• Title, Summary, Keyword: inhibition mechanism

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Mechanism of Increased Adrenergic Activities in Hypertension Induced by Chronic Inhibition of NOS (NOS만성억제로 인한 고혈압에서 아드레날린성 활성증가기전)

  • 정국현;이석용
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2001
  • Nitric oxide is a tonically produced vasodilator that maintains blood pressure in the normal animal. The chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) elicits the hypertension in rats. However, the mechanism of hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of NOS is not clear. Thus, to clarify the mechanism of the occurance of hypertension, the changes in $\alpha$-adrenergic systems in rats treated with NOS inhibitors for 21 days were examined. Chronic administration of L-NAME significantly increased in the basal blood pressure, but chronic administration of 7-nitroindazole did not. Phenylephrine and G-protein stimulator elicited the more potent contraction in the aorta of the L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. However when the contractile responses by phenylephrine and G-protein stimulator were calculated the proportion to the contraction by 25 mM KCL, there was no difference between the vehicle-treated rats and the L-NAME-treated rats. The density of $\alpha$-adrenergic receptors in aortic tissue was not changed by the chronic inhibition of NOS. These results suggest that hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of NOS is due to the inhibition of eNOS and the increased responses to the adrenergic drugs are due to the changes of the intracellular contactile mechanism of aortic tissue rather than the changes of receptor density.

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Comparative study on Corrosion Inhibition of Vietnam Orange Peel Essential Oil with Urotropine and Insight of Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Solution

  • Bui, Huyen T.T.;Dang, Trung-Dung;Le, Hang T.T.;Hoang, Thuy T.B.
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.69-81
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    • 2019
  • The corrosion inhibiting mechanism of Vietnam orange peel essential oil (OPEO) for mild steel in 1 N HCl solution was investigated elaborately. Corrosion inhibition ability of OPEO was characterized by electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight loss method. In the corrosive solution, OPEO worked as a mixed inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency of OPEO increased with the increase of its concentration. High inhibition efficiencies over 90% were achieved for the concentration of 3 - 4 g/L OPEO, comparable to that of 3.5 g/L urotropine (URO), a commercial corrosion inhibitor for acid media used in industry. By using adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir, Temkin and Frumkin), thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were calculated. The obtained results indicated physical adsorption mechanism of OPEO on the steel surface. The components responsible for the corrosion inhibition activity of OPEO were not only D-limonene, but also other compounds, which contain C=O, C=C, O-H, C-O-C, -C=CH and C-H bonding groups in the molecules.

Mechanism of the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition (Monoamine Oxidase의 억제 기구)

  • 강건일
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.321-329
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    • 1983
  • The review characterized active site(s) of MAO with respect to metal ions, hydrophobic and polar region, sulfhydryl group and flavin moiety. The mechanism of inhibition was dealt with three representative types of inhibitors; phenylcyclopropylamines, acetylenic amines, and hydrazines. Multiple forms of MAO was shortly described in relation to their selective inhibition. 84 reference were cited.

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BIOCHEMICAL MODEL AND MECHANISM FOR ACINETOBACTER NITRITE INHIBITION

  • Lee, Chan-Won;Weon, Seung-Yeon
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.22-30
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    • 2005
  • Nitrite accumulation is not unusual in batch processes such as sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with high-strength of ammonium or nitrate wastewaters. A possible mechanism of nitrite inhibition on Acinetobacter was depicted in a biochemical model, which the protonated species, nitrous acid form of nitrite, affects proton relating transport at the proton-pumping site crossing the cell membrane under unlimited carbon and phosphorus conditions. This effect exerts inhibition of phosphorylation under aerobic condition and yields low APT/ADP ratio, consequently decrease poly-P synthesis and phosphorus uptake from outside the cell in the model.

