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Trends in Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Survival in Korea

  • Wi, Youngjun;Woo, Hyeongtaek;Won, Young-Joo;Jang, Jin-Young;Shin, Aesun
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1444-1451
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    • 2018
  • Purpose The current study was undertaken to examine the trend in gallbladder cancer (GBC) incidence and survival in Korea. Materials and Methods GBC incidence data by histologic type were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated using the mid-year Korean population of 2000 as a standard population, and a joinpoint regression model was used to calculate the annual percent change (APC) in incidence rates. Incidence by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) summary stage and by geographical areas and female-to-male incidence rate ratios was also described. Results The number of new GBC cases increased between 1999 and 2013. Nevertheless, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.5% per year in men (p < 0.01), whereas the incidence rate in women did not change significantly over the same period (APC, -0.2; p=0.59). The most common histologic type was adenocarcinoma in both sexes. Based on the SEER stage, the distant stage was the most frequent stage (41%), followed by the regional stage (37%). Ulsan (4.31/100,000 for men and 4.09/100,000 for women in 2009-2013) and Gyeongsangnam-do (4.15/100,000 for men and 3.54/100,000 for women) showed the highest GBC incidence, whereas the lowest incidence was observed in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. There were no significant sex differences in the incidence of GBC (female-to-male incidence rate ratio, 0.96). Conclusion The overall incidence of GBC in Korea did not change significantly over the 15-year period. Incidence for men and women was similar. However, geographical variation was found.

Study on the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis in Korea over the last 10 years: An analysis of National Health Insurance Data

  • Jung, Joon Se;Han, Chang Hee;Bae, Sangrak
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.59 no.6
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    • pp.383-391
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We aimed to analyze the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis in Korea over the last decade using the National Health Insurance (NHI) sample cohort data. Materials and Methods: From January 2002 to December 2013, we enrolled sample cohort data from the NHI. Patients diagnosed with international classification of diseases code N20 or N13.2 were included. The incidence and prevalence rate was counted from the same period and patients previously diagnosed with urolithiasis were excluded. We compared the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis by region, age, and sex, and identified the changes. Results: Total 1,111,828 subjects were included. Of these subjects, 36,857 had urolithiasis. The male-to-female ratio was 1.57:1, and total incidence rate was 3.27 per 1,000 person-years (1,000p-yrs). The annual incidence was lowest in 2013 (3,138 patients) and highest in 2005 (3,751 patients). Incidence rate by diagnostic code was highest in ureter stone only (2.49 per 1,000p-yrs) and was lowest in kidney and ureter stone both (0.17 per 1,000p-yrs). Prevalence gradually increased from 3,172 in 2002 and 5,758 in 2013. Jeollanam-do had the highest incidence rate of 3.70 persons per 1,000p-yrs, and Jeju had the lowest rate of 2.84 persons per 1,000p-yrs. In gender analysis, Daegu had the highest incidence (4.56) in males, Jeollanam-do had the highest incidence (3.20) in females. Conclusions: Annual incidence remained stable, whereas prevalence gradually increased. The incidence in male was 1.57 times higher than female, and the peak incidence age was 45-49 years, with the highest incidence occurring in Jeollanam-do and the lowest in Jeju.

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TUMOR INHIBITORY EFFECT OF RED GINSENG IN MICE AND RATS EXPOSED TO VARIOUS CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS

