• Title, Summary, Keyword: insect pest

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Hybridization and Use Of Grapes as an Oviposition Substrate Improves the Adaptation of Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Artificial Rearing Conditions

  • Sohel, Ahmad;Viwat, Wornoayporn;Polychronis, Rempoulakis;Emily A., Fontenot;Ul Haq, Ihsan;Carlos, Caceres;Hannes F., Paulus;Marc J.B., Vreysen
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2014
  • The olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is the key pest for olive cultivation worldwide. Substantial effort has been invested in the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest. One of the limitations to develop SIT technology for olive fruit fly is the low ability of wild females to lay eggs in other medium than olive fruits, and their slow adaptation to oviposition in artificial substrates. In the present study, fruit grapes were used as an alternative egg collection medium to harvest eggs and young larvae from freshly colonized wild strains originating from France, Italy, Spain and Croatia. The larvae were allowed to develop into the fruits until the second instar, before they were extracted out and further reared on a standard artificial diet. Furthermore, F1 to F4 female flies were alternatively offered wax bottles to oviposit. Finally, the performance of hybrid strains created from crosses between wild and long colonised flies was assessed. The results showed that females of all 4 wild strains readily oviposited eggs in grapes and from the F2 generation onward, females from all strains were adapted to laying eggs in wax bottles. No difference was observed in eggs and pupae production among all strains tested. The findings are discussed for their implications on SIT application against olive fruit fly.

Artificial rearing of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in the Sterile Insect Technique: improvements of the egg collection system

  • Ahmad, Sohel;Haq, Ihsan ul;Rempoulakis, Polychronis;Orozco, Dina;Jessup, Andrew;Caceres, Carlos;Paulus, Hannes;Vreysen, Marc J.B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2016
  • One major constraint in the development and implementation of a successful and cost-effective area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme with a SIT component for Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the ability to produce a large number of high quality mass-reared individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a more efficient and practical egg collection system in an attempt to improve the mass-rearing of this species. The following basic parameters were examined: egg production per female, egg hatch, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence and percentage of fliers. Three different strains (Israel wild-type, France wild-type, and Greece laboratory) were tested and each strain was evaluated for six generations. Female flies of the Israel strain produced significantly more eggs per female than the other two strains, but egg hatch was significantly lower. Egg hatch of the France wild type and the Greece laboratory strain was similar. For all other parameters, there was no significant difference between strains; however, there was a significant generational effect for all parameters observed. As a result of this study, a protocol was developed for the mass-rearing of this species that included the use of large adult holding cages that could house up to 96,000 flies per cage. The newly developed method of egg collection using a flat wax panel as one of the sides of an adult holding cage proved to be cost-effective, efficient, making colony growth easier for industrial mass-rearing.

Chemical ecology in Insect Pest Mangement

  • Guan, Zhi-He
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.276-288
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    • 1992
  • In this paper, the author gave a brief review on the meaning and background involving the growth of chemical ecology. Semichemicals which might be developed as insect control techniques incorporating in IPM program were described. The relevant semichemicals were grouped under separate topics including intraspecific semiochemicals, or pheromones (sex pheromones, alarm pheromones, and epidiectic pheromones), and interspecific semiochemicals, or allelochemics (allomones of Plant origin, and kairomones favoring natural enemies). Here, the author dealt with those of practical aspects only. The prospects of chemical ecology in insect pest management were also proposed.

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Damage Report on a Newly Recorded Coleopteran Pest, Aphanisticus congener (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from Turfgrass in Korea

  • Kang, Byunghun;Kabir, Faisal Md.;Bae, Eun-Ji;Lee, Gwang Soo;Jeon, Byungduk;Lee, Dong Woon
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2016
  • Aphanisticus congener is a newly recorded buprestid (Coleoptera) insect pest of turfgrass in Korea. This buprestid pest was initially found from turfgrass conservation site in a greenhouse in Jinju, Gyeongnam province, Korea in July, 2014. The Aphanisticus in the family Buprestidae is a leaf miner. A. congener is the close species of A. aeneus which was firstly reported as sugarcane leaf sucker in India. A. congener was active from early July to late August in the greenhouse. Damage by the insect led to drying out and browning of turfgrass leaf because larva fed on cell sap of leaves and adult fed on leaf surface. A. congener damaged Zoysia japonica, Z. sinica, Conodon dactylon, and Poa pratensis when adults were artificially released into potted turfgrasses in the laboratory. In green house, A. congener damaged Z. japonica, Z. macrostachya, Z. matrella, Z. sinica, Conodon dactylon, and hybrid zoysiagrass. However, no damage symptoms were observed from the same turfgrass accessions in the nearby field of the greenhouse. Thus, the new coleopteran pest may be a warm-adapted pest for turfgrass, damaging turfgrass leaf only in warmer conditions.

