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Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Morocco: Comparison with Other Countries

  • Khalis, Mohamed;El Rhazi, Karima;Charaka, Hafida;Chajes, Veronique;Rinaldi, Sabina;Nejjari, Chakib;Romieu, Isabelle;Charbotel, Barbara
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5211-5216
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In Morocco, there have been few recent descriptive studies on female breast cancer. The aim of this study was to describe the latest available incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer among Moroccan women and to compare them with rates in other regional and Western countries. Methods: For this descriptive study, Moroccan incidence data were obtained from the most recent reports of the cancer registries of Casablanca and Rabat. Information on breast cancer incidence for different countries were obtained primarily from publicly available cancer registries and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. Mortality data were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results: The age-standardized incidence (World) rate of breast cancer in Moroccan women increased from 35.0 to 39.0 per 100,000 women between 2004 and 2008, showing an annual increase of 2.85 %. The highest incidence rates were registered in the age groups of 45-49, 50-54 and 55-59 years (106.1, 108.2 and 108.5 respectively). Sixty-nine percent of female breast cancer cases were diagnosed at stages II and III. In 2012, the estimated number of women who died of breast cancer in Morocco was 2,878. The crude, age-standardized (World) mortality rates were 17.3 and 18.0 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: Although the incidence of female breast cancer in Morocco is lower than in Western countries, evidence shows that the rate is rising. This increase of breast cancer incidence has been observed in parallel with changes in reproductive behavior and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Prevention policies need to be implemented.

Tuberculosis in Mexico and the USA, Comparison of Trends Over Time 1990-2010

  • Hernandez-Garduno, Eduardo;Mendoza-Damian, Fabiola;Garduno-Alanis, Adriana;Ayon-Garibaldo, Salvador
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.78 no.3
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    • pp.246-252
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    • 2015
  • Background: The aim was to compare tuberculosis trends in Mexico and United States and to evaluate Mexican diagnostic methods and contact investigation. Methods: Retrospective comparative study of tuberculosis cases and incidence rates between both countries (1990-2010). Diagnostic methods and contact investigations were also evaluated for Mexico. Estimates were obtained from official websites. Results: In Mexico, no clear trend was found over time for cases. Pulmonary (PTB) and all forms of tuberculosis (AFTB) incidence decreased 2.0% annually. There was a negative correlation between the mean contacts examined per case and AFTB incidence ($r^2=-0.44$, p=0.01) with a 33% reduction in AFTB incidence. In United States, PTB and AFTB cases have been decreasing 6.0% and 5.6% annually, respectively. The incidence decreased 7.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of tuberculosis in Mexico is decreasing slightly over time at 2% annually. In the United States, cases and incidence rates have been decreasing at a higher rate (5% to 7% annually). The inverse association between number of contacts examined per state and incidence rates in Mexico underscore the importance of reinforcing and improving contact investigations with the likely translation of a decrease of TB incidence at a higher rate.

Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea

  • Park, Jae-Won;Cheong, Hae-Kwan;Honda, Yasushi;Ha, Mina;Kim, Ho;Kolam, Joel;Inape, Kasis;Mueller, Ivo
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.31
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    • pp.3.1-3.11
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    • 2016
  • Objectives This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Methods Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Results Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Conclusions Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions.

Trends in Incidence and Treatment of Herniated Lumbar Disc in Republic of Korea : A Nationwide Database Study

  • Jung, Jong-myung;Lee, Si Un;Hyun, Seung-Jae;Kim, Ki-Jeong;Jahng, Tae-Ahn;Oh, Chang Wan;Kim, Hyun-Jib
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.108-118
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    • 2020
  • Objective : This study aimed to determine the incidence and analyze trends of the herniated lumbar disc (HLD) based on a national database in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from January 2008 to December 2016. Methods : This study was a retrospective analysis of data obtained from the national health-claim database provided by the National Health Insurance Service for 2008-2016 using the International Classification of Diseases. The crude incidence and age-standardized incidence of HLD were calculated, and additional analysis was conducted according to age and sex. Changes in trends in treatment methods and some treatments were analyzed using the Korean Classification of Diseases procedure codes. Results : The number of patients diagnosed with HLD was 472245 in 2008 and increased to 537577 in 2012; however, it decreased to 478697 in 2016. The pattern of crude incidence and the standardized incidence were also similar. Overall, the incidence of HLD increased annually for the 30s, 40s, 50s, and 70s until 2012 and then decreased. However, the incidence of HLD for the 80s continued to increase. The crude incidence of HLD in female patients exceeded that of male patients in their middle age (30s or 40s) and was 1.5-1.6 times higher than in male patients in their 60s. The total number of open discectomy (OD) increased from 71598 in 2008 to 93942 in 2012 and then decreased to 85846 in 2016. The rate of younger patients (the 20s, 30s, and 40s) who underwent OD was decreased, and the rate of younger patients who underwent percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy was increased. However, the rate of older patients (the 70s and 80s) who underwent OD was continuously increased. Conclusion : This nationwide data on HLD from 2008 to 2016 in the ROK demonstrated that the crude incidence and the standardized incidence increased until 2012 and then decreased. The annual crude incidence was different according to age and sex. These findings may be considered when deciding future health policy, especially in countries with a similar national health insurance system (or with plans to adopt).

