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The study of quantitative analytical method for pH and moisture of Hanji record paper using non-destructive FT-NIR spectroscopy (비파괴 분석 방법인 푸리에 변환 근적외선 분광 분석을 이용한 한지 기록물의 산성도 및 함수율 정량 분석 연구)

  • Shin, Yong-Min;Park, Soung-Be;Lee, Chang-Yong;Kim, Chan-Bong;Lee, Seong-Uk;Cho, Won-Bo;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2012
  • It is essential to evaluate the quality of Hanji record paper without damaging the record paper by previous destructive methods. The samples were Hanji record paper produced in the 1900s. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used as a non destructive method for evaluating the quality of record papers. Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer was used with 12,500 to 4,000 $cm^{-1}$ wavenumber range for quantitative analysis and it has high accuracy and good signal-to-noise ratio. The acidity and moisture content of Hanji record paper were measured by integrating sphere as diffuse reflectance type. The acidity (pH) of chemical factors as a quality evaluated factor of Hanji was correlated to NIR spectrum. The NIR spectrum was pretreated to obtain the coefficients of optimum correlation. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and First derivative of Savitzky-Golay were used as pretreated methods. The coefficients of optimum correlation were calculated by PLSR (partial least square regression). The correlation coefficients ($R^2$) of acidity had 0.92 on NIR spectra without pretreatment. Also the standard error of prediction (SEP) of pH was 0.24. And then the NIR spectra with pretreatment would have better correlation coefficient ($R^2$ = 0.98) and 0.19 as SEP on pH. For moisture contents, the linearity correlation without pretreatment was higher than the case with pretreatment (MSC, $1^{st}$ derivative). As the best result, the $R^2$ was 0.99 and SEP was 0.45. This indicates that it is highly proper to evaluate the quality of Hanji record papers speedily with integrated sphere and FT NIR analyzer as a non-destructive method.

A Study on the Change of Body Temperature according to the Needle Remaining Time at LU9 - Through the D.I.T.I. Scan - (태연혈(太淵穴)의 유침 시간에 따른 체온 변화 -적외선체열촬영(赤外線體熱撮影)을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Bong-Hyo;Lee, Kyung-Min;Park, Ji-Ha;Kim, Min-Seo;Kim, San-Deul;Park, Byeong-Gyu;Yang, Hyun-Dong;Yea, Sung-Ho;Lee, Ho-Jung;Choi, Jae-Won;Hong, Hye-Lin;Lee, Eun-Jung;Lim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Jae-Su;Lee, Yun-Kyu;Lee, Hyun-Jong;Jung, Tae-Young;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Kam, Chul-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.188-199
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was performed to find the desirable remaining time of needle in the acupuncture treatment. Methods : The 21 volunteers were given acupuncture at LU9 vertically and needles were remained for 2 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, respectively. The thermographic change induced by acupuncture was measured with Digital Infrared Thermographic Image at the following acupoints: LU11, LU10, LU9, LU8, LU5, LU1, and PC7. The statistical significance of thermographic change was evaluated using paired t-test and post hoc Wilcoxon test. Results : The most significant changes after acupuncture were produced when needles were remained for 10 min or 15 min. LU11, LU5, LU1, and PC7 were the point at which all of the remaining time produced significant change commonly. At LU11, the biggest change was produced when needle was remained for 15 min, while at LU5, LU1, and PC7, the biggest change was produced when needle was remained for 30 min, and the smallest change was produced when needle was remained for 10 min at all of acupoints of LU11, LU5, LU1, and PC7. The unbalance between left side and right was decreased the most largely in 15 min group. Conclusions : The results of this study suggest that the desirable remaining time of acupuncture needle might be 15 min.

Modeling and Validation of Population Dynamics of the American Serpentine Leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii) Using Leaf Surface Temperatures of Greenhouses Cherry Tomatoes (방울토마토에서 잎 표면온도를 적용한 아메리카잎굴파리(Liriomyza trifolii) 개체군 밀도변동 모형작성 및 평가)

