• Title, Summary, Keyword: initial shape analysis

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Derivation of the Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Based on the Watershed Characteristics (유역특성에 의한 합성단위도의 유도에 관한 연구)

  • 서승덕
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.3642-3654
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    • 1975
  • The purpose of this thesis is to derive a unit hydrograph which may be applied to the ungaged watershed area from the relations between directly measurable unitgraph properties such as peak discharge(qp), time to peak discharge (Tp), and lag time (Lg) and watershed characteristics such as river length(L) from the given station to the upstream limits of the watershed area in km, river length from station to centroid of gravity of the watershed area in km (Lca), and main stream slope in meter per km (S). Other procedure based on routing a time-area diagram through catchment storage named Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph(IUH). Dimensionless unitgraph also analysed in brief. The basic data (1969 to 1973) used in these studies are 9 recording level gages and rating curves, 41 rain gages and pluviographs, and 40 observed unitgraphs through the 9 sub watersheds in Nak Oong River basin. The results summarized in these studies are as follows; 1. Time in hour from start of rise to peak rate (Tp) generally occured at the position of 0.3Tb (time base of hydrograph) with some indication of higher values for larger watershed. The base flow is comparelatively higher than the other small watershed area. 2. Te losses from rainfall were divided into initial loss and continuing loss. Initial loss may be defined as that portion of storm rainfall which is intercepted by vegetation, held in deppression storage or infiltrated at a high rate early in the storm and continuing loss is defined as the loss which continues at a constant rate throughout the duration of the storm after the initial loss has been satisfied. Tis continuing loss approximates the nearly constant rate of infiltration (${\Phi}$-index method). The loss rate from this analysis was estimated 50 Per cent to the rainfall excess approximately during the surface runoff occured. 3. Stream slope seems approximate, as is usual, to consider the mainstreamonly, not giving any specific consideration to tributary. It is desirable to develop a single measure of slope that is representative of the who1e stream. The mean slope of channel increment in 1 meter per 200 meters and 1 meter per 1400 meters were defined at Gazang and Jindong respectively. It is considered that the slopes are low slightly in the light of other river studies. Flood concentration rate might slightly be low in the Nak Dong river basin. 4. It found that the watershed lag (Lg, hrs) could be expressed by Lg=0.253 (L.Lca)0.4171 The product L.Lca is a measure of the size and shape of the watershed. For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient for Lg was 0.97 which defined that Lg is closely related with the watershed characteristics, L and Lca. 5. Expression for basin might be expected to take form containing theslope as {{{{ { L}_{g }=0.545 {( { L. { L}_{ca } } over { SQRT {s} } ) }^{0.346 } }}}} For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient for Lg was 0.97 which defined that Lg is closely related with the basin characteristics too. It should be needed to take care of analysis which relating to the mean slopes 6. Peak discharge per unit area of unitgraph for standard duration tr, ㎥/sec/$\textrm{km}^2$, was given by qp=10-0.52-0.0184Lg with a indication of lower values for watershed contrary to the higher lag time. For the logarithms, the correlation coefficient qp was 0.998 which defined high sign ificance. The peak discharge of the unitgraph for an area could therefore be expected to take the from Qp=qp. A(㎥/sec). 7. Using the unitgraph parameter Lg, the base length of the unitgraph, in days, was adopted as {{{{ {T}_{b } =0.73+2.073( { { L}_{g } } over {24 } )}}}} with high significant correlation coefficient, 0.92. The constant of the above equation are fixed by the procedure used to separate base flow from direct runoff. 8. The width W75 of the unitgraph at discharge equal to 75 per cent of the peak discharge, in hours and the width W50 at discharge equal to 50 Per cent of the peak discharge in hours, can be estimated from {{{{ { W}_{75 }= { 1.61} over { { q}_{b } ^{1.05 } } }}}} and {{{{ { W}_{50 }= { 2.5} over { { q}_{b } ^{1.05 } } }}}} respectively. This provides supplementary guide for sketching the unitgraph. 9. Above equations define the three factors necessary to construct the unitgraph for duration tr. For the duration tR, the lag is LgR=Lg+0.2(tR-tr) and this modified lag, LgRis used in qp and Tb It the tr happens to be equal to or close to tR, further assume qpR=qp. 10. Triangular hydrograph is a dimensionless unitgraph prepared from the 40 unitgraphs. The equation is shown as {{{{ { q}_{p } = { K.A.Q} over { { T}_{p } } }}}} or {{{{ { q}_{p } = { 0.21A.Q} over { { T}_{p } } }}}} The constant 0.21 is defined to Nak Dong River basin. 11. The base length of the time-area diagram for the IUH routing is {{{{C=0.9 {( { L. { L}_{ca } } over { SQRT { s} } ) }^{1/3 } }}}}. Correlation coefficient for C was 0.983 which defined a high significance. The base length of the T-AD was set to equal the time from the midpoint of rain fall excess to the point of contraflexure. The constant K, derived in this studies is K=8.32+0.0213 {{{{ { L} over { SQRT { s} } }}}} with correlation coefficient, 0.964. 12. In the light of the results analysed in these studies, average errors in the peak discharge of the Synthetic unitgraph, Triangular unitgraph, and IUH were estimated as 2.2, 7.7 and 6.4 per cent respectively to the peak of observed average unitgraph. Each ordinate of the Synthetic unitgraph was approached closely to the observed one.

