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Weekly Variation in Ischemic Stroke Incidence According to the Age and Sex (성별과 연령에 따른 허혈성 뇌졸중 발생의 요일 변화)

  • Kim, So-Yeon;Lee, Sang-Kwan
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.308-313
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The weekly variation of ischemic stroke incidence according to the age and sex. Methods : 977 consecutively admitted patients (521 males and 456 females) in a single stroke center from 2006 to 2008. All cases were confirmed with standardized criteria. We used the independent t-test and $x^2$ test in statistical methods. Results : The results demonstrated significant weekly variations of ischemic stroke incidence showing higher incidence on Saturday, Monday and Tuesday and lower incidence on the other days. Difference of ischemic stroke incidence was also shown between transit days, which included the transit days from the weekend to the week and vice versa, and non-transit days. Those aged older than 60 years and females showed more significant differences of weekly variation on transit days than on non-transit days. Conclusions : Ischemic stroke incidence has significant weekly variation, and transit days have higher incidence than non-transit days. Further study is required to identify the general weekly variation by multi-center trial.

Middle Cerebral Artery Anomalies Detected by Conventional Angiography and Magnetic Resonance Angiography

  • Kim, Myoung-Soo;Hur, Jin-Woo;Lee, Jong-Won;Lee, Hyun-Koo
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2005
  • Objective: Middle cerebral artery(MCA) anomalies are found incidentally on conventional cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance angiography(MRA). Our goal is to examine the incidence and types of MCA anomalies. Methods: Cerebral angiography was performed in 448 patients and MRA in 743; the patients had or were suspected to have cerebrovascular disease. The images were retrospectively evaluated for arterial anatomic anomalies. We use Teal's classification for definition of accessory and duplicated MCAs. Results: On cerebral angiography, the following anomalies of the MCA were found in seven patients: fenestration (n = 2, incidence = 0.45%); duplication (n = 2, incidence = 0.45%); accessory MCA (n = 2, incidence = 0.45%); aplasia (n = 1, incidence = 0.22%). On MRA, eight patients had anomalous MCAs : fenestration (n = 1, incidence = 0.14%); duplication (n= 6, incidence = 0.81%); accessory (n = 1, incidence = 0.14%). Conclusion: Although the clinical significance is not great, we find a relatively high incidence of anomalous MCAs. Knowledge and recognition of these MCA anomalies are useful and important in the interpretation of cerebral images and during neurosurgical procedures.

Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study

  • Khazaei, Salman;Rezaeian, Shahab;Khazaei, Somayeh;Mansori, Kamyar;Moghaddam, Ali Sanjari;Ayubi, Erfan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.253-256
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    • 2016
  • Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

Spatial and Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Kazakhstan, 1999-2013

  • Beysebayev, Eldar;Bilyalova, Zarina;Kozhakeeva, Lyazzat;Baissalbayeva, Ainur;Abiltayeva, Aizhan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6795-6798
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    • 2015
  • Breast cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are considered to be increasing but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for the whole country, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 1999-2013. Age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups. It was determined that during the studied period 45,891 new cases of breast cancer were registered and 20,122 women died of this pathology. Average breast cancer incidence and mortality were $37.9{\pm}1.10/10^5$ and $16.7{\pm}0.20/10^5$ respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.44. Incidence tended to increase (T = + 2.3%), and mortality to decrease (T of =-0.3%). Peaks of incidence and mortality were noted in those aged 60-74 years and 75-84, respectively. Particularly high incidences were established in large cities of Kazakhstan, Astana ($46.8{\pm}1.80/10^5$) and Almaty ($49.7{\pm}1.30/10^5$), and high mortality was observed in the Pavlodar region ($17.9{\pm}0.60/10^5$) and Almaty city ($20.1{\pm}0.40/10^5$). Considerable variation in the mortality/incidence ratio was noted, suggesting the need for more stress on access to screening and clinical care in some regions of the country.

