscolices in vitro and in vivo. The availability of this transient in vivo fluorescent imaging of E. multilocularis protoscolices constitutes an important step toward the long term bio-imaging research of the AE-infected mouse models. In addition, this will be of great interest for further research on infection strategies and development of drugs and vaccines against E. multilocularis and other cestodes.

Imaging Cancer Metabolism

  • Momcilovic, Milica;Shackelford, David B.
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2018
  • It is widely accepted that altered metabolism contributes to cancer growth and has been described as a hallmark of cancer. Our view and understanding of cancer metabolism has expanded at a rapid pace, however, there remains a need to study metabolic dependencies of human cancer in vivo. Recent studies have sought to utilize multi-modality imaging (MMI) techniques in order to build a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of cancer metabolism. MMI combines several in vivo techniques that can provide complementary information related to cancer metabolism. We describe several non-invasive imaging techniques that provide both anatomical and functional information related to tumor metabolism. These imaging modalities include: positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) that uses hyperpolarized probes and optical imaging utilizing bioluminescence and quantification of light emitted. We describe how these imaging modalities can be combined with mass spectrometry and quantitative immunochemistry to obtain more complete picture of cancer metabolism. In vivo studies of tumor metabolism are emerging in the field and represent an important component to our understanding of how metabolism shapes and defines cancer initiation, progression and response to treatment. In this review we describe in vivo based studies of cancer metabolism that have taken advantage of MMI in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. MMI promises to advance our understanding of cancer metabolism in both basic research and clinical settings with the ultimate goal of improving detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients.

Construction of In Vivo Fluorescent Imaging of Echinococcus granulosus in a Mouse Model

  • Wang, Sibo;Yang, Tao;Zhang, Xuyong;Xia, Jie;Guo, Jun;Wang, Xiaoyi;Hou, Jixue;Zhang, Hongwei;Chen, Xueling;Wu, Xiangwei
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2016
  • Human hydatid disease (cystic echinococcosis, CE) is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. As the disease mainly affects the liver, approximately 70% of all identified CE cases are detected in this organ. Optical molecular imaging (OMI), a noninvasive imaging technique, has never been used in vivo with the specific molecular markers of CE. Thus, we aimed to construct an in vivo fluorescent imaging mouse model of CE to locate and quantify the presence of the parasites within the liver noninvasively. Drug-treated protoscolices were monitored after marking by JC-1 dye in in vitro and in vivo studies. This work describes for the first time the successful construction of an in vivo model of E. granulosus in a small living experimental animal to achieve dynamic monitoring and observation of multiple time points of the infection course. Using this model, we quantified and analyzed labeled protoscolices based on the intensities of their red and green fluorescence. Interestingly, the ratio of red to green fluorescence intensity not only revealed the location of protoscolices but also determined the viability of the parasites in vivo and in vivo tests. The noninvasive imaging model proposed in this work will be further studied for long-term detection and observation and may potentially be widely utilized in susceptibility testing and therapeutic effect evaluation.

In vivo Evaluation of Flow Estimation Methods for 3D Color Doppler Imaging

  • Yoo, Yang-Mo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 2010
  • In 3D ultrasound color Doppler imaging (CDI), 8-16 pulse transmissions (ensembles) per each scanline are used for effective clutter rejection and flow estimation, but it yields a low volume acquisition rate. In this paper, we have evaluated three flow estimation methods: autoregression (AR), eigendecomposition (ED), and autocorrelation combined with adaptive clutter rejection (AC-ACR) for a small ensemble size (E=4). The performance of AR, ED and AC-ACR methods was compared using 2D and 3D in vivo data acquired under different clutter conditions (common carotid artery, kidney and liver). To evaluate the effectiveness of three methods, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. For 2D kidney in vivo data, the AC-ACR method outperforms the AR and ED methods in terms of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) (0.852 vs. 0.793 and 0.813, respectively). Similarly, the AC-ACR method shows higher AUC values for 2D liver in vivo data compared to the AR and ED methods (0.855 vs. 0.807 and 0.823, respectively). For the common carotid artery data, the AR provides higher AUC values, but it suffers from biased estimates. For 3D in vivo data acquired from a kidney transplant patient, the AC-ACR with E=4 provides an AUC value of 0.799. These in vivo experiment results indicate that the AC-ACR method can provide more robust flow estimates compared to the AR and ED methods with a small ensemble size.

The Characterization of Anti-HER-2/neu Monoclonal Antibody using Different in vivo Imaging Techniques

  • Moon, Cheol;Kim, Eun Jung;Choi, Dan Bee;Kim, Byoung Soo;Kim, Sa Hyun;Choi, Tae Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2015
  • Recently, specific antibodies have been used extensively to diagnose and treat various diseases. It is essential to assess the efficacy and specificity of antibodies, especially the in vivo environment. Anti-HER-2/neu mAb was evaluated as a possible transporting agent for radioimmunotherapy. The monoclonal antibody was successfully radio-labeled with $^{131}I$. In vitro binding assays were performed to confirm its targeting ability using another radio-iodine, $^{125}I$. Binding percentage of $^{125}I$ labeled anti-HER-2/neu mAb in HER-2/neu expressing CT-26 cells was found to be 4.5%, whereas the binding percentage of $^{125}I$ labeled anti-HER-2/neu mAb in wild-type CT-26 was only 0.45%. In vivo images were obtained and analyzed through $\gamma$-camera and an optical fluorescent modality, IVIS-200. $\gamma$-camera images showed that $^{131}I$ labeled anti-HER-2/neu mAb accumulated in HER-2/neu CT-26 tumors. Optical imaging based on near infrared fluorescence labeled anti-HER-2/neu mAb showed higher fluorescence intensities in HER-2/neu CT-26 tumors than in wild-type CT-26 tumors. Anti-HER-2/neu mAb was found to specifically bind to its receptor expressing tumor. Our study demonstrates that in vivo imaging technique is a useful method for the evaluation of an antibody's therapeutic and diagnostic potentials.

Design and Fabrication of a Multi-modal Confocal Endo-Microscope for Biomedical Imaging

  • Kim, Young-Duk;Ahn, Myoung-Ki;Gweon, Dae-Gab
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.300-304
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    • 2011
  • Optical microscopes are widely used for medical imaging these days, but biopsy is a lengthy process that causes many problems during the ex-vivo imaging procedure. The endo-microscope has been studied to increase accessibility to the human body and to get in-vivo images to use for medical diagnosis. This research proposes a multi-modal confocal endo-microscope for bio-medical imaging. We introduce the design process for a small endoscopic probe and a coupling mechanism for the probe to make the multi-modal confocal endo-microscope. The endoscopic probe was designed to decrease chromatic and spherical aberrations, which deteriorate the images obtained with the conventional GRIN lens. Fluorescence and reflectance images of various samples were obtained with the proposed endo-microscope. We evaluated the performance of the proposed endo-microscope by analyzing the acquired images, and demonstrate the possibilities of in-vivo medical imaging for early diagnosis.

In Vivo Reporter Gene Imaging: Recent Progress of PET and Optical Imaging Approaches

  • Min, Jung-Joon
    • Bioinformatics and Biosystems
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2006
  • Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene delivery and/or expression. This article reviews the use of radionuclide, magnetic resonance, and optical imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging gene delivery and gene expression for molecular imaging applications. The studies published to date demonstrate that noninvasive imaging tools will help to accelerate pre-clinical model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

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