• Title, Summary, Keyword: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

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Comparison of composition and antioxidant activity of Poria cocos Wolf cultivated in a mortuary and cemetery (시설 및 토경재배 복령의 시기별 성분 및 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Jin-Yoon;Lee, Hwa-Yong;Jo, Woo-Sik;Park, Seung-Chun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to compare the composition and antioxidant activity of 1- and 2-year-old Poria cocos Wolf cultivated at a mortuary and cemetery. An elemental analyzer test showed oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be present at concentrations of 45~46%, 39~41%, 6.06~6.1%, 0.21~0.22%, and 0%, respectively. No differences in composition were observed among samples. Eleven minerals (S, Ca, Mg, P, As, Se, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cd) found in P. cocos cultivated at the mortuary and cemetery were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP). The levels of S, Fe, Mg, and Zn in P. cocos were higher in cemetery-cultivated samples than in mortuary-cultivated samples. A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay for antioxidant activity revealed half-maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$)values of P. cocos to be 8.601 mg/mL (mortuary, 1 year old), 12.85 mg/mL (cemetery, 1 year old), 1.23 mg/mL (mortuary, 2 years old), and 1.18 mg/mL (landfill, 1 year old). A 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay revealed $IC_{50}$ values of 15.85 mg/mL (mortuary, 1 year old),14.59 mg/mL(cemetery, 1 year old), 3.9 mg/mL (mortuary, 2 years old), and 14.92 mg/mL (cemetery, 1 year old). The results showed a concentration-dependent effect. Two-year-old mortuary-cultivated P. cocos had the highest antioxidant activity among samples. Ultrastructure analysis with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) showed no obvious differences among samples.

Monitoring of Heavy Metals Migrated from Polylactide (PLA) Food Contact Materials in Korea (국내 유통 폴리락타이드(PLA) 식품용 기구 및 용기·포장의 중금속 이행량 모니터링)

  • Kim, Hyeonuk;Park, So-Yeon;Jo, Ye-Eun;Park, Yongchjun;Park, Se-Jong;Kim, Meehye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2018
  • In the present study, a variety of polylactide (PLA) articles (n = 211) were tested for migration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) into the food simulant (4% v/v acetic acid). Pb, Cd, and As were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Migration tests were performed at $70^{\circ}C$ and $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. The amounts of Pb, Cd, and As increased at $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 min compared with levels at $70^{\circ}C$. However, the migration at both conditions was very low. The maximum level of Pb at $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 min corresponded to 1% of the migration limit. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) based on safety evaluation ranged from $2.5{\times}10^{-5}$ to $2.0{\times}10^{-3}{\mu}g/kg\;bw/day$ for Pb, Cd, and As. The EDI calculated from migration of Pb at $100^{\circ}C$ for 30 min in PLA was the maximum value, $2.0{\times}10^{-3}{\mu}g/kg\;bw/day$, which corresponded to 0.055% of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, $25{\mu}g/kg\;bw/week$). The data from this study represent a valuable source for science-based safety control and management of hazardous heavy metals migrating from polylactide food contact materials.

The Content of Heavy Metals in Herbal Pills Used as General Processed Food and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Intakes (유통 환(丸)제품의 중금속 함량 및 위해성 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Dan;Jung, Sun-Ok;Kim, Bog-Soon;Yun, Eun-Sun;Chang, Min-Su;Park, Young-Ae;Lee, Young-Chul;Chae, Young-Zoo;Kim, Min-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.1038-1048
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg) in 52 commercial herbal pills used as general processed food, to identify weekly heavy metal intakes from herbal pills and to evaluate their potential health risks. The samples were digested with a microwave and determinations of heavy metal residues were carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and mercury analyzer. The mean values of heavy metal contents for herbal pills used as general processed food were Pb 0.421 (0.032~1.630), Cd 0.157 (0.011~0.515), Cr 1.033 (0.112~9.933), Cu 6.923 (1.333~16.755), Hg 0.010 (0.001~0.088) mg/kg. Lead contents of herba and cadmium of algae, herba were high (ANOVA-test, p<0.05). Levels of cadmium concentrations exceeding WHO reference values (0.3 mg/kg) were observed in 10 samples (4 species). The significant correlation was observed between Pb and Cd (r=0.633, p<0.01). The weekly intakes of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg from herbal pills were 1.112 (0.072~5.088), 1.614 (0.029~9.257), 3.000 (0.252~23.690), 0.182 (0.008~1.235), 0.220 (0.000~0.420)%, respectively, as compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee for food safety evaluation. Our data suggest regulations limiting heavy metals in herbal pills used as general processed food.

Monitoring Heavy Metals in Meat and Meat Products (식육 및 그 가공품의 중금속 모니터링)

  • Hwang, Tae-Ik;Ahn, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Jung;Lee, Jung-Ah;Kang, Myoung-Hee;Jang, Young-Mi;Kim, Mee-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.525-531
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to examine the contents of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in meat and meat products in Korea. The contents of Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in 466 samples of beef, pork, chicken, duck, ham, and sausage were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or a mercury analyzer. Wet ashing and microwave method were compared, and the recovery and reproducibility of the microwave method were better than those of wet ashing for meat and meat products. The recovery of the microwave method was 98.1% for Pb, 104.6% for Cd, and 103.4% for As, respectively. The best result was obtained through digestion using an acid mixture ($HNO_3$/$H_2O_2$, 6:2). Hg content was measured using a mercury analyzer. As a result, the contents of Hg and Cd in samples were lower than those of Pb and As. The average contents of Pb were 0.009 mg/kg in beef, 0.010 mg/kg in pork, 0.006 mg/kg in chicken, 0.007 mg/kg in duck, 0.005 mg/kg in ham, and 0.009 mg/kg in sausage. The average Cd contents were 0.0004 mg/kg in beef, 0.0004 mg/kg in pork, 0.0005 mg/kg in chicken, 0.0012 mg/kg in duck, 0.0015 mg/kg in ham, and 0.0019 mg/kg in sausage. The average As contents were 0.016 mg/kg in beef, 0.004 mg/kg in pork, 0.021 mg/kg in chicken, 0.010 mg/kg in duck, 0.014 mg/kg in ham, and 0.018 mg/kg in sausage. The average Hg contents were 0.713 ${\mu}g/kg$ in beef, 0.902 ${\mu}g/kg$ in pork, 0.710 ${\mu}g/kg$ in chicken, 0.796 ${\mu}g/kg$ in duck, 1.141 ${\mu}g/kg$ in ham, and 1.052 ${\mu}g/kg$ in sausage. Based on the results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005, the levels of dietary exposure to heavy metal contaminants in meat and meat products were compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake(PTWI) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The average dietary exposure of the general population from meat and meat products was 0.03-0.2% of PTWI for Pb, Cd, As, and Hg, which indicates a safe level for public health at present.

Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Fishes in Korea -As, Cd, Cu. Pb, Mn, Zn, Total Hg - (유통 중인 어류의 중금속 모니터링 - 비소, 카드뮴, 구리, 납, 망간, 아연, 총수은 -)

  • Kim, Hee-Yun;Kim, Seo-Young;Lee, Jin-Ha;Jang, Young-Mi;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Park, Jong-Seok;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Jin-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 2007
  • This survey was carried out to estimate the heavy metal contents of fishes (531 ocean fishes and 80 freshwater fishes) sold in and around Korea from April to October in 2006 . The contents of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) were estimated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and a mercury analyzer. The concentrations [mean (minimum-maximum) mg/kg] of heavy metals in the ocean fishes were as follows: As=2.523 (0.140-65.543), Cd=0.017 (0.000-0.108), Cu=0.569 (0.040-5.634), Pb=0.023 (0.000-0.323), Hg=0.068 (0.002-0.754), Mn=0.395 (0.016-4.651) and Zn=6.086 (0.529-34.729). The concentrations of heavy metals in the freshwater fishes were: As=0.370 (0.024-2.231), Cd=0.01l (ND-0.086), Cu=0.628 (0.003-1.962), Pb=0.026 (ND-0.423), Hg=0.058 (0.006-0.349), Mn=1.150 (0.069-7.230) and Zn=9.980 (3.463-82.737). The weekly intakes of Cd, Hg and Pb from fish were 0.9, 1.6 and 0.9%, respectively, as compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWl) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee for food safety evaluation.

Estimated Daily Intake of Aluminum from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle (도라지(Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle) 섭취에 따른 알루미늄의 노출량 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Dan;Ham, Hee-Jin;Jung, Ji-Hun;Lee, Eun-Soon;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Hee-Sun;Lee, Jib-Ho;Yu, In-Sil;Jung, Kweon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.1138-1146
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to estimate daily intakes of aluminum from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle and evaluate their potential health risks for Koreans. Estimated daily intake of aluminum was calculated, whereas the actual level of aluminum in Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food consumption amount was drawn from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1). In analysed samples, aluminum values ranged from 0.54~564.38 mg/kg in peeled Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle samples (n=53) and from 0.72~28.05 mg/kg in unpeeled ones (n=40). Statistically significant difference (P<0.001) was detected according to the type of skin. To estimate the dietary intake of Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle, a total of 7,242 respondents (scenario I) were compared to 227 Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle consumption subjects (scenario II). Estimated daily intake of aluminum was calculated based on point estimates. Level of safety for aluminum was evaluated by comparison with Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), 1 mg/kg bw, set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. For scenario I, mean estimated daily intake of aluminum was 0.001 mg/kg bw/d. For scenario II, mean estimated daily intake of aluminum was 0.033 mg/kg bw/d, and 95th percentile estimated daily intake was 0.610 mg/kg bw/d. For scenario II, aluminum from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle had a mean weekly intake that was the 23.1% of PTWI.

Monitoring of Heavy Metals Migrated from Glassware, Ceramics, Enamelware, and Earthenware (유리제, 도자기제, 법랑 및 옹기류 재질의 식품용 기구 및 용기·포장의 중금속 이행량 모니터링)

  • Cho, Kyung Chul;Jo, Ye-Eun;Park, So-Yeon;Park, Yongchjun;Park, Se-Jong;Lee, Hye Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the migration levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) from food contact articles (glassware, ceramics, enamelware, and earthenware) into a food stimulant (4% v/v, acetic acid). Migration tests were performed at 25℃ for 24 h and all analyses were performed using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by linearity of calibration curves, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, precision, and uncertainty. In glassware, the migration concentrations ranged from not-detected (N.D.) to 752.21 ㎍/L and N.D. to 1.99 ㎍/L for Pb and Cd, respectively. In ceramics, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 1,955.86 ㎍/L, N.D. to 74.06 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 302.40 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. In enamelware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 4.48 ㎍/L, N.D. to 7.00 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 52.00 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and Sb, respectively. In earthenware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 13.68 ㎍/L, N.D. to 0.04 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 6.71 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. All results were below the migration limits of Korea standards and specifications for food utensils, containers, and packages.