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Clinical Results and Optimal Timing of OPCAB in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (급성 심근경색증 환자에서 시행한 OPCAB의 수술시기와 검색의 정도에 따른 임상성적)

  • Youn Young-Nam;Yang Hong-Suk;Shim Yeon-Hee;Yoo Kyung-Jong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.534-543
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    • 2006
  • Background: There are a lot of debates regarding the optimal timing of operation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has benefits by avoiding the adverse effects of the cardio-pulmonary bypass, but its efficacy in AMI has not been confirmed yet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retrospectively early and mid-term results of OPCAB in patients with AMI according to transmurality and timing of operation. Material and Method: Data were collected in 126 AMI patients who underwent OPCAB between January 2002 and July 2005, Mean age of patients were 61.2 years. Male was 92 (73.0%) and female was 34 (27.2%). 106 patients (85.7%) had 3 vessel coronary artery disease or left main disease. Urgent or emergent operations were performed in 25 patients (19.8%). 72 patients (57.1%) had non-transmural myocardial infarction (group 1) and 52 patients (42.9%) had transmural myocardial infarction (group 2). The incidence of cardiogenic shock and insertion of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was higher in group 2. The time between occurrence of AMI and operation was divided in 4 subgroups (<1 day, $1{\sim}3\;days,\;4{\sim}7\;days$, >8 days). OPCAB was performed a mean of $5.3{\pm}7.1$ days after AMI in total, which was $4.2{\pm}5.9$ days in group 1, and $6,6{\pm}8.3$ days in group 2. Result: Mean distal an-astomoses were 3.21 and postoperative IABP was inserted in 3 patients. There was 1 perioperative death in group 1 due to low cardiac output syndrome, but no perioperative new MI occurred in this study. There was no difference in postoperative major complication between two groups and according to the timing of operation. Mean follow-up time was 21.3 months ($4{\sim}42$ months). The 42 months actuarial survival rate was $94.9{\pm}2.4%$, which was $91.4{\pm}4.7%$ in group 1 and $98.0{\pm}2.0%$ in group 2 (p=0.26). The 42 months freedom rate from cardiac death was $97.6{\pm}1.4%$ which was $97.0{\pm}2.0%$ in group 1 and $98.0{\pm}2.0%$ in group 2 (p=0.74). The 42 months freedom rate from cardiac event was $95.4{\pm}2.0%$ which was $94.8{\pm}2.9%$ in group 1 and $95.9{\pm}2.9%$ in group 2 (p=0.89). Conclusion: OPCAB in AMI not only reduces morbidity but also favors hospital outcomes irrespective of timing of operation. The transmurality of myocardial infarction did not affect the surgical and midterm outcomes of OPCAB. Therefore, there may be no need to delay the surgical off-pump revascularization of the patients with AMI if surgical revascularization is indicated.

Evaluation of the Fruit Quality Indices during Maturation and Ripening and the Influence of Short-term Temperature Management on Shelf-life during Simulated Exportation in 'Changjo' Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) (배 신품종 '창조'의 성숙 중 품질 요인 변화 및 수송온도 환경에 따른 반응성)