Effect of Incidence Angle on the Turbulence Structure in the Wake of a Turbine Rotor Blade (입사각이 터빈 동익 후류의 난류구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Sung-Il;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2003
  • This paper describes the effect of the incidence angle on the turbulence structure in the wake of a turbine rotor blade at the low inlet free-stream turbulence level. For three incidence angles of -5, 0 and 5 degrees, mid-span energy spectrum as well as mid-span profiles of mean velocity magnitude and turbulence intensity are reported at three downstream locations in the wake. Vortex shedding frequencies are obtained from the energy spectrum. The result shows that as the incidence angle changes from-5 to 5 degrees, the boundary layer on the suction surface tends to be thickened, which results in widening of the wake. Strouhal numbers based on the shedding frequencies have a nearly constant value of 0.3, independent of tested incidence angles.

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Explaining Cancer Incidence in the Jejudo Population (제주도 암발생 양상에 관한 가설 제기 및 규명)

  • Bae, Jong-Myon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : Using the population-based cancer registry in Jejudo, we found that Jejudo had lower incidence in stomach cancer than other regions in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate reasons for this difference. Methods : Citrus is the leading agricultural production in Jejudo, suggesting that lower cancer incidence in Jejudo could be explained by citrus fruit intake. We evaluated this hypothesis with quantitative systematic review(QSR). Results : Stomach cancer incidence was significantly lower, with a summary odds ratio(SOR) after QSR of 0.72 [95% CI=0.64-0.81]. In addition, the SOR of pancreatic cancer tended to be lower at 0.83 [95% CI=0.70-0.98]. The SOR of prostate cancer was slightly higher at 1.03 [0.89-1.19]. Conclusions : Quantitative systematic reviews for the effect of citrus fruit intake on cancer occurrence suggested that lower cancer incidence in Jejudo could be explained by intake of citrus fruits.

Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Osaka, Japan: Future Trends Estimation with an Age-Period-Cohort Model

  • Utada, Mai;Ohno, Yuko;Shimizu, Sachiko;Ito, Yuri;Tsukuma, Hideaki
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3893-3898
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    • 2012
  • In previous studies we predicted future trends in cancer incidence for each prefecture in order to plan cancer control. Those predictions, however, did not take into account the characteristics of each prefecture. We therefore used the results of age-period-cohort analysis of incidence and mortality data of Osaka, and estimated the incidence and mortality of cancers at all sites and selected sites. The results reflect the characteristics of Osaka, which has and is expected to have large number of patients with liver cancer. We believe our results to be useful for planning and evaluating cancer control activities in Osaka. It would be worthwhile to base the estimation of cancer incidence and mortality in each prefecture on each population-based cancer registry.

Effect of Incidence Angle on the Wake Turbulence of a Turbine Rotor Blade (입사각이 터빈 동익의 후류 난류유동에 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Sung-Il;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.887-894
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    • 2005
  • This paper describes effects of incidence angle on the wake turbulent flow of a high-turning turbine rotor blade. For three incidence angles of -5, 0 and 5 degrees, energy spectra as well as profiles of mean velocity magnitude and turbulence intensity at mid-span are reported in the wake. Vortex shedding fiequencies are obtained from the energy spectra. The result shows that as the incidence angle changes from -5 to 5 degrees, the suction-side wake tends to be widened and the deviation angle is increased. Strouhal numbers based on the shedding fiyequencies have a nearly constant value, regardless of the tested incidence angles.

Effect of Incidence Angle on the Endwall Heat Transfer Within a Turbine Rotor Passage (입사각이 터빈 동익 끝벽 열전달에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Jin Jae;Lee Sang Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.696-702
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    • 2005
  • The effect of incidence angle on the endwall heat (mass) transfer characteristics within a turbine rotor cascade passage has been investigated by employing the naphthalene sublimation technique. The experiments are carried out at the Reynolds number of $2.78{\times}10^5$ for two incidence angles of -5 and 5 dog. The result shows that the incidence angle has a considerable influence on the transport phenomena over the endwall. The positive incidence angle tends to promote development of the pressure-side leg of a leading-edge horseshoe vortex. The endwall thermal load is augmented by 7.5 percents at i = -5 deg but is reduced by 2.5 percents at i = 5 deg, in comparison with that at the design condition.

Optical Modeling for Polarization-dependent Optical Power Dissipation of Thin-film Organic Solar Cells at Oblique Incidence

  • Kim, Jungho;Jung, Sungyeop;Jeong, Inkyung
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 2012
  • We present the optical models and calculation results of thin-film organic solar cells (OSCs) at oblique incidence of light, using the transfer matrix method. The simple expression for the optical power dissipation is derived at oblique incidence for s- and p-polarized light. The spatial distribution of the electric field intensity, the optical power density, and the optical power dissipation are calculated in both s- and p-polarized light with respect to the incidence angle. We identify how the light absorption efficiency for p-polarized light becomes relatively larger than that for s-polarized light as the incidence angle increases.