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DETERMINATION OF SUGARS AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN ORAGE JUICES USING NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

  • Tewari, Jagdish;Mehrotra, Ranajana;Gupta, Alka;Varma, S.P.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1522-1522
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    • 2001
  • Beverages based on fruit juices are among the most popular commercially available drinks. There is an ever-increasing demand for these juices in the market. Orange juice is one of the most common as well as most favorite flavor. The fruit processing industries have a tremendous responsibility of quality control. For quality evaluation estimation of various components of the juice is necessary. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric acid and malic acid are the prime components of orange juice. Little information is available on analysis of orange juice. However, conventional and general wet chemistry procedures are currently being used which are no longer desired by the industry owing to the time involved, labor input and harmful chemicals required for each analysis. Need to replace these techniques with new, highly specific and automated sophisticated techniques viz. HPLC and spectroscopy has been realized since long time. Potential of Near Infrared Spectroscopy in quantitative analysis of different components of food samples has also been well established. A rapid, non-destructive and accurate technique based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy for determination of sugars and organic acids in orange juice will be highly useful. The current study is an investigation into the potential of Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for rapid quantitative analysis of sucrose, glucose, fructose citric acid and malic acid in orange juice. All the Near Infrared measurements were peformed on a dispersive NIR spectrophotometer (ELICO 153) in diffuse reflectance mode. The spectral region from 1100 to 2500nm has been explored. The calibration has been performed on synthetic samples that are mixtures of sucrose, glucose, fructose, citric acid and malic acid in different concentration ranges typically encountered real orange juice. These synthetic samples are therefore considered to be representatives of natural juices. All the Near Infrared spectra of synthetic samples were subjected to mathematical analysis using Partial Least Square (PLS) algorithm. After the validation, calibration was applied to commercially available real samples and freshly squeezed natural juice samples. The actual concentrations were compared with those predicted from calibration curve. A good correlation is obtained between actual and predicted values as indicated by correlation coefficient ($R^2$) value, which is close to unity, showing the feasibility of the technique.

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The evaluation of usefulness for far-infrared radiating under inner-wear on dysmenorrhea (월경통(月經痛)에 대한 원적외선 방사 기능성 under inner-wear의 유용성 평가)

  • Cho, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Kyung-Sub;Yoon, Young-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: We intended to observe the usefulness of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear for dysmenorrhea. Methods: We introduced far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear to women in childbearing-age by internet portal site. Then, we preliminarily examined dysmenorrhea severity by VAS(visual analogue scale) questionnaire to women interested in far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear. We selected women scored 5 and above of 10 measurement VAS score. Finally, 121 women were the subject of study and used far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear for one menstrual cycle. Before and after use of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear, we conducted a questionnaire survey of dysmenorrhea severity by VAS. After that, we compared VAS score before and after use. Also, we studied correlation between frequency of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear use and ${\Delta}VAS$(VAS score before use minus VAS score after use). For statistics, we used Paired samples test and Spearman's rho correlations, SPSS 13.0 for windows. Results: Before and after use of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear, VAS score means were different. Frequency of far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear use was correlated to ${\Delta}VAS$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05>. Conclusion: The results showed that dysmenorrhea severity by VAS decreased after far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear use. As frequency of use increased, ${\Delta}VAS$ increased. So we can consider far-infrared radiation functional under inner-wear effects dysmenorrhea severity.

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Performance Comparison of Thermal Imagers with Uncooled and Cooled Detectors For Fire Fighting Application (비냉각형 적외선 센서를 이용한 열상시스템과 냉각형 적외선 센서를 이용한 열상시스템의 화재 진압 시 성능 비교)

  • Kim, Byung-Hyuk;Jung, Han;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.128-132
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    • 2007
  • Thermal Imaging systems are reported to be crucial for fire fighting and beginning to be used by fire fighters. The performance of thermal imaging system is determined by both the radiation of infrared from the target and the attenuation of infrared signal in the optical path by the absorption, scattering, diffraction and reflection. In the scene of fire, water drops with various sizes such as vaporized water, wafer mist from sprinkler, and wafer to suppress the fire reside with various gas generated by burning. To measure the transmission of infrared radiation in the scene of fire, fire simulating system and thermal imagers with cooled detector which detects $3{\sim}5{\mu}m$ infrared and uncooled detector fabricated by the MEMS technology which detects $8{\sim}12{\mu}m$ infrared. are made. With thermal imagers and Ire simulating system, the change of thermal image with respect to the change of visibility controlled with the burned fas was measured. It was found that the transmission of infrared was not reduced by the burned gas, which could be explained by the long wavelength of infrared ray compared with visible ray. However, the transmission of infrared ray was largely reduced by the combination of burned gas and water mist supplied by sprinkler. This is contrary to the results of calculated transmission through the pure water mist and shows that the transmission of infrared ray is mostly affected by the compounds of water mist and burned gas. In this case, it was found that the uncooled detector which detects $8{\sim}12{\mu}m$ infrared ray is better than cooled detector which detects $3{\sim}5{\mu}m$ infrared ray for fire fighting.