  • Lee, Ug-Yong;Choi, Jin-Ho;Ahn, Young-Jik;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.378-385
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we evaluated the changes of fruit quality indices during fruit development and ripening in Korean new pear cultivar 'Changjo', developed from a cross between 'Tama' and '81-1-27' ('Danbae' ${\times}$ 'Okusankichi') in 1995 and named in 2009, to determine appropriate harvest time and to enhance the market quality and broaden the cultivation area. The fruits of 'Changjo' pears harvested from 132 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 160 DAFB. Fruit growth and quality indices were monitored at 1 week interval by measuring fruit weight, length, diameter, firmness, and taste related quality indices. The calculated fruit fresh weight increased continuously with fruit development and reached to an average of 594g on Sep. 20 (160 DAFB). The ratio of length to diameter declines as fruit maturation progress, resulting in 0.898 for ripe fruit stage as a round oblate shape. Flesh firmness of 'Changjo' pears showed over 30N until 153 DAFB and then decreased abruptly with fruit ripening, reaching a final level of about 26.44N on 160 DAFB. Starch content of fruit sap was also decreased abruptly after 146 DAFB which decreased almost half of the fruits harvested at 139 DAFB. In parallel with the decrease of flesh firmness, ethanol insoluble solids (EIS) content decreased sharply with fruit ripens, only 50% of EIS was detected on the fruits harvested on 160 DAFB when compared to that of the fruits harvested on 139 DAFB (Aug. 30). The maximum value of soluble solids contents was observed in the fruits harvested on 153 DAFB, resulting in $14.2^{\circ}Brix$. The changes of skin color difference $a^*$ which means loss of green color occurred only after 139 DAFB, coincide with the decrease of SPAD value of the fruit skin. The sugars of the 80% ethanol soluble fraction consisted mainly of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose, also increased during maturation and ripening. Fructose and sucrose contents were larger than those of glucose and sorbitol in flesh tissues. These results were explained that stored starch is converted to soluble sugars during fruit maturation, mainly in fructose and sucrose increasing the sweetness of this cultivar. Total polyphenols were increased up to middle of fruit maturation (146 DAFB) and then decreased continuously until the end of fruit maturation. Consequently, our results suggested that the commercial harvest time of 'Changjo' pears should not be passed 153 DAFB and late harvest of this cultivar would not good for quality maintenance during shelf-life. As a result of the post-harvest low-temperature acclimation experiment during the short-term transportation period, fruits harvested at 146 DAFB tended to maintain higher firmness after 14 days of simulated marketing at $25^{\circ}C$ compared to fruits harvested at 153 DAFB regardless of temperature set. And, the slower the rate of decrease to the final transport temperature of $5^{\circ}C$, the higher the incidence of internal browning and ethylene production. Therefore, in order to suppress the physiological disorder and to maintain the fruit quality when exporting to Southeast Asia in the 'Chanjo' pears, it is desirable to lower the temperature of the fruits within a short time after harvest and to set the harvest time before 146 days after full bloom.

An influence of operator's posture on the shape of prepared tooth surfaces for fixed partial denture (진료자세가 고정성 국소의치의 지대치 삭제에 미치는 영향)

  • Won, In-Jae;Kwon, Kung-Rock;Pae, Ah-Ran;Choi, Dae-Gyun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.38-48
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Dentists suffer back, neck and shoulder pain during their careers due to bad operating posture. If dentists have a good operating posture ergonomically, there would be less pain and discomfort in the shoulder and back. Therefore, dentists should learn the Home position which enables dentists to approach a stable posture ergonomically. This study was to compare tooth preparation in the Home position and the Random position, and evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Home position. Materials and methods: Tooth preparation for fixed partial denture was performed on the maxillary left 2nd premolar and maxillary left 2nd molar at the two different operating positions were compared. The amount of occlusal reduction, marginal width, subgingival margin depth, and convergence angle were measured. A T-test was performed separately to compare the results of the Random position and the Home position. Results: 1. The amounts of average thickness of occlusal reduction on fossa were deficient to the ordered ones in the Random position and the Home position (P > .05). 2. The average subgingival margin depth of prepared margin on maxillary left 2nd premolar, maxillary left 2nd molar were excessive in the Random position than in the Home position. On the maxillary left 2nd premolar, there was no statistical difference in the Random position and the Home position except Distal midline, DL line angle, Lingual midline, ML line angle (P< .05). On the maxillary left 2nd molar, there was no statistical difference in the Random position and the Home position (P < .05). 3. Average convergence angle in the Random position and the Home position were excessive compared to the ordered angle. There was no statistical difference in the Random position and the Home position (P > .05). 4. Analysis of pearson correlation : In the Random position, the amounts of average thickness of occlusal reduction, the average subgingival margin depth of prepared margin, convergence angle were significantly associated with each other (P < .05). But in the Home position, they were not significantly associated with each other (P < .05). 5. The time needed for preparation in the Home position was faster or equal than that of the Random position as time went on. Conclusion: In conclusion, there were no significant differences between Home position and Random position in measures of occlusal reduction, marginal width, marginal depth, convergence angle. However, preparation time and incidence of damaging adjacent teeth were less in Home position than in Random position. Therefore, if trained properly, Home position which is more ergonomically stable can be adopted for clinical use.