Pattern on Enterobius vermicularis in Korea (한국(韓國)에 있어서의 요충감염상(蟯虫感染相))

  • Lee, Joon-Sang;Kim, Kyu-Ho;Ryu, Jong-Cheol;Hong, Kyung-Sook;Lee, Hae-Jung;Rim, Han-Jong
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.18-26
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    • 1978
  • Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infestation in present day Korea has become one of nationwide problems. But, the incidence of pinworm infestation having been reported by many workers was almostly the data for specific groups. The incidence of pinworm infestation for 208 families of 760(male; 30, female;420) middle class inhabitant of Seoul, 238 subrural inhabitants in Gyeonggi Province and 150(male;77, female;73) rural primary students in three different districts were examined by modified Gralam's scotch-tape swab method. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The incidence of nationwide infestation a. The nationwide incidence of pinworm infestation of the 1,148 specimens examined was 28.7% (male; 27.5%, female; 29.6%). b. The highest incidence was found among 5-14 years of age. c. In comparison of the incidence by the area, the highest incidence was found among subrural area, next among rural area and the lowest among urban area. 2, Urban area a. The incidence of the 760 inhabitants examined was 23.2% (male; 24.1%, female; 22. 3%). b. The incidence of the parents group was 12.2% and children group was 30. 30.3%. c. In the parents who hold one or more pinworm poitive cases among children, the incidence of father group was 13.2% and mother group was 29.7%.3. Subrural area a. The incidence of the 238 inhabitants examined was 42.9% (male, 40.8%, female; 44.4%). b. The cumulative positive rate of anal swabs showed increasing tendency. c. Worm collection rates after chemotherapy of 98 inhabitants were 54, 0%. d. In scotch tape anal swab only one times, diagnostic value was 74.0%. e. Mother group infested with pinworm seemed to play an important role for the high incidence in individual family. f. In comparison of the incidence by the examination method, the highest incidence was found among scotch tape method. 4. Rural area The incidence of the 150 primary students examined was 34. 5% (male ; 24. 7%, female; 43.8%).

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An Experimental Study of Incidence Angel Effect on 3-D Axial Type Turbine (3차원 축류형 터빈에서 입사각의 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Sik;Cho, Soo-Yong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1292-1301
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    • 2002
  • An experimental study of turbine performance is conducted with various incidence angles on a rotating turbine rotor. 5 different incidence angles are applied from -17$^{\circ}$to 13$^{\circ}$with 7.5$^{\circ}$gaps. In order to precisely set up the incidence angles at the rotor inlet, 5 turbine discs are manufactured with the different fir tree section. Total-to-total efficiencies are obtained on the several off-design points with considering the exit total pressure, which is meas fred at 12 locations between the hub and casing using a pressure rake. The degree of reaction is 0.373 at the mean radius, and Reynolds number based on the rotor chord is 0.86$\times$10$^{5}$ at the turbine inlet on the design point experiment. The experiment on a single-stage turbine is conducted at the low-pressure and low-speed state, but it is sufficient to consider the blade loading effect due to the rotating apparatus even though the total pressure loss at the exit is increased proportionally to the turbine output power. The experimental results recommend 6$^{\circ}$as an optimum incidence angle on the turbine blade design. The total-to-total efficiency is steeply decreased when the incidence angle is over $\pm$9$^{\circ}$ from the optimum incidence angle. In the range of less than -10$^{\circ}$incidence angle, 7.5$^{\circ}$ reduction of incidence angle generates 15% decrease of total-to-total efficiency. This result is obtained on the same rotor blade by changing only the rotational speed to minimize the effect of profile and secondary flow loss in the passage. Experimental results show that the change rate of total-to-total efficiency according to the incidence angle change is unchanged although the turbine operates at the off-design condition.

Incidence Rate of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Youths Using National Health Insurance Data (건강보험 자료에 의한 우리나라 청소년의 소음성 난청 환자 발생 양상)

  • Jeon, Man-Joong;Choi, Eun-Ju;Sakong, Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.93-112
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the incidence rate of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in Korean youths using the National Health Insurance Data Methods: We obtained the case of NIHL with the National Health Insurance Data and calculated the incidence rate of NIHL after classifying them by year (from 2005 through 2008), age, gender, birth cohort. Results: The age-adjusted incidence rate by year of NIHL per 100,000 population increased by 40.6% from 13.8 persons in 2005 to 19.4 persons in 2008, which showed a increasing trend every year. In particular, the incidence rate per 100,000 population among the adolescents (15-19 years of age) shot up by 78.2% from 8.7 persons in 2005 to 15.5 persons in 2008. According to the incidence rate by birth cohort of NIHL, the birth cohorts showed the gradually increase in incidence rate as time passed by. Adolescents in early 20s (20-24 years of age) had a higher incidence rate than teenage and men had a higher incidence rate than women. Conclusions: The results suggest that incidence rate of NIHL in Korean youths has rapidly increased among adolescents. Therefore, it is required to educate adolescents about the risk of hearing loss due to noise, establish program to prevent NIHL among adolescents and provide them with health education on hearing loss prevention.