  • Yun Taik Koo;Yun Yeon Sook;Han In Won
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.87-113
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    • 1980
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of Korean ginseng extract on carcinogenesis induced by various chemical carcinogens. Red ginseng extract was used for this study and was administered orally to the experimental animals. Carcinogens that were injected in subscapsular region of ICR newborn mice within 24 hours after birth were 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzan-thracene (DMBA), urethane, N-2-fluorenylacetamide(AAF), aflatoxin $B_1$ and tobacco smoke condensate. N -methyl-N -nitroso-N'-nitroguani-dine(MNNG) was injected subcutaneously at the back of wistar rats. Experimental animals were autopsied in immediately after being sacrificed. All major organs were examined grossly and weighted. After fixation histopathological preparations were made for microscopical study. Following results were obtained. In DMBA group sacrificed at the 26th week after the treatment with DMBA, the incidence of lung adenoma was $77\%$ and the average number of the tumor was 17. However, in DMBA combined with red ginseng group, the incidence was $78\%$ and the average number of lung adenoma was 14.1. This indicates that ginseng extract had no effect on the incidence of lung adenoma but decreased the average number of lung adenoma by $17\%.$ In DMBA group sacrificed at the 48th week after the injection of DMBA, the lung adenoma incidence was $88\%.$ The average diameter of the largest lung adenoma was 3.5 cm, the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $18\%$ and the average lung weight of male experimental mice was $528.2{\pm}469.1\;gm.$ On the other hand, in DMBA combined with red ginseng group sacrificed at the 48th week, the incidence of lung adenoma was $96\%.$ The average diameter of the largest adenoma was 2.7 cm, the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $7\%$ and the average lung weight of male mice was $418.0{\pm}520\;gm.$ These observations show that ginseng extract did not have any inhibitory effect on the incidence of lung adenoma but decreased the average diameter of the largest lung adenoma by $23\%,$ the incidence of duffuse pulmonary infiltration by $63\%$ and the average lung weight of male experimental mice by $21\%.$ From these results we have found that the prolonged administration with ginseng extract showed no inhibitory effect on the incidence of adenoma but it had the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung adenomas induced by DMBA. In urethane group sacrificed at the 28th week after the injection of urethane, the incidence of lung adenoma was $94\%$ and the average number of lung adenoma was 8.6. In urethane combined with red ginseng group, the. incidence of lung adenoma was $73\%$ and the average number of adenoma was 6.0. These results indicate that there were $22\%$ decrease of the lung adenoma incidence and $31\%$ decrease of the average number of adenoma in urethane combined with red ginseng group. And in urethane group sacrificed at the 50th week, the incidence of lung adenoma was $98\%$ and the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $14\%$. In urethane combined with ginseng group the incidence of lung adenoma was $85\%$ and the incidence of diffuse pulmonary infiltration was $12\%$. Therefore the ginseng administration resulted in $15\%$ decrease of the lung adenoma incidence and $14\%$ decrease of the diffuse pulmonary infiltration incidence. From these results we knew that the prolonged administration with ginseng extract inhibited the incidence and also the proliferation of the lung adenoma induced by urethane. Lung adenoma and hepatoma were induced in the experimental mice sacrificed at the 68th week but not in the experimental mice sacrificed at the 28th week after the injection of AAF. In AAF group sacrificed at the 68th week after the injection of AAF the incidence of lung adenoma was $18\%$ and the incidence of hepatoma was $27\%$. And in AAF combined with ginseng group the lung adenoma incidence was $12\%$ and the hepatoma incidence was $37\%$. So the ginseng seemed to decrease the lung adenoma incidence by AAF, but we were unable to conclude the significant inhibitory effect of the ginseng extract on the incidence of lung adenoma by AAF because the above incidence of lung adenoma were similar to that of control group which was $11\%$. And these experimental data revealed that ginseng extract didn't have any inhibitory effect on the incidence of hepatoma induced by AAF. In aflatoxin $B_1$ group sacrificed at the 56th week, the incidence of lung adenoma was $24\%$ and hepatoma was $11\%$. However in aflatoxin $B_1$ combined with ginseng group the incidence of lung adenoma was $17\%$ and hepatoma was $3\%$ These results indicate that there were $29\%$ decrease of the lung adenoma incidence and $75\%$ decrease of the hepatoma incidence in aflatoxin $B_1$ combined with ginseng group. In tobacco smoke condensate experimental group sacrificed at 67th week, no tumors were induced except just a few lung adenoma. The lung adenoma incidence both in tobacco smoke condensate group and in tobacco smoke condensate combined with ginseng group was $8\%$. And this incidence rate was similar to that of control group. These results indicate that the injection of 320 ug tobacco smoke condensate per ICR newborn mouse was unable to induce lung adenoma in our experiments. In MNNG group sacrificed at the 27th week the tumor incidence was $38.5\%$ and in MNNG combined with ginseng extract group was $37\%$. In MNNG group for investigation of the life span of tumor bearing rats the tumor incidence was $93\%$ and the average life span of tumor bearing rats was 318 days. And in MNNG combined with ginseng extract group the tumor incidence was $96\%$ and the average life span was 337 days. Tumor induced by MNNG was almost sarcoma. This indicates that there was no inhibitory effect of ginseng extract on the tumor incidence, but the extract prolonged the average life span of tumor bearing rats by approximately 19 days.