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A Study on Movement of the Free Face During Bench Blasting (전방 자유면의 암반 이동에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ki-Keun;Kim, Gab-Soo;Yang, Kuk-Jung;Kang, Dae-Woo;Hur, Won-Ho
    • Explosives and Blasting
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.29-42
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    • 2012
  • Variables influencing the free face movement due to rock blasting include the physical and mechanical properties, in particular the discontinuity characteristics, explosive type, charge weight, burden, blast-hole spacing, delay time between blast-holes or rows, stemming conditions. These variables also affects the blast vibration, air blast and size of fragmentation. For the design of surface blasting, the priority is given to the safety of nearby buildings. Therefore, blast vibration has to be controlled by analyzing the free face movement at the surface blasting sites and also blasting operation needs to be optimized to improve the fragmentation size. High-speed digital image analysis enables the analyses of the initial movement of free face of rock, stemming optimality, fragment trajectory, face movement direction and velocity as well as the optimal detonator initiation system. Even though The high-speed image analysis technique has been widely used in foreign countries, its applications can hardly be found in Korea. This thesis aims at carrying out a fundamental study for optimizing the blast design and evaluation using the high-speed digital image analysis. A series of experimentation were performed at two large surface blasting sites with the rock type of shale and granite, respectively. Emulsion and ANFO were the explosives used for the study. Based on the digital images analysis, displacement and velocity of the free face were scrutinized along with the analysis fragment size distribution. In addition, AUTODYN, 2-D FEM model, was applied to simulate detonation pressure, detonation velocity, response time for the initiation of the free face movement and face movement shape. The result show that regardless of the rock type, due to the displacement and the movement velocity have the maximum near the center of charged section the free face becomes curved like a bow. Compared with ANFO, the cases with Emulsion result in larger detonation pressure and velocity and faster reaction for the displacement initiation.

Analysis of growth environment for precision cultivation management of the oyster mushroom 'Suhan' (병재배 느타리버섯 '수한'의 정밀재배관리를 위한 생육환경 분석)

  • Lee, Chan-Jung;Lee, Sung-Hyeon;Lee, Eun-Ji;Park, Hae-sung;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we analyze the growth environment using smart farm technology in order to develop the optimal growth model for the precision cultivation of the bottle-grown oyster mushroom 'Suhan'. Experimental farmers used $88m^2$ of bed area, 2 rows and 5 columns of shelf shape, 5 hp refrigerator, 100T of sandwich panel for insulation, 2 ultrasonic humidifiers, 12 kW of heating, and 5,000 bottles for cultivation. Data on parameters such as temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and illumination, which directly affect mushroom growth, were collected from the environmental sensor part installed at the oyster mushroom cultivator and analyzed. It was found that the initial temperature at the time of granulation was $22^{\circ}C$ after the scraping, and the mushroom was produced and maintained at about $25^{\circ}C$ until the bottle was flipped. On fruiting body formation, mushrooms were harvested while maintaining the temperature between $13^{\circ}C$ and $15^{\circ}C$. Humidity was approximately 100% throughout the growth stage. Carbon dioxide concentration gradually increased until 3 days after the beginning of cultivation, and then increased rapidly to approximately 2,600 ppm. From the 6th day, $CO_2$ concentration was gradually decreased through ventilation and maintained at 1,000 ppm during the harvest. Light was not provided at the initial stage of oyster mushroom cultivation. On the $3^{rd}$ and $4^{th}$ day, mushrooms were irradiated by 17 lux light. Subsequently, the light intensity was increased to 115-120 lux as the growth progressed. Fruiting body characteristics of 'Suhan' cultivated in a farmhouse were as follows: Pileus diameter was 30.9 mm and thickness was 4.5 mm; stipe thickness was 11.0 mm and length was 76.0 mm; stipe and pileus hardness was 0.8 g/mm and 2.8 g/mm, respectively; L values of the stipe and pileus were 79.9 and 52.3, respectively. The fruiting body yield was 160.2 g/850 ml, and the individual weight was 12.8 g/10 unit.