Biological Identity of Hwangchung and History on the Control of Hwangchung Outbreaks in Joseon Dynasty Analyzed through the Database Program on the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and the Enrollment of Haegoeje (조선왕조실록과 해괴제등록 분석을 통한 황충(蝗蟲)의 실체와 방제 역사)

  • Park, Hae-Chul;Han, Man-Jong;Lee, Young-Bo;Lee, Gwan-Seok;Kang, Tae-Hwa;Han, Tae-Man;Hwang, Seok-Jo;Kim, Tae-Woo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.375-384
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    • 2010
  • We tried to establish the history of outbreaks and control methods of 'hwangchung' in Joseon Dynasty, uncovering the biological reality of the 'hwangchung' (called hwang or bihwang) analyzed through the Database program on 'the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty' and 'the Emollment of Haegoeje', two of the finest examples of classical historical records. The total number of articles on the outbreak of the hwangchung is 261 in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and 65 in the Emollment of Haegoeje. There were four peaks by hwangchung throughout the Joseon Era. Among them, the periods of King Taejo to King Sejong had the highest incidence. By comparing the number of records of the hwangchung from the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty with that in the Emollment of Haegoeje during the same period, results show the former was less than the latter, 35 vs 65. However, both records were relatively inconsistent with each other. Insect pests in forests as well as in agriculture were included in the biological identities of the hwangchung in the Joseon Dynasty periods, which is in accordance with those of Saigo's. The taxonomic identity could be confirmed in only 25 cases (9.5%) among the articles on hwangchung. It largely coincided with Paik's opinion: II in armyworm, nine in moth larva, one in rice stem borer, two in migratory locust, one in planthopper and one in rice-plant weevil. Therefore, it is not reasonable to regard hwangchung as a migratory locust or grasshopper only. The number of reports on the occurrence of hwangchung in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty was 173 (66% of the total) and 47% of them were just simple reports, which means the report itself on the appearance of hwangchung was very significant. The reports on controlling insect pests were of low frequency, in 20% (34 cases) of the total reports, capturing insect pests or holding traditional ceremony called 'Poje'. Among them, only one case related to the treatment of seeds to prevent the damage by hwangchung was published in the King Sejong period. There were 37 discussions about changes and management of government policies due to disasters by hwangchung. They were mostly about relief or tax cut to the people who suffered damage and about cancellation of recruiting people to military training, constructing castles, and so on. It seems that not only the people but also the king was influenced by the hwangchung. In the case of King Seongjong, he referred to the stress of the prevention measure of locusts in 10 articles. The damage also had an effect on abdication in the reign of King Jeongjong.

Multicenter clinical study of childhood periodic syndromes that are common precursors to migraine using new criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) (편두통의 전 단계인 소아기주기성증후군의 다기관 임상 연구: 국제두통질환분류 제2판 제1차 수정판 적용)

  • Park, Jae Yong;Nam, Sang-Ook;Eun, So-Hee;You, Su Jeong;Kang, Hoon-Chul;Eun, Baik-Lin;Chung, Hee Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of childhood periodic syndromes (CPS) in Korea using the new criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II. Methods : The study was conducted at pediatric neurology clinics of five urban tertiary-care medical centers in Korea from January 2006 to December 2007. Patients (44 consecutive children and adolescents) were divided into three groups (cyclic vomiting syndrome [CVS], abdominal migraine [AM], and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood [BPVC]) by recurrent paroxysmal episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, and/or vertigo using the ICHD-II criteria and their characteristics were compared. Results : Totally, 16 boys (36.4%) and 28 girls (63.6%) were examined (aged 4-18 yr), with 20 CVS (45.5%), 8 AM (18.2%), and 16 BPVC (36.4%) patients. The mean age at symptom onset was $6.3{\pm}3.6$ yr, $8.5{\pm}2.7$ yr, and $8.5{\pm}2.9$ yr in the CVS, AM, and BPVC groups, respectively, showing that symptoms appeared earliest in the CVS group. The mean age at diagnosis was $8.0{\pm}3.4$ yr, $10.5{\pm}2.6$ yr, and $10.1{\pm}3.2$ yr the CVS, AM, and BPVC groups, respectively. Of the 44 patients, 17 (38.6%) had a history of recurrent headaches and 11 (25.0%) showed typical symptoms of migraine headache, with 5 CVS (25.0%), 2 AM (25.0%), and 4 BPVC (25.0%) patients. Family history of migraine was found in 9 patients (20.4%): 4 in the CVS group (20.0%), 2 in the AM group (25.0%), and 3 in the BPVC group (18.8%). Conclusion : The significant time lag between the age at symptom onset and final diagnosis possibly indicates poor knowledge of CPS among pediatric practitioners, especially in Korea. A high index of suspicion may be the first step toward caring for these patients. Furthermore, a population-based longitudinal study is necessary to determine the incidence and natural course of these syndromes.

Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.

Actual Status of Constipation and Life Factors Affecting Constipation by Diagnosis of Rome in Female University Students in Korea (일부 한국여대생의 로마진단기준에 의한 변비 실태조사 및 변비에 영향을 미치는 생활요인)

  • Jung, Su-Jin;Chae, Soo-Wan;Sohn, Hee-Sook;Kim, Sook-Bae;Rho, Jeong-Ok;Baik, Sang-Ho;Kang, Myung-Hee;Kim, Gun-Hee;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Park, Eun-Ju;Heo, Young-Ran;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.428-442
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated the actual status of constipation. In total, 978 female students in Korea participated. We identified the relationship among constipation and life style, clothing patterns, housing patterns, dietary habits, and dietary intake in a constipation symptom group and a normal group. The actual constipation rate based on the Rome II criteria was 27.0% (n = 264). Body weight (p < 0.05) and body mass index (p < 0.05) in the constipation group were significantly higher than those in the normal group. The incidence of functional bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome in the constipation group were significantly higher than those in the normal group. The discomfort of wearing underwear was significantly higher in the constipation group than that in the normal group. The constipation group revealed a significantly higher rate of irregular dietary habits than those in the normal group. The dietary diversity score of the normal group was 4.22 (p < 0.05), which was significantly higher than that of constipation group (4.12). No significant difference in life style factors was observed. It is necessary for university female students to correct their dietary habits, maintain food intake of three times per day, and select diverse foods. Furthermore, it is necessary for university female students to wear comfortable clothing to lessen symptoms and improve constipation rates.

Simultaneous Production System of Silkworm Dongchunghacho and Male Pupae Using Both Parent Sex-limited Larval Marking Variety (한성반문잠품종을 이용한 누에동충하초 및 숫번데기의 동시 생산체계)

  • Ji, Sang-Duk;Kim, Nam-Suk;Kang, Pil-Don;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Hong, In-Pyo;Ryu, Kang Sun;Kim, Young-Ki;Nam, Sung-Hee;Kim, Mi-Ja;Kim, Kee-Young
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to confirm the mass production of male pupae and sex-limited larval marking variety as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenupes in RDA(Rural Development Administration). Silkworm pupation, infection rate and synnemate formation of I.tenuipes were examined. Among the silkworm varieties tested, male Hansaengjam showed the highest pupation rate at 98.7%. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of newly-exuviated 5th instar silkworm was 83.7 ~ 90.4% in the spring rearing season and 91.7 ~ 96.6% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was execellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 99.5% followed by male Yangwonjam(99.5%) and Baegokjam(99.4%) in the spring and autumn rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 0.93 ~ 1.25 g in the spring rearing season. The female Hansaengjam had the heaviest synnemata weight(1.25 g). Synnemata dry weight ranged from 0.27 ~ 0.35 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight(0.35 g).

Genetic Polymorphisms of the $\beta_2$-Adrenergic Receptor in the Severity of Bronchial Asthma (기관지 천식 환자에서 천식 증상의 정도에 따른 $\beta_2$ 교감신경 수용체의 유전자 다형성)

