• Title, Summary, Keyword: inner-openness

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ON THE LOWER SEMICONTINUITY OF THE SOLUTION SETS FOR PARAMETRIC GENERALIZED VECTOR MIXED QUASIVARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS

  • HUNG, NGUYEN VAN
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.1777-1795
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we establish sufficient conditions for the solution set of parametric generalized vector mixed quasivariational inequality problem to have the semicontinuities such as the inner-openness, lower semicontinuity and Hausdorff lower semicontinuity. Moreover, a key assumption is introduced by virtue of a parametric gap function by using a nonlinear scalarization function. Then, by using the key assumption, we establish condition ($H_h$(${\gamma}_0$, ${\lambda}_0$, ${\mu}_0$)) is a sufficient and necessary condition for the Hausdorff lower semicontinuity, continuity and Hausdorff continuity of the solution set for this problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces with the objective space being infinite dimensional. The results presented in this paper are different and extend from some main results in the literature.

A Critical Review on C. Norberg Schulz's Theory of the 'Placeness' - Centering around Heidegger's Thought of "Openness" - (노베르그-슐츠(C. Norberg-Schulz)의 '장소성' 이론에 대한 비판적 고찰 - 하이데거(Martin Heidegger)의 "개방성(Openness)"과 "틈새내기(Rift-design)" 사유를 근거로 -)

  • Lee, Seung-Heon;Lee, Dong-Eon
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.149-162
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    • 2003
  • Schulz accepted the existentialist view based on Heidegger's thought and at the same time the objectivist view making fixed this living world, evoking controversies for discussion. He could not see various presentations of the meaning of place because he perceived elements of this world individually. Thus Schulz's mixed system of understanding is sternly different from Heidegger's thought. First, Heidegger suggests that place as existential space represents the occasion revelation of incidents in Dasein. While Schulz recognizes that place is a systematic space predetermined for Dasein. Second, Heidegger interprets the placeness as creative openness in which elements comprising this world face and interact with each other into one. In contrast, Schulz defines each of the elements through signification and regards it as invariable and static. Third, Heidegger perceives that the placeness is expressed with sustainable, complex images through "rift-design" which seeks dynamic interactions between the ground and the world. While Schulz attempts to take "Genius Loci" or "habituated scene" through "gathering" as a concept he regards static and then visualize such structural two factors, producing certain internal images of place. However, limits of Schulz's theory prevent us from exerting complete imagination and discovering the inner creative world of the object. Thus the ultimate goal of paying attention to the placeness, that is, the recovery of individual identity, fails due to the prevalence and abstraction of objectified thinking. In contrast, Heidegger's thought about "openness" is a useful means of realizing the placeness. Openness may be referred to a dynamic coordination in which the earth and the world sustain each other under incessant mutual tensions, but not sticking o each other. "Rift-design" is an openness strategy to cause tense relations by preventing structuralization intentively. This is a creative design that allows seeing original seams of the object.

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A Study on the Design Character of the Wooden House in Korea -Focused on Inner Space Design of Suburbs House- (한국 도시근교 목조주택의 디자인 특성에 관한 연구(I) -내부공간 구성을 중심으로-)

  • 유영희;김란기
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • no.21
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to suggest the materials for developing the new house style by analysing the space characteristics of wood frame houses in suburbs of Seoul. For this, we analysed 45 drawings(site plan, floor plan, elevation, section) that were designed by MICHOO, WOOD-LAND, STUGA and CHOWONJUTECK company etc. The space design characteristics that we found are as follows; 1. The wood is fragile to humidity. Therefore this characteristic is especially considered in designing the space of bathroom and utility room. 2. It is the merit of wood frame house that inner space can be designed variously by using spilt-level and the slope of roof. 3.The public space and private space are completely separated in most cases and the stair is located in the middle of house. This structure of house is short of horizontal openness. Instead, most houses gets vertical openness by making second floor on the living room opev. 4. In wood frame house as the rural house, the outer space is well used by setting up deck and balcony. The outer spaces like deck and balcony are usually used as a part of life space in connected with living room, dining room, master bed room and family room. 5. The public spaces like kitchen, living room, dining room and family room are considered so important in design that those are arranged in front in order to have good outlook and directiov.