Stellite bearings for liquid Zn-/Al-Systems with advanced chemical and physical properties by Mechanical Alloying and Standard-PM-Route

  • Zoz, H.;Benz, H.U.;Huettebraeucker, K.;Furken, L.;Ren, H.;Reichardt, R.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.9-10
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    • 2000
  • An important business-field of world-wide steel-industry is the coating of thin metal-sheets with zinc, zinc-aluminum and aluminum based materials. These products mostly go into automotive industry. in particular for the car-body. into building and construction industry as well as household appliances. Due to mass-production, the processing is done in large continuously operating plants where the mostly cold-rolled metal-strip as the substrate is handled in coils up to 40 tons unwind before and rolled up again after passing the processing plant which includes cleaning, annealing, hot-dip galvanizing / aluminizing and chemical treatment. In the liquid Zn, Zn-AI, AI-Zn and AI-Si bathes a combined action of corrosion and wear under high temperature and high stress onto the transfer components (rolls) accounts for major economic losses. Most critical here are the bearing systems of these rolls operating in the liquid system. Rolls in liquid system can not be avoided as they are needed to transfer the steel-strip into and out of the crucible. Since several years, ceramic roller bearings are tested here [1.2], however, in particular due to uncontrollable Slag-impurities within the hot bath [3], slide bearings are still expected to be of a higher potential [4]. The today's state of the art is the application of slide bearings based on Stellite\ulcorneragainst Stellite which is in general a 50-60 wt% Co-matrix with incorporated Cr- and W-carbides and other composites. Indeed Stellite is used as the bearing-material as of it's chemical properties (does not go into solution), the physical properties in particular with poor lubricating properties are not satisfying at all. To increase the Sliding behavior in the bearing system, about 0.15-0.2 wt% of lead has been added into the hot-bath in the past. Due to environmental regulations. this had to be reduced dramatically_ This together with the heavily increasing production rates expressed by increased velocity of the substrate-steel-band up to 200 m/min and increased tractate power up to 10 tons in modern plants. leads to life times of the bearings of a few up to several days only. To improve this situation. the Mechanical Alloying (MA) TeChnique [5.6.7.8] is used to prOduce advanced Stellite-based bearing materials. A lubricating phase is introduced into Stellite-powder-material by MA, the composite-powder-particles are coated by High Energy Milling (HEM) in order to produce bearing-bushes of approximately 12 kg by Sintering, Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). The chemical and physical behavior of samples as well as the bearing systems in the hot galvanizing / aluminizing plant are discussed. DependenCies like lubricant material and composite, LPS-binder and composite, particle shape and PM-route with respect to achievable density. (temperature--) shock-reSistibility and corrosive-wear behavior will be described. The materials are characterized by particle size analysis (laser diffraction), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. corrosive-wear behavior is determined using a special cylinder-in-bush apparatus (CIBA) as well as field-test in real production condition. Part I of this work describes the initial testing phase where different sample materials are produced, characterized, consolidated and tested in the CIBA under a common AI-Zn-system. The results are discussed and the material-system for the large components to be produced for the field test in real production condition is decided. Outlook: Part II of this work will describe the field test in a hot-dip-galvanizing/aluminizing plant of the mechanically alloyed bearing bushes under aluminum-rich liquid metal. Alter testing, the bushes will be characterized and obtained results with respect to wear. expected lifetime, surface roughness and infiltration will be discussed. Part III of this project will describe a second initial testing phase where the won results of part 1+11 will be transferred to the AI-Si system. Part IV of this project will describe the field test in a hot-dip-aluminizing plant of the mechanically alloyed bearing bushes under aluminum liquid metal. After testing. the bushes will be characterized and obtained results with respect to wear. expected lifetime, surface roughness and infiltration will be discussed.