  • Park, Jung-Joon;Mo, Hyoung-Ho;Lee, Doo-Hyung;Shin, Key-Il;Cho, Ki-Jong
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.235-243
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    • 2012
  • Population dynamics of the American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), were observed and modeled in order to compare the effects of air and tomato leaf temperatures inside a greenhouse using DYMEX model builder and simulator (pre-programed module based simulation programs developed by CSIRO, Australia). The DYMEX model simulator consisted of a series of modules with the parameters of temperature dependent development and oviposition models of L. trifolii were incorporated from pre-published data. Leaf surface temperatures of cherry tomato leaves (cv. 'Koko') were monitored according to three tomato plant positions (top, > 1.8 m above the ground level; middle, 0.9 - 1.2 m; bottom, 0.3 - 0.5 m) using an infrared temperature gun. Air temperature was monitored at the same three positions using a self-contained temperature logger. Data sets for the observed air temperature and average leaf surface temperatures were collected (top and bottom surfaces), and incorporated into the DYMEX simulator in order to compare the effects of air and leaf surface temperature on the population dynamics of L. trifolii. The initial population consisted of 50 eggs, which were laid by five female L. trifolii in early June. The number of L. trifolii larvae was counted by visual inspection of the tomato plants in order to verify the performance of DYMEX simulation. The egg, pupa, and adult stage of L. trifolii could not be counted due to its infeasible of visual inspection. A significant positive correlation between the observed and the predicted numbers of larvae was found when the leaf surface temperatures were incorporated into the DYMEX simulation (r = 0.97, p < 0.01), but no significant positive correlation was observed with air temperatures(r = 0.40, p = 0.18). This study demonstrated that the population dynamics of L. trifolii was affected greatly by the leaf temperatures, though to little discernible degree by the air temperatures, and thus the leaf surface temperature should be for a consideration in the management of L. trifolii within cherry tomato greenhouses.

Assessment of Topographic Normalization in Jeju Island with Landsat 7 ETM+ and ASTER GDEM Data (Landsat 7 ETM+ 영상과 ASTER GDEM 자료를 이용한 제주도 지역의 지형보정 효과 분석)

  • Hyun, Chang-Uk;Park, Hyeong-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.393-407
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    • 2012
  • This study focuses on the correction of topographic effects caused by a combination of solar elevation and azimuth, and topographic relief in single optical remote sensing imagery, and by a combination of changes in position of the sun and topographic relief in comparative analysis of multi-temporal imageries. For the Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, where Mt. Halla and various cinder cones are located, a Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and ASTER GDEM data were used to normalize the topographic effects on the imagery, using two topographic normalization methods: cosine correction assuming a Lambertian condition and assuming a non-Lambertian c-correction, with kernel sizes of $3{\times}3$, $5{\times}5$, $7{\times}7$, and $9{\times}9$ pixels. The effects of each correction method and kernel size were then evaluated. The c-correction with a kernel size of $7{\times}7$ produced the best result in the case of a land area with various land-cover types. For a land-cover type of forest extracted from an unsupervised classification result using the ISODATA method, the c-correction with a kernel size of $9{\times}9$ produced the best result, and this topographic normalization for a single land cover type yielded better compensation for topographic effects than in the case of an area with various land-cover types. In applying the relative radiometric normalization to topographically normalized three multi-temporal imageries, more invariant spectral reflectance was obtained for infrared bands and the spectral reflectance patterns were preserved in visible bands, compared with un-normalized imageries. The results show that c-correction considering the remaining reflectance energy from adjacent topography or imperfect atmospheric correction yielded superior normalization results than cosine correction. The normalization results were also improved by increasing the kernel size to compensate for vertical and horizontal errors, and for displacement between satellite imagery and ASTER GDEM.

Relationships between Gas Hydrate Occurrence Types and Sediment Characteristics in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지의 가스 하이드레이트 산출형태와 퇴적물 특성의 관계)

  • Kim, Dae-Ha;Bahk, Jang-Jun;Lee, Jin-Heuck;Ryu, Byong-Jae;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Chun, Jong-Hwa;Torres, Marta E.;Chang, Chan-Dong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.397-406
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    • 2012
  • During the 2nd Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) in 2010, gas-hydrate-bearing sediment cores were recovered at 10 drill sites. Base, on Infrared (IR) thermal image and grain-size analysis of the cores, three distinct types of gas hydrate are classified: Type I (fracture-filling in mud layers), Type II (disseminated in mud layers), and Type III (pore-filling in sand layers). Types I and II gas hydrates occur in mud as discrete veins, nodules or disseminated particles. Type III fills the pore spaces of the sand layers encased in mud layers. In this case, the sand content of hosting sediments shows a general linear relationship with gas hydrate saturation. The degrees of temperature anomalies (${\Delta}T$) from IR images generally increase with gas hydrate saturation regardless of gas hydrate occurrence types. Type I is dominantly found in the sites where seismic profiles delineate chimney structures, whereas Type II where the drill cores are composed almost of mud layers. Type III was mainly recovered from the sites where hemipelagic muds are frequently intercalated with turbidite sand layers. Our results indicate that gas hydrate occurrence is closely related to sedimentological characteristic of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, that is, grain size distribution.

