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Survey of Knowledge on Insomnia for Sleep Clinic Clients (수면클리닉을 방문한 환자들의 불면증에 대한 인식조사)

  • Soh, Minah
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Insomnia is not only the most common sleep-related disorder, but also is one of the most important. Knowledge of the comorbidities of insomnia is essential for proper treatment including pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods to prevent disease chronification. This study aimed to determine sleep clinic patients' knowledge of insomnia. Methods: This study recruited 44 patients (24 males and 20 females; mean age $54.11{\pm}16.30years$) from the sleep clinic at National Center for Mental Health. All subjects were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire about their reasons for visiting a sleep clinic and about their knowledge of treatment and comorbidities of insomnia. Results: The reasons for visiting the sleep clinic were insomnia symptoms of daytime sleepiness, irregular sleeping time, nightmares, snoring, and sleep apnea, in that order. Of the responders, 72.7% had a comorbidity of insomnia, and 22.7% showed high-risk alcohol use. In addition, 70.5% of responders chose pharmacological treatment of insomnia as the first option and reported collection of information about treatment of insomnia mainly from the internet and medical staff. More than half (52.3%) of the respondents reported that they had never heard about non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia such as cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT-I) or light therapy. The response rate about comorbidities of varied, with 75% of responders reporting knowledge of the relation between insomnia and depression, but only 38.6% stating awareness of the relation between insomnia and alcohol use disorder. Of the total responders, 68.2% were worried about hypnotics for insomnia treatment, and 70% were concerned about drug dependence. Conclusion: This study showed that patients at a sleep clinic had limited knowledge about insomnia. It is necessary to develop standardized insomnia treatment guidelines and educational handbooks for those suffering from insomnia. In addition, evaluation of alcohol use disorders is essential in the initial assessment of sleep disorders.

Single Dose Oral Toxicity Test of Water Extract of Corni Fructus in ICR Mice (ICR 마우스를 이용한 산수유 건피 추출물의 단회 경구투여 독성시험)

  • Hwang-Bo, Hyun;Kwon, Da Hye;Kim, Min Young;Ji, Seon Yeong;Choi, Eun Ok;Kim, Sung Ok;Jeong, Ji-Suk;Hong, Su Hyun;Choi, Sung Hyun;Park, Cheol;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2019
  • Herbal medicines are widely used as therapeutic products in many countries. Corni fructus (CF), the dried ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (Cornaceae), has been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine and has been reported to be effective for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as kidney diseases and diabetes. Recent research on CF has documented a wide spectrum of therapeutic properties, which include anti-inflammatory, ant-oxidative, immunomodulatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, there is no information on its safety. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of water extract of CF to ICR mice was investigated. The mice received a single dose of water extract of CF (1,000, 2,000, and 5,000 mg/kg of body weight) via the oral route. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, gross findings, and weights of the principal organs after 14 d were then assessed. The results revealed no adverse effects of CF as determined by clinical signs, body weights, or organ weights and no gross pathological findings in any of the treatment groups. These results suggest that the 50% lethal dose and approximated lethal dose of CF extract is over 5,000 mg/kg. The findings provide scientific evidence for the safety of CFs.

A Study on Stand Structure and Competition Status by Site Types in Natural Deciduous Forest of Pyungchang, Kangwon-do (강원도(江原道) 평창(平昌) 지역(地域) 천연(天然) 활엽수림(闊葉樹林)의 입지유형별(立地類型別) 임분구조(林分構造)와 경쟁관계(競爭關係)의 구명(究明))