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A Preliminary Study of Flume Experiments on the Flow Velocity for Initial Formation of Bedforms on Bimodal Sand-sized Sediments (이정 사질 퇴적물의 층면구조 형성 속도에 대한 수조 실험 예비 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun Woo;Choi, Su Ji;Choi, Ji Soo;Kwon, Yoo Jin;Lee, Sang Cheol;Kwak, Chang Hwan;Kwon, Yi Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.218-229
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    • 2016
  • The bedform stability diagram indicates the shape and size of bedforms that will occur to a given grain size and flow velocity. The diagram has been constructed from experimental data which have been mostly acquired by flume experiments. Generally, the flume experiments have been performed on well sorted sediments with unimodal grain size distribution, in order to understand relationship between grain size and flow velocity. According to the diagram, a ripple structure initiates to be formed from lower flow regime flat bed, as the flow velocity increases on the surface of fine-sand or medium-sand sediments. This study aims to verify that the experimental result of bedform stability diagram will be reproduced in our flume experimental systems, and also to confirm that the result is consistent not only on well-sorted sand sediments but also on poorly-sorted sand sediments with bimodal grain size distribution. The experimental results in this study show that initiation of 2D or 3D ripple structure on poorly-sorted sand sediments requires higher flow velocity and shear stress than those for initiation of the structure on well-sorted sand sediments. In general, carbonate sediments are characterized by poor sorting due to inactive hydraulic sorting and bimodal grain size distribution with allochems and matrices. The results suggest that the carbonate depositional system possibly need a higher flow velocity for initial formation of 2D or 3D bedform structures. The reason might be the fact that pulling off and lifting of a grain in poorly sorted sediments require more energy due to sorting, friction, stabilization, armour effects, and their complex interaction. This preliminary study warrants additional experiments under various conditions and more accurate analysis on the relationship between formation of bedforms and grain size distribution.

THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL STIMULI TO THE FILLED TOOTH STRUCTURE (온도자극이 충전된 치질에 미치는 영향)

  • Baik, Byeong-Ju;Roh, Yong-Kwan;Lee, Young-Su;Yang, Jeong-Suk;Kim, Jae-Gon
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.339-349
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    • 1999
  • The dental structure substituted by restorative materials may produce discomfort resulting from hot or cold stimuli. To investigate the effects of this stimuli on the human teeth, thermal analysis was carried out by calculation of general heat conduction equation in a modeled tooth using numerical method. The method has been applied to axisymmetric and two-dimensional model, analyzing the effects of constant temperature $4^{\circ}C\;and\;60^{\circ}C$. That thermal shock was provided for 2 seconds and 4 seconds, respectively and recovered to normal condition of $20^{\circ}C$ until 10 seconds. The thermal behavior of tooth covered with a crown of gold or stainless steel was compared with that of tooth without crown. At the same time, the effects of restorative materials(amalgam, gold and zinc oxide-eugenol(ZOE)) on the temperature of PDJ(pulpo-dentinal junction) has been studied. The geometry used for thermal analysis so far has been limited to two-dimensional as well as axisymmetric tooth models. But the general restorative tooth forms a cross shaped cavity which is no longer two-dimensional and axisymmetric. Therefore, in this study, the three-dimensional model was developed to investigate the effect of shape and size of cavity. This three-dimensional model might be used for further research to investigate the effects of restorative materials and cavity design on the thermal behavior of the real shaped tooth. The results were as follows; 1. When cold temperature of $4^{\circ}C$ was applied to the surface of the restored teeth with amalgam for 2 seconds and recovered to ambient temperature of $20^{\circ}C$, the PDJ temperature decreased rapidly to $29^{\circ}C$ until 3 seconds and reached to $25^{\circ}C$ after 9 seconds. This temperature decreased rather slowly with stainless steel crown, but kept similar temperature within $1^{\circ}C$ differences. Using the gold as a restorative material, the PDJ temperature decreased very fast due to the high thermal conductivity and reached near to $25^{\circ}C$ but the temperature after 9 seconds was similar to that in the teeth without crown. The effects of coldness could be attenuated with the ZOE situated under the cavity. The low thermal conductivity caused a delay in temperature decrease and keeps $4^{\circ}C$ higher than the temperature of other conditions after 9 seconds. 2. The elapse time of cold stimuli was increased also until 4 seconds and recovered to $20^{\circ}C$ after 4 seconds to 9 seconds. The temperature after 9 seconds was about $2-3^{\circ}C$ lower than the temperature of 2 seconds stimuli, but in case of gold restoration, the high thermal conductivity of gold caused the minimum temperature of $21^{\circ}C$ after 5 seconds and got warm to $23^{\circ}C$ after 9 seconds. 3. The effects of hot stimuli was also investigated with the temperature of $60^{\circ}C$. For 2 seconds stimuli, the temperature increased to $40^{\circ}C$ from the initial temperature of $35^{\circ}C$ after 3 seconds of stimuli and decreased to $30^{\circ}C$ after 9 seconds in the teeth without crown. This temperature was sensitive to surface temperature in the teeth with gold restoration. It increased rapidly to $41^{\circ}C$ from the initial temperature of $35^{\circ}C$ after 2 seconds and decreased to $28^{\circ}C$ after 9 seconds, which showed $13^{\circ}C$ temperature variations for 9 seconds upon the surface temperature. This temperature variations were only in the range of $5^{\circ}C$ by using ZOE in the bottom of cavity and showed maximum temperature of $37^{\circ}C$ after 3 seconds of stimuli.