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A Study on Planning Conditions to Improve Openness assessment in Atrium (아트리움 건축의 개방감을 상승시키는 계획조건에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Lim, Jae-Han;Jung, Jin-Ju
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2008
  • Owing to a space covered by glass, atrium is an attractive space with a possibility as an inner public space but a typical building type with a high-energy load. From the aspect of global environmental issues, to reduce energy load is an important assignment to solve. Contriving a planning guideline of an opening is considered as the most effective environment adjustment method, to offer a highly assessed amenity space and secure openness to outside, keep the energy load to a minimum, and apply the natural energy such as daylight to a maximum at the same time. Users' assessment of environment was performed by questionnaire survey, then the structure of users' assessment was analyzed and design condition was regulated by multiple regression analysis. The opening design guideline to offer a highly assessed space was proposed with concrete environment adjustment method.

A Study on the Design Characteristic of Outdoor Spaces in the Apartment Complex - Focused on the Good Design Awarded Apartment Complex in the Past Decade - (국내 아파트 단지 외부공간의 디자인 특성 분석 - 최근 10년간 굿 디자인(Good Design) 수상 아파트 단지를 대상으로 -)

  • Jung, Hyun-Won;Oh, Jung-Ah
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2015
  • The subject of this research is to analyze the design characteristics of outdoor spaces in Good Design awarded apartment complexes in the past decade. The results are as follows. First, the overall outdoor space design theme, one of the conceptual elements, is focused on both 'nature' and 'story of various subject' that are similar to each other. Second, the case study object with the visual openness, which is secured between apartment blocks, is shown frequently in case box-shaped apartment blocks are arranged in a row. However, in case of Y-shaped block arrangement, the visual openness secured within an apartment complex is considered more important. Third, according to the result of circulation/ inner path element, the most frequently appeared inner path form is a grid pattern with straight path emphasis. While apartment complexes with the parking lot on the ground are only 3 out of 18 cases, it with circulation path for vehicle on the ground level are over 61%. Fourthly, the design characteristic of social space of physical outdoor design appears to be 'central link facility type'. In this case, the central community facilities are more likely to be combined with various functions, such as green, water, and social connection. Fifthly, in case of natural space, most of the apartment cases are shown over 45% green area ratio with wide green and water space provision. Especially, the differentiation is to provide the space where can stimulate a resident's participation.

Research on the Characters of Apartment Complex Public Space -Based on apartment complexes in Ulsan- (주상복합아파트 공적공간의 특성에 관한 연구 -울산광역시 주상복합아파트를 중심으로-)

  • Jung, Ji-Hyang;Lee, Ok-Sun
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2008
  • With recent trends, multi-purpose building is becoming an important thing to have significant effect on the space of multi-purpose apartment (public living place) with the interest in health and sports and social trend of "well-being." The purpose of this study is to provide the meaning of spatial function and role multi-purpose building by finding the spatial composition and constitutional characteristics and analyzing the spatial design of those apartments. Method of the study is to summary the spatial composition and constitutional characteristics by materials of building approval and pamphlets in model houses as there is no case of multi-purpose apartment completed in Ulsan. Among many factors of inner space, approachability, openness and amenity are selected by pre-research and it is analyzed to confirm if these factors are applied and planned appropriately. Based on analyzed materials, the study identifies the spatial composition and constitutional characteristics of the space of multi-purpose building that is planning to be constructed in Ulsan and suggests the problem and improvements. The space of multi-purpose apartment should be purposed to accommodate daily activities and has the meaning of existence when it is provided appropriately. In addition, the space should be designed to provide various functions and purposes for cultural enhancement of citizen in the apartment.