  • Shin, Man Yong;Yim, Jong Su;Lee, Don Koo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.90 no.3
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    • pp.295-305
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to reveal stand structure and competition status by site types of natural deciduous forest in Pyungchang, Kangwon-do. The study site was divided by nine different types based on elevation(higher than 1,000m, 700~1,000m. lower than 700m) and topography(ridge, slope, valley). The objective of this study is to provide a basic information necessary for the environment-friendly management methods of natural deciduous forest on the basis of the stand structure and competition status by site types. It is confirmed that the range from 700m to 1,000m in elevation was the most suitable for stand growth. Species diversity and richness index also tended to be increased as elevation decreased. The ridge was the best in terms of stand growth by topography and followed by slope and valley in order. In addition, as expected, species with high importance value showed relatively low evenness index. The distance-independent competition index was selected as the best competition index model in seven site types of natural deciduous forest. On the other hand, the distance-dependent competition index was highly correlated with periodic annual increment of diameter in both ridge at higher than 1,000m and valley of 700m to 1,000m in elevation. It is proved, as a result, that the best competition index model is somewhat different by site types. From the analysis growth characteristics and competition status by site types, it is identified that the species with high importance value performed well in both growth and competition. The growth of Q. mongolica was excellent in the areas of higher elevation than 700m. Although K. pilus had relatively low importance value in higher elevation than 1,000m and ridge of 700m to 1,000m, the species had stronger competition status rather than other species. Also, U. davidiana and M. amurensis were good in competition status at lower elevation than 1,000m. It is necessary, therefore, that appropriate tending practice should be adopted based on the growth pattern and competition status of each species distributed by site types.

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Clay Mineral Characteristics of 420 MV (Mud Volcano) in Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean (북극 보퍼트해 420 MV (진흙화산)의 점토광물 특성)

  • Jang, Jeong Kyu;Koo, Hyo Jin;Cho, Hyen Goo
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2019
  • Clay minerals, a major component of mud volcano (MV) sediments, are expected to provide important information for characterizing mud volcano formation mechanisms, but clay minerals have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of 420 MV and surrounding marine sediments. Clay minerals and grain size were analyzed for 8 box cores from 420 MV and Mackenzie Trough. The relative proportions of the four major clay minerals in the Mackenzie Trough are almost constant in the order of illite, chlorite, kaolinite, and smectite, regardless of the distance from the Mackenzie River. However, the grain size tends to become fining as they move away from the Mackenzie River. Comparing the clay mineral characteristics of river (Colville River, Kuparuk River, Sagavanirktok River, Canning River, Mackenzie River) sediments entering the Beaufort Sea in order to determine the origin of the Mackenzie Trough and 420 MV sediments, the sediments of the Mackenzie Trough are characterized mainly by the Mackenzie River with a low ratio of smectite/illite and a high ratio of kaolinite/chlorite. In 420 MV sediments, the contents of clay minerals decrease in the order of illite, kaolinite, chlorite, and smectite, and the grain size with depth is almost constant. The content of smectite and coarse sediments is about two times higher than the reference core. No river with higher kaolinite content than chlorite exists in the Beaufort Sea, and the ratio of smectite/illite to kaolinite/chlorite is different from the reference core such as the ratio of the Mackenzie River. Compared to the reference core, the high contents of coarse sediments and the constant grain size with depth might be attributed to the ejection by MV. The reference core is interpreted as originating from Mackenzie River, and sediment of 420 MV is interpreted as originating from eruption of MV.

A Hardware Implementation of Image Scaler Based on Area Coverage Ratio (면적 점유비를 이용한 영상 스케일러의 설계)

  • 성시문;이진언;김춘호;김이섭
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2003
  • Unlike in analog display devices, the physical screen resolution in digital devices are fixed from the manufacturing. It is a weak point on digital devices. The screen resolution displayed in digital display devices is varied. Thus, interpolation or decimation of the resolution on the display is needed to make the input pixels equal to the screen resolution., This process is called image scaling. Many researches have been developed to reduce the hardware cost and distortion of the image of image scaling algorithm. In this paper, we proposed a Winscale algorithm. which modifies the scale up/down in continuous domain to the scale up/down in discrete domain. Thus, the algorithm is suitable to digital display devices. Hardware implementation of the image scaler is performed using Verilog XL and chip is fabricated in a 0.5${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ Samsung SOG technology. The hardware costs as well as the scalabilities are compared with the conventional image scaling algorithms that are used in other software. This Winscale algorithm is proved more scalable than other image-scaling algorithm, which has similar H/W cost. This image-scaling algorithm can be used in various digital display devices that need image scaling process.