Infrared Radiation Properties for SiO2 Films Made by Sol-Gel Process (졸-겔법으로 제조된 SiO2막의 적외선 복사특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Byung-chul;Kim, Young-geun;Kim, Ki-ho
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.697-702
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    • 2003
  • FT-IR and thermograph were used to investigate the infrared radiation characteristics of $SiO_2$film made by the sol-gel method. FT-IR spectrum of the $SiO_2$film showed high infrared absorption by Si-O-Si vibration at 1220, 1080, 800 and cm$460^{-1}$ The infrared absorption and radiation wavelength ranges of the $SiO_2$film measured by the integration method coincided with the reflection method, and the infrared emissivity was 0.65, equally. Depending on the bonding of elements, the infrared emissivity was high in the wavelength range where the infrared absorption rate was high, that follows the Kirchhoff's law. The emissivity showed the highest value in the wavelength range between $8∼10\mu\textrm{m}$. $SiO_2$film was considered as an efficient materials for infrared radiator at temperature below 10$0^{\circ}C$. The heat radiation temperature was $117^{\circ}C$ for the aluminum plate, but $146^{\circ}C$ for the $SiO_2$film after 7 minutes heat absorption, consiquently, $29^{\circ}C$ higher than the former.

Thermal Energy Characteristics for Greenhouse Heating System with Far-Infrared Heater (원적외선 면상발열체에 의한 온실 난방시스템의 열특성 분석)

  • Ro, J.G.;Kim, H.J.;Li, H.;Han, C.S.;Cho, S.C.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2006
  • The greenhouse heating system with far-infrared heater was built to analyze various thermal characteristics, such as greenhouse air temperature, soil temperature, energy flow, energy consumption in far-infrared heater, and other factors, which could be used in comparison with other greenhouse heating system in this study. The results showed that the inside air temperature of the far-infrared greenhouse heating system was $5^{\circ}C$ higher than that of hot air heating system. Heat loss of daytime was found to be larger than that of night time as much as 44.8% for the heating system with far-infrared heater. In the heating system with far-Infrared heater, when the lowest ambient temperature was -8 $\sim$ -7$^{\circ}C$, the air temperature of greenhouse was 12 $\sim$ 15$^{\circ}C$, thus the far-infrared heating system was shown to be feasible for heating system. Energy consumption of far-infrared heating system was shown to be less than that of hot air heating system.

A catalog of infrared supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

  • Seok, Ji-Yeon;Koo, Bon-Chul
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.104.1-104.1
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    • 2011
  • We present a catalog of infrared supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have searched the Spitzer archival data for infrared counterparts to all 45 known SNRs in the LMC, and identified 21 which is 47% of the known SNRs. Seven of them are newly detected: SNR 0450-70.9, SNR in N4, N103B, DEM L241, DEM L249, DEM L316A, and DEM L316B. All newly discovered SNRs show emission at several IRAC 3.4, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micron bands and/or MIPS 24 and 70 micron bands. Most SNRs show shell structures. We derive infrared fluxes of these newly detected SNRs. The catalog contains general information of each SNR such as location, age, and SN type together with AKARI and/or Spitzer fluxes. For the entire SNR sample, we examine their infrared colors and the possible correlation of the infrared fluxes with the fluxes at other wavelengths. For the newly detected SNRs except the SNR in N4, we also performed follow-up imaging observations of [Fe II] 1.644 micron line using IRIS2 mounted on the Anglo Australian Telescope. Three out of six SNRs show [Fe II] emission corresponding to their infrared shells. [Fe II] knots are also detected in N103B which show good spatial correlation to infrared emission seen at Spitzer images as well as knotty $H{\alpha}$ emission. We investigate the characteristics and origin of the infrared emission in individual SNRs, and discuss the environmental and evolutionary effects.