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Efficacy and Accuracy of Patient Specific Customize Bolus Using a 3-Dimensional Printer for Electron Beam Therapy (전자선 빔 치료 시 삼차원프린터를 이용하여 제작한 환자맞춤형 볼루스의 유용성 및 선량 정확도 평가)

  • Choi, Woo Keun;Chun, Jun Chul;Ju, Sang Gyu;Min, Byung Jun;Park, Su Yeon;Nam, Hee Rim;Hong, Chae-Seon;Kim, MinKyu;Koo, Bum Yong;Lim, Do Hoon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2016
  • We develop a manufacture procedure for the production of a patient specific customized bolus (PSCB) using a 3D printer (3DP). The dosimetric accuracy of the 3D-PSCB is evaluated for electron beam therapy. In order to cover the required planning target volume (PTV), we select the proper electron beam energy and the field size through initial dose calculation using a treatment planning system. The PSCB is delineated based on the initial dose distribution. The dose calculation is repeated after applying the PSCB. We iteratively fine-tune the PSCB shape until the plan quality is sufficient to meet the required clinical criteria. Then the contour data of the PSCB is transferred to an in-house conversion software through the DICOMRT protocol. This contour data is converted into the 3DP data format, STereoLithography data format and then printed using a 3DP. Two virtual patients, having concave and convex shapes, were generated with a virtual PTV and an organ at risk (OAR). Then, two corresponding electron treatment plans with and without a PSCB were generated to evaluate the dosimetric effect of the PSCB. The dosimetric characteristics and dose volume histograms for the PTV and OAR are compared in both plans. Film dosimetry is performed to verify the dosimetric accuracy of the 3D-PSCB. The calculated planar dose distribution is compared to that measured using film dosimetry taken from the beam central axis. We compare the percent depth dose curve and gamma analysis (the dose difference is 3%, and the distance to agreement is 3 mm) results. No significant difference in the PTV dose is observed in the plan with the PSCB compared to that without the PSCB. The maximum, minimum, and mean doses of the OAR in the plan with the PSCB were significantly reduced by 9.7%, 36.6%, and 28.3%, respectively, compared to those in the plan without the PSCB. By applying the PSCB, the OAR volumes receiving 90% and 80% of the prescribed dose were reduced from $14.40cm^3$ to $0.1cm^3$ and from $42.6cm^3$ to $3.7cm^3$, respectively, in comparison to that without using the PSCB. The gamma pass rates of the concave and convex plans were 95% and 98%, respectively. A new procedure of the fabrication of a PSCB is developed using a 3DP. We confirm the usefulness and dosimetric accuracy of the 3D-PSCB for the clinical use. Thus, rapidly advancing 3DP technology is able to ease and expand clinical implementation of the PSCB.