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Estimation of Time Trends of Incidence of Prostate Canner - an Indian Scenario

  • Lalitha, Krishnappa;Suman, Gadicherla;Pruthvish, Sreekantaiah;Mathew, Aleyamma;Murthy, Nandagudi S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.6245-6250
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    • 2012
  • Background: With increase in life expectancy, adoption of newer lifestyles and screening using prostate specific antigen (PSA), the incidence of prostate cancer is on rise. Globally prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. The present communication makes an attempt to analyze the time trends in incidence for different age groups of the Indian population reported in different Indian registries using relative difference and regression approaches. Materials and Methods: The data published in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for various Indian registries for different periods and/or publications by the individual registries served as the source materials. Trends were estimated by computing the mean annual percentage change (MAPC) in the incidence rates using the relative difference between two time periods (latest and oldest) and also by estimation of annual percentage change (EAPC) by the Poisson regression model. Results: Age adjusted incidence rates (AAR) of prostate cancer for the period 2005-2008 ranged from 0.8 (Manipur state excluding Imphal west) to 10.9 (Delhi) per $10^5$ person-years. Age specific incidence rates (ASIR) increased in all PBCRs especially after 55 years showing a peak incidence at +65 years clearly indicating that prostate cancer is a cancer of the elderly. MAPC in crude incidence rate(CR) ranged from 0.14 (Ahmedabad) to 8.6 (Chennai). Chennai also recorded the highest MAPC of 5.66 in ASIR in the age group of 65+. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) in the AAR ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 among the three registries. Increase in trend was seen in the 55-64 year age group cohort in many registries and in the 35-44 age group in Metropolitan cities such as Delhi and Mumbai. Conclusions: Several Indian registries have revealed an increasing trend in the incidence of prostate cancer and the mean annual percentage change has ranged from 0.14-8.6.

Pancreatic Cancer Incidence and Mortality Patterns in China, 2009

  • Chen, Wan-Qing;Liang, Di;Zhang, Si-Wei;Zheng, Rou-Shou;He, Yu-Tong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7321-7324
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality rates for pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: After checking and reviewing the cancer registry data in 2009 from 72 cancer registry centers, we divided cancer registry areas into urban and rural areas. Incidence/mortality rates, age-specific incidence/mortality rates, age-standardized incidence/mortality rates, proportions, and cumulative incidence/mortality rates for pancreatic cancer were calculated. Results: The total number of newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer cases and deaths in 2009 were 6,220 and 5,650, respectively. The crude incidence rate in all cancer registry areas was 7.28/100,000 (males 8.24, females 6.29). The age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population (ASR) was 3.35/100,000, with ranking at 7th among all cancers. Pancreatic cancer incidence rate was 8.19/100,000 in urban areas whereas it was 5.41/100 000 in rural areas. Cancer mortality rate in all cancer registry areas was 6.61/100,000 (males 7.45; females 5.75), with ranking at 6th among all cancers, and 7.42/100 000 in urban but 4.94/100000 in rural areas. Conclusions: Pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality rates have shown a gradual increase in China. Owing to the difficulty of early diagnosis, identification of high-risk population and modification of risk factors are important to reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Incidence in Korean Vietnam Veterans During 1992-2003: The Korean Veterans Health Study

  • Yi, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Vietnam experience including exposure to military herbicides and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam War veterans. Methods: The cancer cases of 185 265 Vietnam veterans from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2003 were confirmed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database. The age-adjusted incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the male population during 1992 to 2003 as a standard population. Results: The age-adjusted overall cancer incidence per 100 000 person-years was 455.3 in Vietnam veterans. The overall cancer incidence was slightly yet significantly lower in veterans (SIR, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 0.99) than in the general population. The overall cancer incidence in enlisted soldiers was not lower (SIR, 1.00), whereas that in officers was significantly lower (SIR, 0.87) than in the general population. The incidences of prostate cancer and T-cell lymphoma in all veterans, and lung cancer and bladder cancer in enlisted soldiers, and colon cancer and kidney cancer in non-commissioned officers, and colon cancer, kidney cancer, and prostate cancer in officers, were higher than in the general population. The SIR for overall cancer among Vietnam veterans rose from 0.92 for 1992-1997 to 0.99 for 1998-2003. Conclusions: The overall cancer incidence in Vietnam veterans was not higher than in the general male population. Vietnam veterans and military rank subcohorts experienced a higher incidence of several cancers, including prostate cancer, T-cell lymphoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and colon cancer than the general population. The SIR for overall cancer increased over time in Vietnam veterans.