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Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Industrial Region of South-East Siberia from 1991 through 2010

  • Kutikhin, Anton G.;Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.;Brailovskiy, Valeriy V.;Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S.;Magarill, Yuri A.;Brusina, Elena B.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5189-5193
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    • 2012
  • Kemerovo is an industrial region of the Russian Federation characterized by highly developed mining, chemical, metallurgical and power industries. Many of the factories were closed down due to the socioeconomical crisis in the early 90's, and economic potential of the survivors has also decreased significantly. Paradoxically, this has led to the improvement of the ecological situation in the region and elimination of exposure to many chemical carcinogens. This factor, in combination with the improvement of oncological care, might be expected to have lead to a decline of cancer incidence and mortality in the region. To assess trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Kemerovo Region, we therefore carried out an analysis of relevant epidemiological data during 1991-2010. In fact, a significant increase of cancer incidence overall was revealed during 2001-2010. Male cancer incidence was significantly higher than female cancer incidence. Regarding gastric cancer incidence, statistically significant differences during 2001-2010 were found only for men, and male incidence exceeded female incidence. Concerning colorectal cancer incidence, it was lower during 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 as compared to the period of 1991-1996. Lung cancer incidence was significantly higher during 1991-2000 compared to 2001-2010. Among urban populations, cancer incidence was higher in comparison with rural population, but a gradual steady convergence of trends of cancer incidence among urban and rural populations was noted. Lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer, and gastric cancer are the most prevalent cancer forms in Kemerovo Region. There were no differences in cancer mortality between 2001-2005 and 2006-2010; however, male cancer mortality exceeded female cancer mortality. A similar situation was observed for gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Cancer mortality among urban populations exceeded mortality among rural population, for both genders. We suggest that these data can be used for development of modern programs of cancer prevention and early diagnostics in industrial regions of Siberia.

An Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of CO poisoning in Korea (일산화탄소중독(一酸化炭素中毒)의 발생실태(發生實態)에 대(對)한 역학적고찰(疫學的考察))

  • Lee, K.H.;Choi, Y.O.;Kim, C.H.;Yun, D.R.
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 1971
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most serious health hazards in Korea. Although the incidence rate has been assumed to be the highest in the world, there has been no avaiable reports as far as the annual & nation-wide incidence are concered. Authors analyzed the incidence reports from 1965 to 1970 filed by the National Police & also made incidence survey on Seoul area in 1968 & 1969. The results of these surveys informed us that the official police reports are very much underevaluated. The stochastic estimations of the generel incidence were made based on the informations which were obtained through incidence survey made in Seoul area. The findings obtained are as follows; 1. The annual incidence of CO poisoning tends to increase since 1965. 2. The incidence is higher in the urban area & the incidence in Seoul is the highest in the world. 3. The frequency of incidence is the highest in the December. 4. The main causes of poisoning are the gas leakage from 'ondol' floor & the leaking of gas from kitchen to room through the connecting door. 5. The incidence survey made in Seoul area revealed that the official police reports are underevaluated around one-eighth of actual incidence. 6. The health hazards induced by CO poisoning is greater than those caused by 19 Class I & Class II communicable diseases.

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Breast Cancer in Lopburi, a Province in Central Thailand: Analysis of 2001-2010 Incidence and Future Trends

  • Sangkittipaiboon, Somphob;Leklob, Atit;Sriplung, Hutcha;Bilheem, Surichai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8359-8364
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    • 2016
  • Background: Thailand has come to an epidemiologic transition with decreasing infectious diseases and increasing burden of chronic conditions, including cancer. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rates among females throughout Thailand. This study aimed to identify the current burden and the future trends of breast cancer of Lopburi, a province in the Central Thailand. Materials and Methods: We used cancer incidence data from the Lopburi Cancer Registry to characterize and analyze the incidence of breast cancer in Central Thailand. With joinpoint and age-period-cohort analyses, the incidence of breast cancer in the province from 2001 to 2010 and project future trends from 2011 to 2030 was investigated. Results: Age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer in Lopburi increased from 23.4 to 34.3 cases per 100,000 female population during the period, equivalent to an annual percentage change of 4.3% per year. Both period and cohort effects played a role in shaping the increase in incidence. Joinpoint projection suggested that incidence rates would continue to increase in the future with incidence for women ages 50 years and above increasing at a higher rate than for women below the age of 50. Conclusions: The current situation where early detection measures are being promoted could increase detection rates of the disease. Preparation of sufficient budget for treatment facilities and human resources, both in surgical and medical oncology, is essential for future medical care.

