• Title, Summary, Keyword: infrared

Search Result 7,569, Processing Time 0.07 seconds

Clinical Results Following T3, 4 vs T3 Thoracoscopic Sympathicotomy in 30 Axillary Hyperhidrosis Patients (겨드랑이 다한증 환자에서 흉부교감신경의 차단부위(T3-4와 T4)에 따른 임상결과)

  • Choi, Soon-Ho;Lee, Sam-Youn;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Cha, Byoung-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.41 no.4
    • /
    • pp.469-475
    • /
    • 2008
  • Background: Video-assisted thoracic sympathicotomy is a definitive minimally invasive treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. Different techniques exist for controlling axillary hyperhidrosis, but they are temporary and expensive. We compared the results after using two different levels of sympathicotomy for treating axillary hyperhidrosis: T3-T4 and T4. Material and Method: Between June 2002 and May 2007, 30 patients with isolated axillary hyperhidrosis underwent either T3-T4 or T4 thoracoscopic sympathicotomy in the Department of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery at Wonkwang University Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I (n=15) was composed of patients who underwent T3-T4 sympathicotomy (thermal ablation), and Group II (n=15) was composed of patients who underwent T4 sympathicotomy (thermal ablation). The procedures were bilateral and simultaneous, involving the use of two 2-mm trocars and a 0-degree 2-mm thoracoscope under general anesthesia with single endotracheal intubation. Outcome parameters included satisfaction rate of treatment, degree of compensatory sweating, and postoperative complications. Patients were interviewed by telephone regarding satisfaction and compensatory hyperhidrosis. Result: There were no differences in age between group I and group II. The mean follow-up for the T3-T4 group was $38.7{\pm}2.3$ months, and the mean follow-up for the T4 group was $18.7{\pm}3.6$ months. The immediate therapeutic success rate (within 2 weeks postoperative) was 100% in both groups, and there were no recurrences in either group during the long-term follow-up period. The satisfaction rate was higher (93.3%) in the T4 group than in the T3-T4 group (53.3%), and the incidence of compensatory hyperhidrosis was lower in the T4 group (6.7%) than in the T3-T4 group (46.7%). Postoperative complications included one mild pneumothorax and two instances of intercostal neuralgia. Digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI) correlated well with postoperative satisfaction. Conclusion: Both techniques proved effective for controlling isolated axillary hyperhidrosis. The T4 group had a higher satisfaction rate and lower severity of compensatory hyperhidrosis. Hence, thermal ablation of the lower interganglionic fibers of the third thoracic sympathetic ganglion on the fourth rib is a more practical and minimally invasive treatment than is the T3-T4 surgical method, according to the degree of compensatory sweating in isolated axillary hyperhidrosis.

An IRS Study on the Adsorption of Carbonmonoxide on Silica Supported Ni-Cu Alloys (실리카 지지 니켈-구리 합금에서 일산화탄소의 흡착에 관한 IRS 연구)

  • Ahn, Jeong-Soo;Yoon, Koo-Sik;Park, Sang-Youn;Park, Sung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.53 no.3
    • /
    • pp.233-243
    • /
    • 2009
  • We have investigated the infrared spectra for CO adsorbed on silica supported nickel(Ni-Si$O_2$), silica supported copper(Cu-Si$O_2$), silica supported nickel-copper alloys(Ni/Cu-Si$O_2$) of several compositions with varying CO pressures(0.2 $torr{\sim}$50 torr) at room temperature and on pumping to vacumn at room temperature within the frequency range of 1500 $cm^{-1}{\sim}2500\;cm^{-1}$. Four bands(2059.6 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$2036.5 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$ 1868.7 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$ 1697.1 $cm^{-1}$) were observed for Ni-Si$O_2$, two bands($\sim$2115.5 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$1743.0 $cm^{-1}$) were observed for Cu-Si$O_2$ and five bands(${\sim}2123.2\;cm^{-1}$, 2059.6 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$2036.4 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$1899.5 $cm^{-1},\;{\sim}$1697.1 $cm^{-1}$) were observed for Ni/Cu-Si$O_2$. These absorption bands correspond with those of the previous reports approximately. The bands below 1800 $cm^{-1}$ were only observed with Ni metal or Ni/Cu alloy crystal plane containing step at room temperature and the ${\sim}1697.1\;cm^{-1}$ bands observed with Ni-Si$O_2$ and Ni/Cu-Si$O_2$ may be ascribed to CO molecule adsorbed on the adsorption sites near step. The bands below 2000 $cm^{-1}$ were rarely observed with Cu metal crystal plane at room temperature and the 1743.0 $cm^{-1}$ bands may be ascribed to CO molecule adsorbed on the adsorption sites near step. The band shifts of adsorbed CO with varing Cu contents from 0 to 0.5 mole fraction at the same CO pressure or at the same pumping time to vacumn were below 21 $cm^{-1}$. and comparatively small than those with other ⅠB metal addition. It may means ligand effect of Cu d electron is small.