Spatial Distribution of the operators of Public Business-to-Business Electronic Marketplaces in Korea (공개형 기업간 전자마켓플레이스 운영기업의 공간적 분포 및 특성)

  • Ji Sun Choi
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.426-443
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    • 2003
  • Electronic Commerce (EC) has been at the center of discussion as a symbol of the integration of unprecedentedly developed Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and traditional commerce. In spite of much attention to EC, the research from a spatial perspective has not proliferated yet. EC was regarded to have aspatial characteristics based on the expectation for a global expansion of business activities in a digital economy. This paper attempts to figure out the spatial characteristics of public Business-to-Business electronic marketplaces (public B2B e-MPs), as one of the most evolving forms of B2B EC, regardless of the low proportion in B2B EC at present. Many of the firms operating public B2B e-MPs in Korea were located in Seoul, especially in Gangnam-gu. The analysis of three spatial indices showed their extreme spatial concentration. The analysis on the location factors of Public B2B e-MP firms in Korea demonstrated that location factors of public B2B e-MP firms were differentiated by regional groups: Gangnam-gu, Seoul except Gangnam-gu, and the provinces. It was againt an initial extreme expectation that the firms relevant to B2B EC will not care about physical locations because they mainly do businesses in electronic space. The differences between those in Gangnam-gu and in the provinces were strikingly prominent. Such differentiated location factors by region were closely related to the different attributes of the public B2B e-MPs by region. In conclusion, public B2B e-MPs are not irrelevant to physical space and physical proximity, at least at a current stage. Customized spatial strategies are required for successful online businesses.

Effect of Electric Purse Conditions on the Fusion and Development Embryos Produced by Ear Cell Nuclear Transfer in Brindle Coated Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) (칡소의 귀세포를 이용한 핵이식에서 전기융합조건이 융합 및 배발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 최은주;이호준;민관식;김창근;정영채;윤종택
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of embryo development by fusion condition on the nuclear transfer with brindle coated cow's ear cells. Ear cells were transferred into an enucleated oocyte and fused with cytoplasm in the fusion condition with 1.9kv/cm, 2.0kv/cm, 2.1kv/cm each 10 and 20ug duration Nuclear transfer embryo were activeted with a combination of 5ug/ml and 1.9mM 6-DMAP (4min, 4h). Fusion rate was 51∼68% range among fusion condition (1.9, 2.0, 2.1kv/cm; 10, 20us). But, cytoplasm lysis rate was increased by higher electric condition (0∼51.8% range). Each parameter's cleavage and blastocyst formation rate were 1.9kv/cm for 10us (75.8 and 19.5%), 20us (69.8 and 48.6%), 2.0kv/cm for 10us (76.9 and 20.0%), 20 us (68.5 and 40.9%), 2.1kv/cm for 10us (70.5 and 44.2%), 20 us (68.5 and 27.0%). We compared the effectiveness of cloning for between brindle coated cow's ear cells and Hanwoo fetal fibroblast cells. There was no significant differences in the fusion rate and developmental rate to the blastocyst stage. After transfer of blastocysts derived from nuclear transfer embryos, pregnancy rates of the Hanwoo fetal fibroblast cells and brindle coated cow's ear cells were checked pregnant on day 60 as assessed by ultrasonography, 40% (2/5) and 15.8% (3/19), respectively. This studies conclude that brindle coated cow's ear cells have the developmental potentiality to term by nuclear transfer. These results demonstrate that the increased the field strength was to be profitable for development of blastocyst or reduce of cytoplasm's damage than increasing the pulse duration.

A Fast Algorithm for Computing Multiplicative Inverses in GF(2$^{m}$) using Factorization Formula and Normal Basis (인수분해 공식과 정규기저를 이용한 GF(2$^{m}$ ) 상의 고속 곱셈 역원 연산 알고리즘)

  • 장용희;권용진
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.30 no.5_6
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    • pp.324-329
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    • 2003
  • The public-key cryptosystems such as Diffie-Hellman Key Distribution and Elliptical Curve Cryptosystems are built on the basis of the operations defined in GF(2$^{m}$ ):addition, subtraction, multiplication and multiplicative inversion. It is important that these operations should be computed at high speed in order to implement these cryptosystems efficiently. Among those operations, as being the most time-consuming, multiplicative inversion has become the object of lots of investigation Formant's theorem says $\beta$$^{-1}$ =$\beta$$^{2}$sup m/-2/, where $\beta$$^{-1}$ is the multiplicative inverse of $\beta$$\in$GF(2$^{m}$ ). Therefore, to compute the multiplicative inverse of arbitrary elements of GF(2$^{m}$ ), it is most important to reduce the number of times of multiplication by decomposing 2$^{m}$ -2 efficiently. Among many algorithms relevant to the subject, the algorithm proposed by Itoh and Tsujii[2] has reduced the required number of times of multiplication to O(log m) by using normal basis. Furthermore, a few papers have presented algorithms improving the Itoh and Tsujii's. However they have some demerits such as complicated decomposition processes[3,5]. In this paper, in the case of 2$^{m}$ -2, which is mainly used in practical applications, an efficient algorithm is proposed for computing the multiplicative inverse at high speed by using both the factorization formula x$^3$-y$^3$=(x-y)(x$^2$+xy+y$^2$) and normal basis. The number of times of multiplication of the algorithm is smaller than that of the algorithm proposed by Itoh and Tsujii. Also the algorithm decomposes 2$^{m}$ -2 more simply than other proposed algorithms.

