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Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in the World in 2012

  • Ghoncheh, Mahshid;Mirzaei, Maryam;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8439-8443
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence is generally increasing. In 2012, it was the second most common cancer in the world. It is necessary to obtain information on incidence and mortality for health planning. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the human development index (HDI), and the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the world in 2012. Materials and Methods: This ecologic study concerns incidence rate and standardized mortality rates of the cancer from GLOBOCAN in 2012, and HDI and its components extracted from the global bank site. Data were analyzed using correlation tests and regression with SPSS software (version 15). Results: Among the six regions of WHO, the highest breast cancer incidence rate (67.6) was observed in the PAHO, and the lowest incidence rate was 27.8 for SEARO. There was a direct, strong, and meaningful correlation between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.725, $p{\leq}0.001$). Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and components of the HDI (life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and GNP). On the other, a non-significant relationship was observed between ASIR and HDI overall (r=0.091, p=0.241). In total, a significant relationship was not found between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) and components of HDI. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations exist between ASIR and components of the HDI. Socioeconomic status is directly related to the stage of the cancer and patient's survival. With increasing the incidence rate of the cancer, mortality rate from the cancer does not necessariloy increase. This may be due to more early detection and treatment in developed that developing countries. It is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in the latter.

Incidence Trend for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the North Tunisian Population, 1998-2009

  • Benhassine, Adel;Khadhra, Hajer Ben;Khiari, Houyem;Hsairi, Mohamed;Elgaaied, Amel Benammar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2513-2518
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    • 2016
  • Background: In 2008, non-Hodgkin lymphoma ranked tenth among other malignancies worldwide with an incidence of around 5 cases per 100,000 in both genders. The latest available rates in Tunisia are from 2006. Materials and Methods: This study aimed to provide an update about NHL incidence for 2009 and its trend between 1998 and 2009 as well as a projection until 2024, using data from the Salah Azaiz Institute hospital registry and the Noth Tunisia cancer registry. Results: In 2009, the NHL incidence in the north of Tunisia was 4.03 cases per 100,000, 4.97 for men and 3.10 for women. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounted for 63.2% of all NHL subtypes. Between 1998 and 2009, the overall trend showed no significant change. When we compared the trend between two periods (1998-2005 and 2005-2009), joinpoint regression showed a significant decrease of NHL incidence in the first period with an annual percentage change (APC) of -6.7% (95% CI:[-11.2%;-2%]), then the incidence significantly increased from 2005 to 2009 with an APC of 30.5% (95% CI: [16.1%; 46.6%]. The analyses of the different subtype trends showed a significant decrease in DLBCL incidence between 1998 and 2000 (APC:-21.5; 95% CI: [-31.4%;-10.2%]) then the incidence significantly increased between 2004 and 2007 (APC: 18.5; 95% CI: [3,6%;35.5%]). Joint point analysis of the age-period-cohort model projection showed a significant increase between 2002 and 2024 with an APC of 4.5% (%95 CI: [1.5%; 7.5%]). The estimated ASR for 2024 was 4.55/100 000 (95% CI: [3.37; 6.15]). Conclusions: This study revealed an overall steady trend in the incidence of NHL in northern Tunisia between 1998 and 2009. Projection showed an increase in the incidence in NHL in both genders which draw the attention to the national and worldwide burden of this malignancy.

Numerical Study on Reverse Flow Charcteristics in an Axial Compressor Cascade (축류압축기 익렬에서의 역류 유동 특성에 대한 수치적 연구)

  • Sohn, Chang-Hyun;Longley, John Peter
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.615-622
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    • 2000
  • Numerical simulation is performed with Denton's code to get pressure loss coefficients in wide range of reverse flow incidence(from -90 degree to +85 degree) for an axial compressor cascade. As a results, it is found that the pressure loss coefficient is increased with incidence and there exist critical incidence which corresponds to the maximum pressure loss coefficient. Pressure loss coefficient with bigger incidence than its critical value is decreased. The effect of increasing incidence in a cascade extremely reduce the mass flow rate by the large flow separation region. Consequently this effect reduce the portion of dynamic pressure in the total pressure loss and beyond the critical incidence the pressure loss coefficient decrease.

Cancer Incidence in the Korean Air Force Aircrew (한국 공군 공중근무자 암 발생 조사)

  • Lim, Jeong-Ku
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2011
  • Pilots are exposed to carcinogenic substances like radiation, ozone, exhaust gas from jet engine, and electromagnetic wave, their environment can be very hazardous. I designed this study to know if there is any difference between pilots and general people in cancer incidence. I analyzed cancer cases between 1999 and 2008, and investigated their age, site, aircraft types, and sex. I compared pilot's cancer incidence with general people during same periods. Statistical analysis was performed with standardized incidence ratio (SIR). 10 cases were high performance pilots, 5 cases were low performance pilots. The average age when the diagnosis had been made was $39{\pm}7.8$. Pilot's incidence ratio was lower than people's, the most common cancer was kidney, and there was no lung cancer. Cancer is influenced by gene and environment, each country has different patterns. The low incidence ratio in Korean pilots might be due to "healthy worker effect". I think we should perform further investigation on kidney cancer.