MEASUREMENT OF ADHESION OF ROOT CANAL SEALER TO DENTINE AND GUTTA-PERCHA (상아질과 Gutta-Percha에 대한 근관충전용 Sealer의 결합강도의 측정)

  • Her, Mi-Ja;Yu, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Se-Joon;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the bonding of resin- based root canal sealer, AH26 when the sealer was applied as a thin layer between dentine and gutta-percha surface. In this study forty non-caries extracted human molars and resin-based root canal sealer(AH 26, DeTrey/Dentsply, Germany) were used. Disks of gutta-percha, 6mm in diameter.6mm thick (Diadent/Dentsply, Korea) for thermoplastic obturation were used and dentin surfaces were treated with 2% NaOCl(Group 1) or 2%NaOCl+17% EDTA(Group 3). Disks of gutta-Percha, 6mm in diameter.6mm thick (Diadent/Dentsply, Korea) for conventional obturation were used and dentin surface were treated with 2% NaOCl(Group 2) or 2%NaOCl+17% EDTA(Group 4). Enamel was removed by a horizontal section 1mm below the deepest portion of the central occlusal groove by using a watercooled low speed diamond saw. A second horizontal section was done around cementoenamel junction. Exposed dentin surface was cut to approximately $8{\times}8{\;}mm$ rectangular shape and was ground against 320, 400, 600 grade silicon carbide abrasive paper serially. After grinding, the dentine surface were soaked in a solution of 2% NaOCl for 30 minutes and twenty of specimens were treated with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute. The treated specimens were washed and dried, Root canal sealer, AH26 was prepared according to the manufacture's instructions The Gutta-percha and dentin surface were coated with a thin layer of the freshly mixed seal or. The specimens were left overnight at room temperature. After their initial set, they were transferred to an incubator at $37$^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. After 72 hours, resin blocks were made. The resin block was serially sectioned vertically into stick of $1{\cdot}1mm$. Twenty sticks were prepared from each group. After that, tensile bond strength f3r each stick was measured with Microtensile Tester Failure patterns of the specimens at the interface between gutta-percha and dentin were observed under the SEM(x1000) and Stereomicroscope (LEICA M42O, Meyer Inst., TX U.S.A) at 1.25 x25 magnification. The results were statistically analysed by using a One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The results were as follows; 1. Tensile bond strengths($mean{\pm}SD$) were expressed with ascending order as follows: Group 1, $3.09{\pm}$ 1.05Mpa : Group 2, $6.23{\pm}1.16MPa$ : Group 3, $7.12{\pm}1.07MPa$ : Group 4, $10.32{\pm}2.06MPa$. 2. Tensile bond strengths of the group 2 and 4 used disks of gutta-percha for conventional obturation were significantly higher than that of the group 1 and 3 used fir thermoplastic obturation. (p < 0.05). 3. Tensile bond strengths of the group 3 and 4 treated with 2% NaOC1+17% EDTA were significantly higher than that of the group 1 and 2 treated with 2% NaOCl. (p < 0.05). 4. In analysis of failure patterns at the interface between sealer and gutta-percha, there were observed 49 (61%)cases of adhesive failure patterns and 31 (39%) cases of mixed failures patterns.

Evaluation of Cerebral Aneurysm with High Resolution MR Angiography using Slice Interpolation Technique: Correlation wity Digital Subtraction Angiography(DSA) and MR Angiography(MRA) (Slice Interpolation기법의 고해상도 자기공명혈관조영술을 이용한 뇌동맥류의 진단 : 디지탈 감산 혈관조영술과 자기공명 혈관조영술의 비교)