Observations on Foot Disease of Slaughter Cattle (도축우(屠畜牛)의 제질환(蹄疾患)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Myung-cheol
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 1985
  • Incidence of foot disease of Korean native cattle (231 cases) and Holstein (310 cases) in slaughter house was observed from July August, 1984. 1. Incidence rate of foot disease was 9.09%, 12.90% and 11.27% for Korean native cattle, Holstein and total respectively. 2. Chronic necrotic pododermatitis showed the highest incidence among all foot disease and it's incidence rate was 6.47% in all cattle observes. 3. Topographical incidence rate of chronic necrotic pododermatitis was 25.7%, 60.0% and 14.3% for forefoot, hind foot and not specified respectively, so the disease showed high incidence rate in hind foot.

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Effects of Incidence Angle on the Three-Dimensional Flow and Aerodynamic Loss Downstream of a High-Turning Turbine Rotor Blade (입사각이 고선회 터빈 동익 하류에서의 3차원 유동 및 압력손실에 미치는 영향)

  • Chae, Byoung-Joo;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2591-2596
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    • 2007
  • The effect of incidence angle on the three-dimensional flow and aerodynamic loss in the downstream region of a high-turning turbine rotor blade has been investigated with a straight miniature five-hole probe. The incidence angle is changed to be +10, +5, 0, -10, -20, -30 and -40 degrees. The results show that the positive incidence reinforces the three-dimensional vortical flows within the turbine passage including the passage vortex, but the negative incidence weaken them significantly. A small increment in the positive incidence angle results in a remarkable aerodynamic loss increase, while increasing the incidence angle in the negative range leads to a very small change in the aerodynamic loss.

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Cohort Analysis of Incidence/Mortality of Liver Cancer in Japan through Logistic Curve Fitting

  • Okamoto, Etsuji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5891-5893
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    • 2013
  • Incidence/mortality of liver cancer follow logistic curves because there is a limit reflecting the prevalence of hepatitis virus carriers in the cohort. The author fitted logistic curves to incidence/mortality data covering the nine five-year cohorts born in 1911-1955 of both sexes. Goodness-of-fit of logistic curves was sufficiently precise to be used for future predictions. Younger cohorts born in 1936 or later were predicted to show constant decline in incidence/mortality in the future. The male cohort born in 1931-35 showed an elevated incidence/mortality of liver cancer early in their lives supporting the previous claim that this particular cohort had suffered massive HCV infection due to nation-wide drug abuse in the 1950s. Declining case-fatality observed in younger cohorts suggested improved treatment of liver cancer. This study demonstrated that incidence/mortality of liver cancer follow logistic curves and fitted logistic formulae can be used for future prediction. Given the predicted decline of incidence/mortality in younger cohorts, liver cancer is likely to be lost to history in the not-so-distant future.

Incidence rate of Aneurysmal SAH in Gwangju City and Jeollanamdo Province in 2007

  • Seo, Bo-Ra;Kim, Tae-Sun;Joo, Sung-Pil;Jang, Suk-Jung;Lim, Jun-Seob;Oh, Chang-Wan
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.124-127
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    • 2010
  • Objective : The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) worldwide varies considerably. In spite of many reports about the incidence of SAH, there has been no report about the incidence of SAH on the basis of the Korean population. The purpose of this hospital-based study was to assess the actual incidence rates of aneurysmal SAH in Gwangju city and Jeollanamdo province. Methods : All cases of SAH confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) between January 2007 and December 2007 were selected for analysis. For the data collection, three major training hospital and ten general hospitals working the CT in Gwangju city and four major general hospitals in Jeollanamdo province participate in this study. Results : According to the official census of Korea, the population was 1,413,444 in Gwangju city and 1.929,836 in Jeollanamdo province in 2007. There were 163 patients in Gwangju city and 266 patients in Jeollanamdo province confirmed SAH by CT in 2007. The crude and the age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence rates per 100,000 population for all ages in Gwangju city were 11.5 and 12.4 for aneurysmal SAH and in Jeollanamdo province were 13.8 and 10.8. The incidence was higher in women and increased with age. The gender distribution varied with age. At young ages. the incidence was higher in men while after the age of 40 years, the incidence was higher in women. Conclusion : In the present study, the age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence rates is 11.8 in Gwangju city and Jeollanamdo province. The incidence was higher in women and increased with age.