Insect Pest Control Technique Using dsRNA (dsRNA를 이용한 해충방제 기술)

  • Kim, Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 2017
  • Gene silencing using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been widely used in functional genomics in biological organisms. Its principle stems from RNA interference (RNAi), a post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Suppression of specific gene expression using dsRNA may give significant lethal effect. Insect pest control exploits this molecular process to develop novel insecticides using specific dsRNAs. This review explains core principles of RNAi using dsRNA. Then it illustrates various examples to control insect pests using dsRNAs. It also discusses limitations to control insect pests using dsRNAs. Finally, it provides several breakthroughs to develop dsRNA insecticides.

An Integrated Approach in the Pest Management in Sericulture

  • Singh, R.N.;Saratchandra, Beera
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2002
  • The success of sericulture industry in India is mainly attributed to the well-planned annual sericultural activity and the systematic implementation of pest preventive and control measures. The insect spectrum of silkworm and its food plants is complex and plays a major role in limiting the production of silk. Insects cause extensive damage to plant whereas predators and parasites either kill the silkworm larvae or force them to spin flimsy cocoons. Unilateral control measure against this pest is mainly based on the use of synthetic organic insecticides. Though these approaches initially paid rich dividends, the undesirable consequences soon surfaced. Insecticide induced resurgence of gall midges, leafhopper, leaf roller, secondary pest out breaks and development of pest biotypes has led to realization of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Various components of IPM, viz. Host plant resistance, cultural practices, biological control, chemical control and integrating them at various technological levels have been studied. Sources of host plant resistance have been identified for some of the major insect pests. High yielding mulberry variety has been propagated and their resistances towards major pests have been recorded. Cultural practices like pruning, pollarding, judicious use of nitrogen, optimum spacing and weed management have preyed to be the powerful tools in containing pests. Natural control over the pest population build- up exerted by the wide range of parasitoids, predators and pathogens has been well documented with identification of natural enemies and studies on their potential. Augmentation, through inoculation or inundative releases of parasitic arthropods, is the most direct way of increasing the numbers of these beneficials in sericulture.

Effects of Insect Screen Net on Insect Pest Control for Jujube (방충망에 의한 대추 해충 방제 효과)

  • Lee, Seong-Kyun;Lee, Kyeong-Hee;Oh, Ha-Kyung;Lee, Jong-Won;Kim, Chung-Woo;Kang, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Sang-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.619-630
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    • 2017
  • In recent years, not only the cultivation area of Jujube in Korea but also the number of pest species has increased. The farmers farming environmentally friendly are in great difficulty because there are no effective control devices. This study was conducted to investigate the control effect of the insect screen net on three pest species (Apolygus spinolae, Dasineura sp. and Carposina sasakii) in Jujube orchard when the pests were blocked by insect screen net. For the first and second surveys, the damage rates by A. spinolae were 9.06, 13.95% in 50 mesh, 4.75, 10.17% in 25 mesh, 5.68, 11.84% in 18mesh mesh of insect screen net and 21.6, 36.34% in untreated insect screen net, respectively. The damage rates by Dasineura sp. were 0.54, 0.13% in 50 mesh, 0.93, 2.84% in 25 mesh, 1.05, 13.45% in 18 mesh mesh of insect screen net and 11.1, 26.65% in untreated insect screen net. Carposina sasakii were completely blocked in all the treatments. Damages on Jujube were not observed by insect screen net. Therefore, insect screen net is effective on insect pest control for Jujube.