Relations Between the Dietary Habit and Academic Achievement, Subjective Health Judgement, Physical Status of High School Students (고등학생의 식습관과 학업성취도, 주관적 건강상태 및 체격과의 관계 연구)

  • 최정숙;전혜경;정금주;남희정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.627-635
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to investigate the relations between dietary habit and academic achievement, subjective health judgement, and physical status. The subjects consisted of freshmen in university and answered to questionnaires through the Internet. The questionnaire consists of the dietary habit, academic achievement (College Scholastic Ability Test), subjective health judgement, and physical status during their 3$^{rd}$ grade in high school days. Data were collected from 3,612 people. Over 33% of respondents had their breakfast daily. Subjects who had breakfast below twice per week were 37.9%. The major reason of skipping breakfast was lack of time to eat breakfast (62.8%). The subjects who recognized the importance of breakfast were 80.6% (p<0.001). More than half (52.7%) thought that dinner was most tasty. People who ate breakfast regularly had a tendency to recognize their health state were in good health (p<0.01). There was no significant difference of BMI (body mass index) according to the frequency of breakfast per week. The subjects who had their breakfast regularly and well-balanced dietary habit reported higher marks in the College Scholastic Ability Test. In contrast, the subjects who rarely had breakfast showed poor marks of academic achievement and subjective health judgement. According to these results, a good dietary habit is considered to be important to academic achievement and confidence in health. Therefore we suggest the school breakfast program and nutrition education program should be required for teenagers. In addition, the findings from this study would provide the basic information for nutrition education in Korean teenagers..

A Study on the Product Design Process in I-Business Environment Focusing on Development of the Internet-based Design Process - (e-비지니스환경에서의 제품디자인 프로세스에 관한 기초연구-인터넷기반의 디자인 프로세스 개발을 중심으로-)

  • 이수봉;이돈희
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.181-198
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a on-line design tool for effectively coping with e-Business environment, or product design process into a Cyber model for traditional manufacturers which attempts new product development under such environment. It was finally developed as a model named $\ulcorner$Design Vortal Site; e-BVDS) that was based on the structure and style of internet web site. Results of the study can be described as follows ; \circled1 e-Business is based on the Internet. All processes in the context of e-Business require models whose structure and method of use are on-line styles. \circled2 In case that a traditional manufacturing business is converted into e-Business, it is better to first consider Hybrid Model that combines resources and advantages of both such traditional and digital businesses. \circled3 The product design process appropriate for e-Business environment has to have a structure and style that ensure utilization of the process as an Internet web site, active participation by product developers and interactive communication between participants in designing and designers. \circled4 $\ulcorner$e-BDVS) makes possible the use of designers around the wend like in-house designers, overcoming lack in creativity, ideas and human resources traditional business organizations face. However, the operation of $\ulcorner$e-BDVS$\lrcorner$ requires time and budget investments in securing related elements and conditions. \circled5 Cyber designers under $\ulcorner$e-BDVS$\lrcorner$ can easily perform all design projects in cyber space. But they have some limits in playing a role as designers and they have difficulty in getting rewards if such projects completed by them are not finally accepted. \circled6 $\ulcorner$e-BDVS) ensures the rapid use of a wide range of design information and data, reception of a variety of solutions and ideas and effective design development, all of which are not possible through traditional processes. However, this process may not be suitable to be used routine process or tool. \circled7 $\ulcorner$e-BDVS$\lrcorner$ makes it possible for out-sourcing or partners businesses to overcome restrictions in time and space and improve productivity and effectiveness. But such they may have to continue off-line works that can not be treated on-line.

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