Surface Characteristics and Spontaneous Combustibility of Coal Treated with Non-polar Solvent under Room Temperature (상온에서의 용매 처리를 통한 저등급 석탄의 표면물성 및 자연발화 특성 변화)

  • Jo, Wan Taek;Choi, Ho Kyung;Kim, Sang Do;Yoo, Ji Ho;Chun, Dong Hyuk;Rhim, Young Joon;Lim, Jeong Hwan;Lee, Si Hyun
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.51 no.5
    • /
    • pp.609-614
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study investigated the spontaneous combustion behavior of solvent-treated low rank coals. Indonesian lignite (a KBB and SM coal) and sub-bituminous (a Roto coal) were mixed with non-polar 1-methyl naphthalene (1MN) either by mechanical agitation or ultrasonication. The property change associated with 1MN treatment was then analyzed using proximate analysis, calorific value analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and moisture re-adsorption test. Susceptibility to spontaneous combustion was evaluated using crossingpoint temperature (CPT) measurement along with gas analysis by GC. A FT-IR profile showed that oxygen functional groups and C-H bonding became weaker when treated by 1 MN. XPS results also indicated a decrease of the oxygen groups (C-O-, C=O and COO-). Increased hydrophobicity was found in the 1MN treated coals during moisture readsorption test. A CPT of the treated coals was ${\sim}20^{\circ}C$ higher than that of the corresponding raw coals and the ultrasonication was more effective way to enhance the stability against spontaneous combustion than the agitation. In the gas analysis less CO and $CO_2$ were emitted from 1MN treated coals, also indicating inhibition of pyrophoric behavior. The surface functional groups participating in the oxidation reaction seemed to be removed by the ultrasonication more effectively than by the simple mechanical agitation.

Validation of Extreme Rainfall Estimation in an Urban Area derived from Satellite Data : A Case Study on the Heavy Rainfall Event in July, 2011 (위성 자료를 이용한 도시지역 극치강우 모니터링: 2011년 7월 집중호우를 중심으로)

  • Yoon, Sun-Kwon;Park, Kyung-Won;Kim, Jong Pil;Jung, Il-Won
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.47 no.4
    • /
    • pp.371-384
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study developed a new algorithm of extreme rainfall extraction based on the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Satellite image data and evaluated its applicability for the heavy rainfall event in July-2011 in Seoul, South Korea. The power-series-regression-based Z-R relationship was employed for taking into account for empirical relationships between TRMM/PR, TRMM/VIRS, COMS, and Automatic Weather System(AWS) at each elevation. The estimated Z-R relationship ($Z=303R^{0.72}$) agreed well with observation from AWS (correlation coefficient=0.57). The estimated 10-minute rainfall intensities from the COMS satellite using the Z-R relationship generated underestimated rainfall intensities. For a small rainfall event the Z-R relationship tended to overestimated rainfall intensities. However, the overall patterns of estimated rainfall were very comparable with the observed data. The correlation coefficients and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10-minute rainfall series from COMS and AWS gave 0.517, and 3.146, respectively. In addition, the averaged error value of the spatial correlation matrix ranged from -0.530 to -0.228, indicating negative correlation. To reduce the error by extreme rainfall estimation using satellite datasets it is required to take into more extreme factors and improve the algorithm through further study. This study showed the potential utility of multi-geostationary satellite data for building up sub-daily rainfall and establishing the real-time flood alert system in ungauged watersheds.

Discrimination of African Yams Containing High Functional Compounds Using FT-IR Fingerprinting Combined by Multivariate Analysis and Quantitative Prediction of Functional Compounds by PLS Regression Modeling (FT-IR 스펙트럼 데이터의 다변량 통계분석을 이용한 고기능성 아프리칸 얌 식별 및 기능성 성분 함량 예측 모델링)

  • Song, Seung Yeob;Jie, Eun Yee;Ahn, Myung Suk;Kim, Dong Jin;Kim, In Jung;Kim, Suk Weon
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.105-114
    • /
    • 2014
  • We established a high throughput screening system of African yam tuber lines which contain high contents of total carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis. The total carotenoids contents from 62 African yam tubers varied from 0.01 to $0.91{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$ dry weight (wt). The total flavonoids and phenolic compounds also varied from 12.9 to $229{\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$ and from 0.29 to $5.2mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$dry wt. FT-IR spectra confirmed typical spectral differences between the frequency regions of 1,700-1,500, 1,500-1,300 and $1,100-950cm^{-1}$, respectively. These spectral regions were reflecting the quantitative and qualitative variations of amide I, II from amino acids and proteins ($1,700-1,500cm^{-1}$), phosphodiester groups from nucleic acid and phospholipid ($1,500-1,300cm^{-1}$) and carbohydrate compounds ($1,100-950cm^{-1}$). Principal component analysis (PCA) and subsequent partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were able to discriminate the 62 African yam tuber lines into three separate clusters corresponding to their taxonomic relationship. The quantitative prediction modeling of total carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds from African yam tuber lines were established using partial least square regression algorithm from FT-IR spectra. The regression coefficients ($R^2$) between predicted values and estimated values of total carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds were 0.83, 0.86, and 0.72, respectively. These results showed that quantitative predictions of total carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds were possible from FT-IR spectra of African yam tuber lines with higher accuracy. Therefore we suggested that quantitative prediction system established in this study could be applied as a rapid selection tool for high yielding African yam lines.

Preparation and Release Behavior of Atorvastatin Calcuim - Encapsulated Polyoxalate Microspheres (아토르바스타틴 칼슘을 함유한 폴리옥살레이트 미립구의 제조 및 방출거동)

  • Lee, Cheon Jung;Kim, Su Young;Lee, Hyun Gu;Yang, Jaewon;Park, Jin Young;Cha, Se Rom;Lim, Dong-Kwon;Lee, Dongwon;Khang, Gilson
    • Polymer Korea
    • /
    • v.38 no.5
    • /
    • pp.656-663
    • /
    • 2014
  • Atorvastatin calcium-loaded polyoxalate (POX) microspheres were prepared by an emulsion solvent-evaporation/ extraction method of oil-in-oil-in-water ($O_1/O_2/W$) for sustained release. We investigated the release behavior according to initial drug ratio, molecular weight ($M_w$) and concentration of POX and concentration of emulsifier. The microsphere was characterized on the surface, the cross-section morphology and the behavior of atorvastatin calcium release for 10 days by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis of crystallization was analyzed to use X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results showed that the release behaviors can be controlled by preparation conditions.

Development of Normalized Difference Blue-ice Index (NDBI) of Glaciers and Analysis of Its Variational Factors by using MODIS Images (MODIS 영상을 이용한 빙하의 정규청빙지수(NDBI) 개발 및 변화요인 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Ji, Younghun;Kim, Yeonchun;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.481-491
    • /
    • 2014
  • Blue-ice area is a glacial ice field in ice sheet, ice shelf and glaciers where snow ablation and sublimation is larger than snowfall. As the blue-ice area has large influences on the meteorite concentration mechanism and ice mass balance, it is required to quantify the concentration of blue-ice. We analyzed spectral reflectance characteristics of blue-ice, snow and cloud by using MODIS images obtained over blue-ice areas in McMurdo Dry Valleys, East Antarctica, from 2007 to 2012. We then developed Normalized Difference Blue-ice Index (NDBI) algorithm which quantifies the concentration of blue-ice. Snow and cloud have a high reflectance in visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance of blue-ice is high in blue band, while that lowers in the NIR band. NDBI is calculated by dividing the difference of reflectance in the blue and NIR bands by the sum of reflectances in the two bands so that NDBI = (Blue-NIR)/(Blue + NIR). NDBI calculated from the MODIS images showed that the blue-ice areas have values ranging from 0.2 to 0.5, depending on the exposure and concentration of blue-ice. It is obviously different from that of snow and cloud that has values less than 0.2 or rocks with negative values. The change of NDBI values in the blue-ice area has higher correlation with snow depth ($R^2=0.699$) than wind speed ($R^2=0.012$) or air temperature ($R^2=0.278$), all measured at a meteorological station installed in McMurdo Dry Valleys. As the snow depth increased, the NDBI value decreased, which suggests that snow depth can be estimated from NDBI values over blue-ice areas. The NDBI algorithm developed in this study will be useful for various polar research fields such as meteorite exploration, analysis of ice mass balance as well as the snow depth estimation.

Surface Coating Treatment of Phosphor Powder Using Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (대기압 유전체배리어방전 플라즈마를 이용한 형광체 분말 코팅)

  • Jang, Doo Il;Ihm, Tae Heon;Trinh, Quang Hung;Jo, Jin Oh;Mok, Young Sun;Lee, Sang Baek;Ramos, Henry J.
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.25 no.5
    • /
    • pp.455-462
    • /
    • 2014
  • This work investigated the hydrophobic coating of silicate yellow phosphor powder in the form of divalent europium-activated strontium orthosilicate ($Sr_2SiO_4:Eu^{2+}$) by using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with argon as a carrier and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), toluene and n-hexane as precursors. After the plasma treatment of the phosphor powder, the lattice structure of orthosilicate was not altered, as confirmed by an X-ray diffractometer. The coated phosphor powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrophotometry and contact angle analysis (CAA). The CAA of the phosphor powder coated with the HMDSO precursor revealed that the water contact angle increased from $21.3^{\circ}$ to $139.5^{\circ}$ (max. $148.7^{\circ}$) and the glycerol contact angle from $55^{\circ}$ to $143.5^{\circ}$ (max. $145.3^{\circ}$) as a result of the hydrophobic coating, which indicated that hydrophobic layers were successfully formed on the phosphor powder surfaces. Further surface characterizations were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, which also evidenced the formation of hydrophobic coating layers. The phosphor coated with HMDSO exhibited a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement, but the use of toluene or n-hexane somewhat decreased the PL intensity. The results of this work suggest that the DBD plasma may be a viable method for the preparation of hydrophobic coating layer on phosphor powder.

Open-field Experimental Warming and Precipitation Manipulation System Design to Simulate Climate Change Impact (기후변화 영향 모의를 위한 실외 실험적 온난화 및 강수 조절 시스템 설계 연구)

  • Yun, Soon Jin;Han, Saerom;Han, Seung Hyun;Lee, Sun Jeoung;Jung, Yejee;Kim, Seoungjun;Son, Yowhan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.103 no.2
    • /
    • pp.159-164
    • /
    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to establish an open-field experimental warming treatment and precipitation manipulation system to simulate climate change impact for Pinus densiflora seedlings based on a climate change scenario in Korea. Two-year-old seedlings were planted in a nursery in April, 2013. The air temperature of warmed plots (W) was set to increase by $3.0^{\circ}C$ compared to control plots (C) using infrared lamps from May, 2013. The three precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease using transparent panel (-30%; $P^-$), precipitation increase using pump and drip-irrigation (+30%; $P^+$) and precipitation control (0%; $P^0$). Initially, the air temperature was $2.2^{\circ}C$ higher in warmed plots than in control plots and later air temperature was maintained close to the target temperature of $3.0^{\circ}C$. The average soil temperature was $3.1^{\circ}C$ higher in warmed plots than in control plots. Also the average soil moisture content after the precipitation manipulation increased by 13.9% in $P^+W$ and decreased by 10.0% in $P^-W$ compared to $P^0W$, and increased by 23.7% in $P^+C$ and decreased by 7.6% in $P^-C$ compared to $P^0C$. It was confirmed that the open-field experimental warming and precipitation manipulation system was properly designed and operating.

Study of a Brain Tumor and Blood Vessel Detection System Using Multiple Fluorescence Imaging by a Surgical Microscope (수술현미경에서의 다중형광영상을 이용한 뇌종양과 혈관영상 검출 시스템 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun Min;Kim, Hong Rae;Yoon, Woong Bae;Kim, Young Jae;Kim, Kwang Gi;Kim, Seok Ki;Yoo, Heon;Lee, Seung Hoon;Shin, Min Sun;Kwon, Ki Chul
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-29
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this paper, we propose a microscope system for detecting both a tumor and blood vessels in brain tumor surgery as fluorescence images by using multiple light sources and a beam-splitter module. The proposed method displays fluorescent images of the tumor and blood vessels on the same display device and also provides accurate information about them to the operator. To acquire a fluorescence image, we utilized 5-ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) for the tumor and ICG (Indocyanine green) for blood vessels, and we used a beam-splitter module combined with a microscope for simultaneous detection of both. The beam-splitter module showed the best performance at 600 nm for 5-ALA and above 800 nm for ICG. The beam-splitter is flexible to enable diverse objective setups and designed to mount a filter easily, so beam-splitter and filter can be changed as needed, and other fluorescent dyes besides 5-ALA and ICG are available. The fluorescent images of the tumor and the blood vessels can be displayed on the same monitor through the beam-splitter module with a CCD camera. For ICG, a CCD that can detect the near-infrared region is needed. This system provides the acquired fluorescent image to an operator in real time, matching it to the original image through a similarity transform.