Difference in the Sense of Community in Open-Structure Central Squares in Apartment Complexes (공동주택 중앙광장의 개방 구조에 따른 지역 공동체의식의 차이)

  • Kang, Yon-Ju;Park, Jong-Wan;Im, Seung-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2009
  • As an alternative for restoring a sense of community which has been broken up due to urban residence redevelopment, this study focuses on structural characteristics according to physical location of central squares in apartment complexes. Central squares do not simply function as inner-aiming and self-completed spaces for the residents, but their role can be expanded to a core location which encourages neighbors to communicate and interact with each other. The suppositions for this study are as follows. Structural characteristics according to the physical locations of the central squares in apartment complexes affect apartment residents' openness toward their neighbors and non-residents' accessibility to the square. At the same time, it influences the sense of community. In addition, psychological distance which is represented as psychological openness and accessibility forms a reciprocal relationship with the sense of community. For the study, we first categorized central squares as either open-structure or closed-structure based on how accessible it is from outside the apartment complex. According to these types of central squares, Sillim Prugio, Banghak Deasang Town Hyundai, Gwanak Prugio and Banghak Samsung Raemian 1 which have similar conditions and different structures were selected as sites of the study. Then each apartment complex was classified by apartment residents and non-residents so that eight groups were prepared for the survey. The results of the questionnaire survey especially regarding measuring the sense of community, psychological openness and accessibility indicated that the suppositions were right. Hence, the sense of community, psychological openness and accessibility are high in a central square with an open-structure while high standards of psychological openness and accessibility guarantee a positive sense of community. This study is meaningful in that it verifies that the physical location of central squares is reciprocally related to psychological openness, accessibility and a sense of community. At the same time, this study may serve as theoretical grounds for the planning and construction of practical central squares.

A Study on the Spatial Characteristics of 'Gwan-gajung' by Analysis of Boundary (觀稼亭'의 경계구조분석을 통한 공간적 특성)

  • 김미나;김경희
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to make clear the identity of Korean traditional housing. And I'm trying to search characteristics of boundary in Korean traditional housing. In this study, I have analyzed boundary of ‘Gwan-gajung’. It is constructed on a square shaped plan, there is an elegant middle court, and a counter-roofed shrine house in the rear of the inner building. In this study, the definition of boundary is made based on what has been perceived as the proper structure, whose characteristics can be described in terms of openness, inside and outside parts and orientation. As a critical factor to spatial qualities, boundary is closely related with the connection and disconnection, background and atmosphere, and inferior and superior relations and hierarchical order from the view of space. The result of study is like followings. The characteristics of boundary in Korean traditional housing is 1. one way direction of penetrability, 2. having the face and the back 3. orientation 4. duplication.

A Study on Spacial Characteristics of Stairs in Architectural Space (계단의 공간적 특성 연구)

  • 이승우
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • no.39
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2003
  • From long time ago, stairs are performed the central role of vertical circulation system in architectural planning for convenience of human. The purpose of this study is to find the spacial characteristics of stairs in architectural space. Two methods In this study are discussed. First, it is to extract the formal elements in its stairs shape raising an impulse of visual-perceptible recognition. Second, it is to analysis its characteristic through relationship between stairs and spacial elements. In conclusion, the characteristics of stairs in architectural space have as follows 1) spatial connection - to connect between space and other space or masses; 2) spatial separation - to separate between inner space and other space; 3) openness or closeness of space; 4) directed-tention of space.

How the Purchasers Perceive the Effects of the Unit Characteristics within Complex on the Apartment Price (구매자가 인식하는 단지 내 아파트 단위주거 특성의 가격 반영 정도)

  • 허진선;양세화
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to examine how the purchasers perceive the effects of the unit characteristics within the complex on the apartment prices. Six major characteristics of the apartments : orientations and floors; views; structures; conditions and maintenances of interior materials; interior alterations; and access to the outdoor facilities were included for the analysis. The data were gathered from 284 households in seven private apartment complexes in Ulsan. It was found that the price of the apartment was higher if it was southward, on the royal or semi-royal floors, with the nice view for the riverside or any other landscape resources, or openness. Other characteristics which increase the price were the hall type not the corridor one, inner side of the building, good conditions of interior materials, and extended balcony.