Estimation of Wheat Growth using a Microwave Scatterometer (마이크로파 산란계를 이용한 밀 생육 추정)

  • Kim, Yihyun;Hong, Sukyoung;Lee, Kyungdo;Jang, Soyeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2013
  • Microwave remote sensing can help monitor the land surface water cycle and crop growth. This type of remote sensing has great potential over conventional remote sensing using the visible and infrared regions due to its all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. In this paper, a ground-based multi-frequency (L-, C-, and X-band) polarimetric scatterometer system capable of making observations every 10 min was developed. This system was used to monitor the wheat over an entire growth cycle. The polarimetric scatterometer components were installed inside an air-conditioned shelter to maintain constant temperature and humidity during the data acquisition period. Backscattering coefficients for the crop growing season were compared with biophysical measurements. Backscattering coefficients for all frequencies and polarizations increased until dat of year 137 and then decreased along with fresh weight, dry weight, plant height, and vegetation water content (VWC). The range of backscatter for X-band was lower than for L- and C-band. We examined the relationship between the backscattering coefficients of each band (frequency/polarization) and the various wheat growth parameters. The correlation between the different vegetation parameters and backscatter decreased with increasing frequency. L-band HH-polarization (L-HH) is best suited for the monitoring of fresh weight (r=0.98), dry weight (r=0.96), VWC (r=0.98), and plant height (r=0.96). The correlation coefficients were highest for L-band observations and lowest for X-band. Also, HH-polarization had the highest correlations among the polarization channels (HH, VV and HV). Based on the correlation analysis between backscattering coefficients in each band and wheat growth parameters, we developed prediction equations using the L-HH based on the observed relationships between L-HH and fresh weight, dry weight, VWC and plant height. The results of these analyses will be useful in determining the optimum microwave frequency and polarizations necessary for estimating vegetation parameters in the wheat.

An Adjustment of Cloud Factors for Continuity and Consistency of Insolation Estimations between GOES-9 and MTSAT-1R (GOES-9과 MTSAT-1R 위성 간의 일사량 산출의 연속성과 일관성 확보를 위한 구름 감쇠 계수의 조정)

  • Kim, In-Hwan;Han, Kyung-Soo;Yeom, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 2012
  • Surface insolation is one of the major indicators for climate research over the Earth system. For the climate research, long-term data and wide range of spatial coverage from the data observed by two or more of satellites of the same orbit are needed. It is important to improve the continuity and consistency of the derived products, such as surface insolation, from different satellites. In this study, surface insolations based on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-9) and Multi-functional Transport Satellites (MTSAT-1R) were compared during overlap period using physical model of insolation to find ways to improve the consistency and continuity between two satellites through comparison of each channel data and ground observation data. The thermal infrared brightness temperature of two satellites show a relatively good agreement between two satellites : rootmean square error (RMSE)=5.595 Kelvin; Bias=2.065 Kelvin. Whereas, visible channels shown a quite different values, but it distributed similar tendency. And the surface insolations from two satellites are different from the ground observation data. To improve the quality of retrieved insolations, we have reproduced surface insolation of each satellite through adjustment of the Cloud Factor, and the Cloud Factor for GOES-9 satellite is modified based on the analysis result of difference channel data. As a result, the insolations estimated from GOES-9 for cloudy conditions show good agreement with MTSAT-1R and ground observation : RMSE=$83.439W\;m^{-2}$ Bias=$27.296W\;m^{-2}$. The result improved accuracy confirms that the modification of Cloud Factor for GOES-9 can improve the continuity and consistency of the insolations derived from two or more satellites.

The Effect of Photomodulation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (피부 섬유아세포에서 광자극의 효과)

  • Kim, Mi Na;Kwak, Taek Jong;Kang, Nae Gyu;Lee, Sang Hwa;Park, Sun Gyoo;Lee, Cheon Koo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2015
  • Skin is exposed to sunlight or artificial indoor light on a daily. The reached solar light on the earth surface consist of 50% visible light and 45% infrared (IR) except for ultra violet (UV). The negative effects of UV including UVB and UVA have been steadily investigated within the last decades. However, little is known about the effects of visible or IR light. In this study, we irradiated human dermal fibroblasts using light emitting diode (LED) to investigate the optimal parameter for enhancing cell growth and collagen synthesis. We found that red of 630 nm and green of 520 nm enhance the cell proliferation, but irradiation with purple and blue light exerts toxic effects. To examine the response of irradiation time and light intensity on the fibroblasts, cells were exposed to red or green light with intensities from 0.05 to $0.75mW/cm^2$. Procollagen secretion was increased of 1.4 fold by 10 min irradiation, while 30 min treatment decreased the collagen synthesis of dermal fibroblasts. Treatment with red of $0.3mW/cm^2$ and green of 0.15 and $0.3mW/cm^2$ resulted in enhancement of collagen mRNA. Lastly, we investigated the combinatorial effect of red and green light on dermal fibroblasts. The sequential irradiation of red and green light is an efficient way for the purpose of the increase in the number of fibroblasts than single light treatment. On the other hand, the exposure of red light alone was more effective method for enhancing of collagen secretion. Our study showed that specific light parameters accelerated cell proliferation, gene expression and collagen secretion on human dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that light exposure with specific parameter has beneficial effects on the function of dermal fibroblasts, and suggests the possibility of its cosmetically and clinical application.