Molecular dynamics study on initial growth behavior of amorphous carbon film under various incidence angles

  • Joe, Min-Woong;Moon, Myoung-Woon;Lee, Kwang-Ryeol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.310-310
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    • 2011
  • Morphological evolution of amorphous carbon film is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Here, energetic carbon atoms (75 eV) are deposited on the diamond (001) substrate to find effect of incidence angles. At normal and near-normal incidences ($0^{\circ}{\sim}30^{\circ}$) atomically smooth surfaces are observed during their growth. However, rough surfaces emerge and develop into a ripple structure at grazing incidences ($60^{\circ}{\sim}70^{\circ}$). The different growth modes according to the incidence angles can be described by impact-induced displacements of atoms. Downhill transport along any sloped surfaces is predominant for the case of normal incidence. As the incidence angles become grazing, uphill transport is allowed along the surfaces, which have smaller slopes than incidence angle, so the surface features can be amplified. Impact-induced transport and self-shadowing effect can be responsible to the initial growth of seeding structures at a grazing incidence, which would be grown up as tilted columnar structures in further depositions.

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Incidence and Mortality from Mucosal Head and Neck Cancers amongst Australian States and Territories: What It Means for the Northern Territory

  • Singh, Jagtar;Jayaraj, Rama;Baxi, Siddhartha;Ramamoorthi, Ramya;Thomas, Mahiban
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5621-5624
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    • 2013
  • Mucosal head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that develop in the upper-aero digestive epithelium. Together they constitute the sixth most common cancer with an estimated 900,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths each year reported worldwide. The risk factors are tobacco, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Our research team initially reported a high incidence rate of HNC in the indigenous population of the Northern Territory. Mortality rates also vary in the Australian States and Territories, with particularly high mortality observed in the Northern Territory. There is a paucity of incidence studies of HNC for the Australian States and Territories. Therefore this review primarily focuses on variation in incidence and mortality iacross the country and highlights specifically the high incidence and mortality in the Northern Territory. Attention is also given to sex-specific incidence and mortality rates.

Trend of Cancer Incidence in Nepal from 2003 to 2012

  • Poudel, Krishna Kanta;Huang, Zhibi;Neupane, Prakash Raj
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2171-2175
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    • 2016
  • Trends in cancer incidence is a key tool to identify the pattern of cancer of any country. This retrospective study was performed to present the trends of change in cancer incidence in Nepal.The total number of cancer cases in males was 26,064 while the total number of females cancer cases was 29,867 throughout the 10 years from 2003 to 2012. The cancer incidence per 100,000 in males was 12.8 in 2003 and 25.8 people in 2012. Similarly, in females, the crude incidence rate was 15.1 in 2003 and 26.7 per 100,000 in 2012. Cancer incidence was low at early age but it was increased with age in both sexes in Nepal. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in males throughout, while it was the third most common cancer in females. Cervix uteri was the most common site of cancer in females throughout the 10 years, with a clear trend for increase in breast cancer within this time.

CENTER SYMMETRY OF INCIDENCE MATRICES

  • Lee, Woo
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2000
  • The T-ideal of F(X) generated by $x^{n}$ for all x $\in$ X, is generated also by the symmetric polynomials. For each symmetric poly-nomial, there corresponds one row of the incidence matrix. Finding the nilpotency of nil-algebra of nil-index n is equivalent to determining the smallest integer N such that the (n, N)-incidence matrix has rank equal to N!. In this work, we show that the (n, (equation omitted)$^{(1,....,n)}$-incidence matrix is center-symmetric.

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Distribution and incidence of potato virus Y in burley tobacco, (Burley종 잎담배 산지의 PVY 발생상황)

  • 박은경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 1983
  • Potato virus Y (PVY) distribution, areas where the virus occurred, and incidence, Percentage of plants infected, on burley tobacco in Korea was surveyed in 1982. Most of the fields Investigated were infected with PVY. The virus incidence was 12.5%. District)union and incidence generally were sporadic, but Onyang, Hongseung and Iksan area virus incidence was higher than that of other areas. For strain identification, approximately 95% was nonnecrotic (PVY-VB) and 5olo necrotic strain (PVY-VN) .

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The study on the estimation of diffuse field absorption coefficient by using normal incidence impedance (수직입사 임피던스를 이용한 난입사 흡음율 예측 연구)

  • 유승국;김영찬;김두훈
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 1998
  • This paper is to compare the absorption coefficient with normal incidence waves and it with diffuse incidence waves of glass wool which the most used absorption material and multi layer fiber. The absorption coefficient with normal incidence waves is calculated by surface impedance that measured by using an acoustic tube. Based on this data, the absorption. coefficient with diffuse incidence waves is predicted and is compared with measured the absorption coefficient in reverberation room.

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