Regulatory Mechanism of L-Alanine Dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis

  • Kim, Su Ja;Kim, Yu Jin;Seo, Mi Ran;Jeon, Bong Suk
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1217-1221
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    • 2000
  • L-alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis exhibits allosteric kinetic properties in the presence of $ZN^{2+}$. $ZN^{2+}$ induces the binding of substrate (L-alanine) to be cooperative at pH 8.0. The effect of pH variation between pH 7.0 and pH 10.0 on the inhibition by $ZN^{2+}$ correlates with the pH effect on the $K_m$ values for L-alanine within these pH range indicating that $ZN^{2+}$ and substrate compete for the same site. No such cooperativity is induced by $ZN^{2+}$ when the reaction is carried out at pH 10. At this higher pH, $ZN^{2+}$ binds with the enzyme with lower affinity and noncompetitive with respect to L-alanine. Inhibition of L-alanine dehydrogenase by $ZN^{2+}$ depends on the ionic strength. Increase in KCI concentration reduced the inhibition, but allosteric property in $ZN^{2+}$ binding is conserved. A model for the regulatory mechanism of L-alanine dehydrogenase as a noncooperative substrate-cooperative cofactor allosteric enzyme, which is compatible in both concerted and the sequential allosteric mechanism, is proposed.

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Alleviation of Senescence via ATM Inhibition in Accelerated Aging Models

  • Kuk, Myeong Uk;Kim, Jae Won;Lee, Young-Sam;Cho, Kyung A;Park, Joon Tae;Park, Sang Chul
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2019
  • The maintenance of mitochondrial function is closely linked to the control of senescence. In our previous study, we uncovered a novel mechanism in which senescence amelioration in normal aging cells is mediated by the recovered mitochondrial function upon Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether this mechanism is also applicable to senescence amelioration in accelerated aging cells. In this study, we examined the role of ATM inhibition on mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and Werner syndrome (WS) cells. We found that ATM inhibition induced mitochondrial functional recovery accompanied by metabolic reprogramming, which has been known to be a prerequisite for senescence alleviation in normal aging cells. Indeed, the induced mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming was coupled with senescence amelioration in accelerated aging cells. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect via ATM inhibition was observed in HGPS as evidenced by reduced progerin accumulation with concomitant decrease of abnormal nuclear morphology. Taken together, our data indicate that the mitochondrial functional recovery by ATM inhibition might represent a promising strategy to ameliorate the accelerated aging phenotypes and to treat age-related disease.

Muscle Eccentric Control in Gait Initiation (보행 시작 시 원심성 근육 수축 조절)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Dong
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2001
  • There are two independent mechanisms to control the segmental reflex gain in humans during gait. They are presynaptic inhibition and homosynaptic depression. Through the mechanism of the presynaptic inhibition, the muscle spindle afferent feedback can be properly gated during eccentric phase of gait. The modulation of the presynaptic inhibition is reflected in the level of H-reflex at a constant EMG level. During the eccentric muscle activation presynaptic inhibition should increase to account for the lower amplitude level of H-reflex at a constant level of EMG. Homosynaptic depression is another mechanism responsible for regulating the effectiveness of the muscle spindle afferent feedback. Both the presynaptic inhibition and the monosynaptic depression are responsible for modulating reflex gain during gait initiation. Reflex modulation is influenced not only as a passive consequence of the alpha motor neuron excitation level, but also through supraspinal mechanisms. Spastic paretic patients show the impaired soleus H-reflex modulation either during the initial stance phase, or during the swing phase. This abnormal modulatory mechanism can partially and artificially be restored by the application of peripheral stimulus to the sole of the foot, provided that the segmental circuitry remains functional.