Effects of Experimental Warming on Physiological Responses of Four Deciduous Tree Species Seedlings (실외 실험적 온난화 처리에 따른 활엽수 4개 수종 묘목의생리적 반응)

  • An, Jiae;Han, Seung Hyun;Chang, Hanna;Park, Min Ji;Son, Yowhan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.4
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    • pp.510-516
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the physiological responses of newly-germinated seedlings of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance, Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino, Betula costata Trautv. and Quercus variabilis Blume to open-field experimental warming. The seedlings in the warmed plots were warmed with $2.7^{\circ}C$ higher air temperature than those in the control plots using infrared heaters since April, 2015. Physiological responses (stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate) to experimental warming varied with the species and the time of the measurement. Stomatal conductance ($mmol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$) tended to decrease for F. rhynchophylla (Control: $158.97{\pm}42.76$; Warmed: $42.07{\pm}8.24$), Z. serrata (Control: $170.53{\pm}27.22$; Warmed: $101.17{\pm}42.27$) and B. costata (Control: $249.93{\pm}47.39$; Warmed: $150.73{\pm}26.52$). Transpiration rate ($mmol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$) also decreased for F. rhynchophylla (Control: $4.08{\pm}0.62$; Warmed: $1.74{\pm}0.39$), Z. serrata (Control: $4.32{\pm}0.44$; Warmed: $3.24{\pm}1.14$) and B. costata (Control: $6.21{\pm}0.38$; Warmed: $4.66{\pm}0.28$). However, warming exhibited only minimal effects on stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of Q. variabilis seedlings. Chlorophyll content increased by the warming treatment while the effect of warming was not significant on net photosynthetic rate, since the warming treatment had a weak influence for changing net photosynthetic rate.

Characterization of SEI layer for Surface Modified Cathode of Lithium Secondary Battery Depending on Electrolyte Additives (전해질 첨가제에 따른 graphite 음극의 SEI분석 및 전기 화학적 특성 고찰)

  • Lee, Sung Jin;Cha, Eun Hee;Lim, Soo A
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2016
  • Lithium ion battery with high energy density is expanding its application area to electric automobile and electricity storage field beyond existing portable electric devices. Such expansion of an application field is demanding higher characteristic and stable long life characteristic of an anode material, the natural graphite that became commercialized in lithium ion battery. This thesis produced cathode by using natural graphite anode material, analyzed creation of the cathode SEI film created due to initial reaction by using electrolyte additives, VC (vinylene carbonate), VEC (vinyl ethylene carbonate), and FEC (fluoroethylene carbonate), and considered correlation with the accompanying electrochemical transformation. This study compared and analyzed the SEI film variation of natural graphite cathode according to the electrolyte additive with SEI that is formed at the time of initial filling and cathode of $60^{\circ}C$ life characteristic. At the time of initial filling, the profile showed changes due to the SEI formation, and SEI was formed in No-Additive in approximately 0.9 V through EVS, but for VC, VEC, and FEC, the formation reaction was created above 1 V. In $60^{\circ}C$ lifespan characteristic evaluation, the initial efficiency was highest in No-Additive and showed high contents percentage, but when cycle was progressed, the capacity maintenance rate decreased more than VC and FEC as the capacity and efficiency at the time of filling decreased, and VEC showed lowest performance in efficiency and capacity maintenance rate. Changes of SEI could not be verified through SEM, but it was identified that as the cycle of SEI ingredients was progressed through FT-IR, ingredients of Alkyl carbonate ($RCO_2Li$) affiliation of the $2850-2900cm^{-1}$ was maintained more solidly and the resistance increased as cycle was progressed through EIS, and specially, it was identified that the resistance due to No-Additive and SEI of VEC became very significant. Continuous loss of additives was verified through GC-MS, and the loss of additives from partial decomposition and remodeling of SEI formed the non-uniform surface of SEI and is judged to be the increase of resistance.