  • Shim, Jae-Jeong;Kim, Jei-Hyung;Lee, Seung-Yong;Kwan, Young-Hwan;Lee, So-Ra;Lee, Sang-Youb;Kang, Se-Yong;Kang, Yong-Koo;Cho, Jae-Youn;In, Kwang-Ho;Won, Nam-Hee;Yoo, Se-Hwa;Kang, Kyung-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 1998
  • Background: Genetic and environmental factors are known to affect the incidence and severity of asthma. Stimulation of $\beta_2$-Adrenergic Receptor ($\beta_2$AR) results in smooth muscle relaxation, leading to decrease in resistance of airflow. The gene encoding the $\beta_2$AR has recently been seguenced. The $\beta_2$AR genotype at the polymorphic loci of codons 16, 27, 34, and 164 was known to cause changes in the amino acids. The relationships between the structure of the $\beta_2$AR and its functions are being elucidated. Purpose : The gene encoding the $\beta_2$AR was carried out to assess the frequency of polymorphisms in bronchial asthma, to determine wheather these polymorphisms have any relation to the severity, or nocturnal symptoms in bronchial asthma. Methods: The subjects studied were 103 patients with bronchial asthma, which consisted of 30 mild episodic, 32 mild persistent, 17 moderate, and 24 severe asthma patients. The polymorphisms of the $\beta_2$AR gene were detected by mutated allele specific amplification (MASA) method at the codons 16,27,34, and 164. Results: The most frequent polymorphism was arginine 16 to glycine. The other two polymorphisms, valine 34 to methionine and glutamine 27 to glutamic acid occured in 11 and 6 patients respectively. The polymorphism of threonine 164 to isoleucine was not found in our enrolled patients. The homozygous polymorphism of $\beta_2$AR gene was found in only arginine 16 to glycine (12.6%). The heterozygous polymorphisms of $\beta_2$AR gene were in arginine 16 to glycine, valine 34 to methionine, and glutamine 27 to glutamic acid, as 65.1 %,10.7%, and 5.8% respectively in asthma patients. The presence of agrginine 16 to glycine heterozygous or/and homozygous polymorphism was associated in severe asthma (p=0.015), but there was no association between the other three polymorphisms and the severity of asthma. The frequency of the $\beta_2$AR gene polymorphisms was no relation in nocturnal asthma as compared with non-nocturnal asthma. Conclusion: The arginine 16 to glycine polymorphism of the $\beta_2$AR gene is the most frequently found in asthma patients and association with severe asthma. But there was no association between the polymorphism of the $\beta_2$AR gene and nocturnal asthma.

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Analysis of Specificity for Tumor Marker CYFRA 21-1 in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (폐결핵 환자에서 종양표지자 CYFRA 21-1의 특이도 분석)

  • Ha, Hyun-Cheol;Lee, Jae-Sung;Song, Sun-Dae;Kim, Cheol-Min;Lee, Min-Gi;Kim, In-Joo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 1998
  • Background: CYFRA 21-1 is a tumor marker which measures a fragment of cytokeratin 19 expressed by epithelial cells in bronchus. It is known that cytokeratin 19 is abundant in squamous epithelial cell cancer of the lung. However, if the incidence of elevated serum CYFRA 21-1 level in patients with benign lung diseases or pulmonary tuberculosis with severe parenchymal damage is high the specificity of CYFRA 21-1 could be decreased. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of serum CYFRA 21-1 according to the degree of parenchymal damage and the usefulness of CYFRA 21-1 for diagnosing possibly combined lung cancer in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Method: We studied the changes of serum CYFRA 21-1 according to the sputum AFB stain, radiologic manifestation and history of treatment in 81 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and 20 healthy persons, 25 patients with lung cancer, as a control group. CYFRA 21-1 concentration in serum was quantified by the immunoradiometry assay(Centocor$^{(R)}$). Result: The results were as follow; Serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis($1.54{\pm}1.19ng/mL$, p<0.01) as compared to patients with lung cancer($12.25{\pm}15.97ng/mL$), and was slightly higher than the level in heathy persons($0.90{\pm}0.49ng/mL$) but there was no significant difference. Serum CYFRA 21-1 level was below the cut-off value of 3.3ng/mL in 95 percent of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis but it was above the cut-off value in 64 percent of patients with lung cancer. Serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly higher in the initial treatment group($1.91{\pm}1.55ng/mL$, p<0.05) as compared to the treatment. failure group ($0.92{\pm}0.30ng/mL$). According to the sputum AFB smear, serum CYFRA 21-1 level in patients with negative result was slightly higher than the level in patients with positive result but there was no significant difference. According to the radiologic manifestation, serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly higher in patients with infiltrative lesion ($2.15{\pm}1.63ng/mL$, p<0.01) as compared to patients with destructive lesion ($l.04{\pm}0.54ng/mL$). As the size of cavity or destructive lesion was larger, the level was significantly lower(p<0.05). Conclusion: As serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly higher in the initial treatment group and patients with infiltrative lesion, it suppose to be closely related with the degree of parenchymal damage of the lung of the pulmonary tuberculosis. However CYFRA 21-1 could be useful method for diagnosing lung cancer even in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis combined with lung cancer because of the fact that it was below the cutoff value of 3.3ng/mL in 95 percent of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

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