Research Review on Turfgrass Insect Pests in Korea (한국의 잔디해충 연구사)

  • Choo, Ho Yul;Lee, Dong Woon
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2017
  • Insect pests have been one of the main constraints affecting turf sod cultivation areas, playgrounds, parks, golf courses, airports and other related recreational grounds. However, turfgrass research has been very limited and confined within a limited period of time compared to other branches of crop science in Korea. This review was surveyed from all papers in KCI (Korea Citation Index), SCI (Scientific Citation Index) and SCIE (SCI Expended) journals related to turfgrass research in Korea. Fifty two papers concerning turfgrass insect pest in Korea have hitherto been published in 8 different scientific journals since 1990. Thirty three papers (63.5% of total) were published in Weed and Turfgrass Science. The main topics of focus were divided into two parts; ecological study and control of insect pests. Before the 1990 decade, there were no scientific papers published in relation to turfgrass insect pest science. However, during the 1990, 2000 and 2010 decades, 9, 10 and 14 papers were published respectively in Weed and Turfgrass Science. From 1997, about 2 papers were published per year in the scientific journals. Thirty three insect pest species belonging to 13 families in 6 orders, one Eriophyidae mite, Aceria zoysia and one Armadillidae sowbug, Armadillidium vulgare, have hitherto been listed as turfgrass arthropod pests in Korea. Fifty percent of turfgrass insect pest papers published were focused on whitegrub, Adoretus tenuimaculatus, Popillia quadrigutta and earthworm research in Korea.

An investigation of insect pest on the Mushroom (Lentinus edode, Pleurotus ostreatus) in south region of Korea.) (한국남부 표고버섯 및 느타리버섯 재배지에 분포된 해충상에 관한 연구)

  • 김규진;황창연
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 1996
  • As the pest of the Letinus edoeds, five insect species and six animal species are investigated injuring the fresh mushroom. Of these, insect and animals, Achorutes armatus, Scaphidium amurense and Philomycus confusa caused severe damage to mushroom fruitbody, and a greate deal of damage was done to mushroom lamella by mites (Rhizoglyphis sp., and Histiostoma sp.). As the pest of Lentinus edodes bed logs, two insect species from immature bed logs, eight insects and one isopod species from matured bed logs were investigated. Of those, Moechotypa diphysis was found to be the most injurious species from both immature and matured bed logs. As the pest of Pleurotus ostreatus, six insects and the two mite species were investigated from sporophore. Of those, Lycoriella sp. and Mycophilla sp. are considered to be very serious. while two insects and five mite species were investigated from the mushroom bed. Of those, one insect (Lycoriella sp.) and two mites (Histiostoma feroniarum and Throglyphus bankslogior) found to be abundant and caused serious damage.

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Sampling, Surveillance and Forecasting of Insect Population for Integrated Pest Management in Sericulture

  • Singh, R.N.;Maheshwari, M.;Saratchandra, B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2004
  • Pest monitoring through field surveys and surveillance helps in forecasting the population build up of pest. It reduces the load of pesticides application and forms the basis of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Common sampling techniques for quantifying pest populations and damage caused by them are reviewed emphasizing the need for quick and simple sampling methods. Various direct and indirect sampling methods for establishing pest populations are discussed and methods have been discussed to use indirect sampling method under IPM programme in sericulture. The use of pheromone lures and traps forms one of the important ingredients of integrated pest management, which calls for integration of all available methods in a cost effective and environmental friendly manner offering consistent efficacy. Silk-worms feed on the variety of silk host plants and spin cocoons. Each silk host plant is attacked in the field by number of insect pest species. Several pests are common to mulberry, tasar, oak tasar, muga and eri host plant but pest status and seasonal abundance differs from each crop. The key pests are serious perennially occurring persistent species which cause considerable yield loss every year on large areas and require control measure. Regular occurrence of minor pest is noticed but sudden increase in its population is not known. The occasional pests are sporadic but potential causing sufficient damage. Silk losses due to attack of all the pests have not been calculated. However, information on pest biology and ecology, and control practices being practiced is available but the period of outbreak of major pests and predators on silkworms and its host plant needs to be reinvestigated. Pest and predators forecasting based on surveillance information may provide an opportunity to minimize the losses, particularly to reduce expenditure involved in pest management.