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THE 3.3 MICRON PAH EMISSION OF THE MID-INFRARED EXCESS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY THE AKARI MID-INFRARED ALL-SKY SURVEY

  • Yamada, R.;Oyabu, S.;Kaneda, H.;Yamagishi, M.;Ishihara, D.;Kim, J.H.;Im, M.;Toba, Y.;Matsuhara, H.
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.299-300
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    • 2012
  • We investigate the relation between star formation activity and PAH $3.3{\mu}m$ emission. Our targets are mid-infrared-excess galaxies selected from the AKARI all-sky survey point source catalog. We performed AKARI near-infrared spectroscopy for them. As a result, we obtained $2.5-5{\mu}m$spectra of 79 galaxies, and selected 35 star-forming galaxies out of them. Comparing the PAH $3.3{\mu}m$ luminosities with the infrared luminosities, we find a linear correlation between them. However, by adding the results from literatures for luminous infrared galaxies and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies that are more luminous than our sample, the ratio of the PAH to the infrared luminosity is found to decrease towards the luminous end.

Foreign Development Status and Applications of Infrared Imaging Satellite (해외 적외선 관측위성 현황 및 영상활용)

  • Kim, Eung-Hyun;Im, Jung-Heum;Kim, Hee-Seop;Kim, Gyu-Sun
    • Current Industrial and Technological Trends in Aerospace
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2008
  • While the infrared imaging satellites with the several type were developed and operated in the foreign countries, we do not have the domestic infrared imaging satellite up to now. In the paper, the general characteristics of infrared and the applications of infrared image were introduced. Also the oversea development status of the infrared imaging satellite was surveyed and introduced to this paper. According to foreign status, the infrared image is utilized in various application including the forest fire monitoring, the volcano activity research, sea surface temperature measurement, land surface temperature calculation, the climate change research, and the environment monitoring. According to these trend the development of the domestic infrared imaging satellite in low earth orbit was required.

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Drying Ginseng Slices Using a Combination of Microwave and Far-Infrared Drying Techniques

  • Gong, Yuan Juan;Sui, Ying;Han, Chung Su;Ning, Xiao Feng
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was performed to improve the drying quality and drying rate of ginseng slices by combining microwave and far-infrared drying techniques. Methods: Based on single-factor experiments and analyses, a quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design was adopted to study the effects of the moisture content at the conversion point between the microwave and far-infrared techniques, the ginseng slice thickness and the far-infrared drying temperature on the chip drying time, the surface color difference value, the nutritional composition and the surface shrinkage rate index. Results: Compared to the far-infrared drying alone, the combined microwave and far-infrared drying resulted in an increase in the saponin content of the ginseng slices and reductions in the drying time, surface color difference, and shrinkage rate. Conclusions: We established a mathematical model of the relationships between the surface shrinkage rate index and the experimental factors using the multi-objective nonlinear optimization method to determine the optimal parameter combination, which was confirmed to be the following: microwave and far-infrared moisture contents of 65%, a ginseng slice thickness of 1 mm, and a far-infrared drying temperature of $54^{\circ}C$.

Drying Characteristics of Squids According to Far Infrared and Heated Air Drying Conditions (원적외선과 열풍 건조조건에 따른 오징어의 건조특성)

  • Kang, Tae-Hwann;Hong, Hyun-Gi;Jeon, Hong-Young;Han, Chung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2011
  • Drying characteristics of squids under two dry conditions were investigated using far infrared and heated air. Dry temperatures of 40, 50 and $60^{\circ}C$ with air speed of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.2 m/s were used for evaluating far infrared squid drying. Heated air squid drying at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$ with air speed of 0.8 m/s was used as a control treatment. The two drying were evaluated in terms of drying rate, color, TBA value, aerobic bacteria, cutting shear, penetration strength, and energy consumption. The drying rate of far infrared drying was relatively faster than that of heated air drying. The drying time of far infrared drying was reduced as the drying temperature increased. The color difference of far infrared dried squids was from 18.81 to 22.85, and heated air dried squid had the color different from 23.94 to 24.09. Far infrared dried squid had relatively smaller TBA values that indicate a level of rancidity. The aerobic bacteria of heated air dried squid increased from $970{\times}10^3$ to $40,000{\times}10^3$ CFU/g before and after drying, respectively. Far infrared dried squid had relatively smaller increase (from $970{\times}10^3$ to $40,000{\times}10^3$ CFU/g). The cutting shear and penetration strength for far infrared dried squids was relatively lower. In addition, far infrared squid drying consumed relatively less energy compared to heated air drying.