  • ;;;Daisy Chien;Gerhard Laub
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.94-102
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    • 1997
  • Purpose: There have been some efforts to diagnose intracranial aneurysm through a non-invasive method using MRA, although the process may be difficult when the lesion is less than 3mm. The present study prospectively compares the results of high resolution, fast speed slice interpolation MRA and DSA thereby examing the potentiality of primary non-invasive screening test. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 cerebral aneurysm lesions from 14 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysm (RA) and 5 patients with unruptured aneurysm(UA). In all subjects, MRA was taken to confirm the vessel of origin, definition of aneurysm neck and the relationship of the aneurysm to nearby small vessels, and the results were compared with the results of DSA. The images were obtained with 1.5T superconductive machine (Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) on 4 slabs of MRA using slice interpolation. The settings include TR/TE/FA=30/6.4/25, matrix $160{\times}512$, FOV $150{\times}200$, 7minutes 42 seconds of scan time, effective thickness of 0.7 mm and an entire thickness of 102. 2mm. The images included structures from foramen magnum to A3 portion of anterior cerebral artery. MIP was used for the image analysis, and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) technique was used in cases of intracranial aneurysm. Results: A total of 26 intracranial aneurysm lesions from 19 patients with 2 patients having 3 lesion, 3 patients having 2 lesions and the rest of 14 patients having 1 lesion each were examined. Among those, 14 were RA and 12 were UA. Eight lesions were less than 2mm in size, 9 lesions were 3-5mm, 7 were 6-9mm and 2 were larger than IOmm. On initial exams, 25 out of 26 aneurysm lesions were detected in either MRA or DSA showing 96% sensitivity. Specificity cannot be estimated since there was no true negative of false positive findings. When MRA and MPR were used concurrently for the confirmation of size and shape, the results were equivalent to those of DSA, while in the confirmation of aneurysm neck and parent vessels, the concurrent use of MRA and MPR was far superior to the sole use of either MRA or DSA. Conclusion: High resolution MRA using slice interpolation technique showed equal results as those of DSA for the detection of intracranial aneurysm, and may be used as a primary non-invasive screening test in the future.

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A Study on the Current Fire Insurance Subscription and Solutions for Ensuring the Safety of the Traditional Market (전통시장 안전성 확보를 위한 개선방안: 화재보험 가입실태를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Yoo-Oh;Byun, Chung-Gyu;Ryu, Tae-Chang
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2011
  • Concerning the risk factors of the outbreak of a fire in a traditional market, most of those markets are located in downtown areas or residential areas; thus, although their location may be favorable in terms of marketability, they face a potential risk in that a fire may develop into a large blaze owing to poor environment or the absence of facilities prepared for disaster during a fire. Moreover, as many people are densely poised in the markets, it is very probable that a fire may occur owing to the excessive use of heaters in the winter as well as the reckless use of electric and gas facilities. It seems that traditional markets encounter difficulty being insured against fire, because of their vulnerability and that the vast majority of small-scale sellers are likely to suffer mental anguish and tremendous physical injury in case of a fire. However, most of those sellers in the traditional markets are hand-to-mouth sellers, and they lack awareness of safety concerns and have insufficient experience in safe facility management. As small-scale sellers constitute the majority in the traditional market, the subscription rate of fire insurance in most of the traditional markets is low for the reasons of their needy circumstances and their financial burden. Statistically, the subscription by street vendors is non-existent; therefore, these vendors have a fairly limited access to indemnification after fire damage. Because of these problems, this study's purpose is to identify the current level of insurance subscription by these markets, which are exposed to poor facilities and vulnerability to fire. In order to fix this, it appears that shop owners and consumers will have to band together. For this study, we executed a fire policyholder fact-finding mission at traditional markets with approximately 108 and 981 stores. The research method was executed by an investigation using one-on-one individual interviews using a questionnaire. The contents investigated current insurance subscriptions. The method of analysis looked at the difference of insured amount according to volume size through cross-tabulation of the difference of insured amount by possession form, difference of insured amount by market form, difference of insured amount by category of business, difference of insured amount by market size, etc. Furthermore, the study should be used to propose solutions for problems through theoretical review with the use of a literature research, because the field case study was through interviews with the persons concerned, and the survey of the current insurance subscriptions by traditional market shopkeepers. The traditional market would generally have difficulty affording fire insurance. Fire insurance subscription rates of most of the market proved to be inactive, because of the economic burden of payment. Lack of funds is thought to be the main factor that causes a lack of realization about the necessity of fire insurance. In addition to expensive insurance premiums, sometimes, the companies' valuation of the businesses is lower than their actual valuations, and they do not pay out enough during a claim. The research presents an improvement plan that, when presented at the traditional markets, may strengthen their ability to procure fire insurance through the help of the central government. Researchers connected with the traditional market mainly accomplish the initial research. However, although this research has its limitations, it offers considerable benefits. For future researchers, I would suggest looking at several regions for comparison.

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