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Study on the Effect of Yipahnsan(立安散) on Angiogenic Inhibition Mechanism (입안산(立安散)이 Angiogenesis 억제기전(抑制棋戰)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Gi-Ryong;Choi, Seung-Hoon;Ahn, Kyoo-Seok
    • THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN ORIENTAL ONCOLOGY
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.177-197
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    • 1998
  • This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Yipahnsan on angiogenic inhibition mechanism. This study investigates the effects of Yipahnsan on angiogenic inhibition mechanism evaluate cell adhesive inhibition effect, DNA fragmantaion analysis, nuclear condensation assay, FACScan analysis, angiogenic lumen formation assay, immunocytochemistry analysis, RT-PCR for mRNA expression, western blot analysis, confocal analysis for $Ca^{2+}influx$. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The cell adhesive inhibition ability was strongly increased from $5{\mu}g/ml$ on ECV304 cell line and ECVPAR cell line. 2. YY water extract caused $G_0/G_1$ arrest peak to existed on the ECV304 cell line. 3. YY water extract caused inhibition of proliferation and inducement of apoptosis on the collagen coated plate in ECV304 cell line. 4. YY water extract inhibited the lumen formation on the matrigel coated plate in ECV304 cell line. 5. YY water extract inhibited the expressions of LFA-1 and ELAM-1 on ECV304 cell line and ECVPAR cell line. 6. YY water extract inhibited the expressions of MMP-9 and uPA on ECV304 cell line and ECVPAR cell line. 7. YY water extract inhibited the expression of integrin ${\alpha}_v{\beta}_3$ on ECV304 cell line and ECVPAR cell line. 8. YY water extract decreased the change of $Ca^{2+}$ in intracellular on ECV304 cell line and ECVPAR cell line. According to the results, Yipahnsan showed to be a key antagonist of integrin ${\alpha}_v{\beta}_3$, and to be induction of apoptosis by p53 through flow cytometry. This report also demonstrated that expressions of MMP-9 and uPA were blocked under the angiogenesis model. Thus, we suggested that Yipahnsan blocks angiogenesis by inducing apoptosis in ECV304 and ECVPAR cell lines, and another oriental herbal medicine that treats qi-stagnation and blood-stasis type also has angiogenic inhibition effects.

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Study on the Effect of Hwallakhyoreungdan(活絡效靈丹) on Angiogenic Inhibition Mechanism (활락효령단(活絡效靈丹)이 Angiogenesis 억제기전(抑制機轉)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Na, Ki-Whan;Choi, Seung-Hoon;Ahn, Kyoo-Seok
    • THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN ORIENTAL ONCOLOGY
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.17-36
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    • 1998
  • This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Hwallakhyoreungdan on angiogenic inhibition mechanism. In order to investigate the effects of Hwallakhyoreungdan on angiogenic inhibition mechanism, MTT assay, cell adhesive inhibition effect, DNA fragmantaion analysis, Nuclear condensation assay, FACScan analysis, Angiogenic lumen formation assay, Immunocytochemistry analysis, RT-PCR for mRNA expression, Western blot analysis and Confocal analysis for $Ca^{2+}$ change were performed. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The cell adhesive inhibition ability was strong from $5{\mu}g/ml$. 2. The $G_0/G_1$ arrest peak was existed on ECV304 cell-line. 3. The cells on Collagen plate were inhibition of proliferation and inducement of apoptosis by HR water extract. 4. Angiogenic lumen formation was inhibited by HR water extract. 5. LFA-1 and ELAM-1's expression were inhibited by HR water extract. They are commenly participation on inflammation and tumor regeneration. 6. The expression of MMP-9 and uPA were inhibited by HR water extract. 7. The expression of integrin ${\alpha}_v{\beta}_3$ was inhibited by HR water extract. 8. The expression of intracellular molecule were successively inhibited by HR water extract therefore the proliferation of ECV304 cell line was stopped and apoptosis was induced. 9. The change of $Ca^{2+}$ was decreased by HR water extract it cause confusion of signal transduction pathway therefore it was take part in apoptosis. According to the results, Hwallakhyoreungdan showed to be a key antaonist of integrin ${\alpha}_v{\beta}_3$, and to be induction of apoptosis by p53 through flow cytometry. This report also demonstrated that expressions of MMP-9 and uPA was blocked under the angiogenesis model. Thus, we suggests that Hwallakhyoreungdan blocks angiogenesis by inducing apoptosis of ECV304 and ECVPAR cell lines and another oriental herbal medicine that treats blood-stasis type also has angiogenic inhibition effects.

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Kinetic Evidence for the Interactive Inhibition of Laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and Chloride

  • Raseda, Nasrin;Hong, Soonho;Kwon, O Yul;Ryu, Keungarp
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1673-1678
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    • 2014
  • The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in $K{_m}^{app}$ and a 4-fold decrease in $V_{max}{^{app}}$. As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, $K_i$, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, $K{_i}^{\prime}$, was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant ($K_i=23.7mM$) and uncompetitive inhibition constant ($K{_i}^{\prime}=324mM$). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity.