• Title, Summary, Keyword: interlaminar epidural steroid injection

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Unintentional lumbar facet joint injection guided by fluoroscopy during interlaminar epidural steroid injection: a retrospective analysis

  • Kim, Min Jae;Choi, Yun Suk;Suh, Hae Jin;Kim, You Jin;Noh, Byeong Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2018
  • Background: An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a commonly administered procedure in pain clinics. An unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during interlaminar ESI was reported in a previous study, but there has not been much research on the characteristics of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection. This study illustrated the imaging features of an unintentional lumbar facet joint injection during an interlaminar ESI and analyzed characteristics of patients who underwent this injection. Methods: From December 2015 to May 2017, we performed 662 lumbar ESIs and we identified 24 cases (21 patients) that underwent a lumbar facet joint injection. We gathered data contrast pattern, needle approach levels and directions, injected facet joint levels and directions, presence of lumbar spine disease as seen on magnetic resonance images (MRI), and histories of lumbar spine surgeries. Results: The contrast pattern in the facet joint has a sigmoid or ovoid contrast pattern confined to the vicinity of the facet joint. The incidence of unintentional lumbar facet joint injection was 3.6%. The mean age was 68.47 years. Among these 21 patients, 14 (66.7%) were injected in the facet joint ipsilaterally to the needle approach. Among the 20 patients who received MRI, all (100%) had central stenosis and 15 patients (75%) had severe stenosis. Conclusions: When the operator performs an interlaminar ESI on patients with central spinal stenosis, the contrast pattern on the fluoroscopy during interlaminar ESI should be carefully examined to distinguish between the epidural space and facet joint.

Delayed Pneumocephalus Following Fluoroscopy Guided Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection : A Rare Complication and Anatomical Considerations

  • Kim, Yeon-Dong;Ham, Hyang-Do;Moon, Hyun-Seog;Kim, Soo-Han
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.376-378
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    • 2015
  • Cervical epidural steroid injection is indicated for radicular symptoms with or without axial neck pain. Complications are rare but can be serious. Here, we report the case of a 54-year-old man with cervical radicular pain who was treated with cervical epidural steroid injection. Injection was administered twice under fluoroscopic guidance with the loss-of-resistance technique using air to confirm the epidural space. After the second procedure, the patient complained of severe persistent headache and was diagnosed with pneumocephalus on brain computed tomography. The patient returned home without any neurological complication, after a few days of conservative treatment. Though, a fluoroscopic guidance cervical epidural injection is also known to diminish the risk of complications. Physicians should always keep in mind that it does not guarantee safety, particularly in the cervical region, related to its anatomical considerations.

An Analysis of Pattern of Transforaminal Epidurography (경추간공 경막외 조영술의 양상에 관한 분석)

  • Hong, Ji Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2006
  • Background: A transforaminal epidural steroid injection has been used for the treatment of radicular arm or leg pain, which has the advantage of ventral epidural spreading compared to either an interlaminar or caudal approach. However, several factors are known to affect the epidural spread pattern of contrast dye; therefore, the injected medication can not be delivered to the target site. The objective of our study was to observe any differences in the contrast flow patterns according to several factors. Methods: A total of 34 epidurographies in 29 patients, who underwent fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural steroid injections, were evaluated. After confirming the location of the needle tip within the anterior superior aspect of the neural foramen in the lateral view, and at the 6 o'clock position to the pedicle in the anteroposterior view, 2 ml of contrast dye was injected. The contrast flow patterns of ventral, ventral and dorsal, and dorsal epidural filling were analyzed, according to age, gender, magnetic resonance imaging finding and history of previous back surgery. Results: Ventral contrast flow occurred in 30 out of the 34 epidurographies (88%). Both ventral and dorsal contrast flow patterns were observed 13 out of 16 (81%) patients in the older age group. Also, both ventral and dorsal contrast flow patterns were observed in 16 out of 18 (88%) patients with spinal stenosis. Conclusions: Transforaminal epidural steroid injections, performed uner fluoroscopy, provide excellent nerve root filling and ventral epidural spreading. Patients with spinal stenosis or an old age have both ventral and dorsal epidural spreading patterns.

Correlation between Epidurographic Contrast Flow Patterns and Clinical Effectiveness in Chronic Lumbar Discogenic Radicular Pain Treated with Epidural Steroid Injections Via Different Approaches

  • Gupta, Ruchi;Singh, Saru;Kaur, Sukhdeep;Singh, Kulvinder;Aujla, Kuljeet
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 2014
  • Background: Epidural steroid injections are an accepted procedure for the conservative management of chronic backache caused by lumbar disc pathology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidurographic findings for the midline, transforaminal and parasagittal approaches in lumbar epidural steroid injections, and correlating them with the clinical improvement. Methods: Sixty chronic lower back pain patients with unilateral radiculitis from a herniated/degenerated disc were enrolled. After screening the patients according to the exclusion criteria and randomly allocating them to 3 groups of 20 patients, fluoroscopic contrast enhanced epidural steroids were injected via midline (group 1), transforaminal (group 2) and parasagittal interlaminar (group 3) approaches at the level of the pathology. The fluoroscopic patterns of the three groups were studied and correlated with the clinical improvement measured by the VAS over the next 3 months; any incidences of complications were recorded. Results: The transforaminal group presented better results in terms of VAS reduction than the midline and parasagittal approach groups (P < 0.05). The epidurography showed a better ventral spread for both the transforaminal (P < 0.001) and the paramedian approaches (P < 0.05), as compared to the midline approach. The nerve root filling was greater in the transforaminal group (P < 0.001) than in the other two groups. The ventral spread of the contrast agent was associated with improvement in the VAS score and this difference was statistically significant in group 1 (P < 0.05), and highly significant in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). In all the groups, any complications observed were transient and minor. Conclusions: The midline and paramedian approaches are technically easier and statistically comparable, but clinically less efficacious than the transforaminal approach. The incidence of ventral spread and nerve root delineation show a definite correlation with clinical improvement. However, an longer follow-up period is advisable for a better evaluation of the actual outcom.

Paraplegia Following Intercostal Nerve Neurolysis with Alcohol and Thoracic Epidural Injection in Lung Cancer Patient

  • Kim, Byoung Ho;No, Min Young;Han, Sang Ju;Park, Cheol Hwan;Kim, Jae Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.148-152
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    • 2015
  • The goal of cancer treatment is generally pain reduction and function recovery. However, drug therapy does not treat pain adequately in approximately 43% of patients, and the latter may have to undergo a nerve block or neurolysis. In the case reported here, a 42-year-old female patient with lung cancer (adenocarcinoma) developed paraplegia after receiving T8-10 and $11^{th}$ intercostal nerve neurolysis and T9-10 interlaminar epidural steroid injections. An MRI results revealed extensive swelling of the spinal cord between the T4 spinal cord and conus medullaris, and T5, 7-11, and L1 bone metastasis. Although steroid therapy was administered, the paraplegia did not improve.

A Comparison of the Spread Level of the Cervical Epidural Block in Terms of Volume (경부 경막외 차단 시 약물의 용량에 따른 분포 양상 비교)

  • Jo, Dae hyun;Kim, Myoung hee;Ahn, Sun Yeon;Park, Sa Hyun;Lee, Kang Chang
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.46-49
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    • 2007
  • Background: Cervical epidural injection, performed via the interlaminar approach, represents a useful interventional pain management procedure indicated in patients with a cervical herniated disk. Due to thedecreased epidural space in the cervical region, cervical epidural injections may result in potentially serious complications, especially during a large volume injection. Methods: Thirty-four patients with neck pain due to a cervical herniated disk that were referred to the pain clinic for cervical epidural steroid injection were randomized into two groups. One group received a cervical epidural injection of 4 ml drug and the other group received 2 ml drug. The injected mixture included triamcinolon, ropivacaine and omnipaque. Spread levels of the drug after injection were estimated with the use of C-arm fluoroscopy. Results: Spread levels to the cephalad for patients in the two groups were $4.88{\pm}0.78segments$ and $4.53{\pm}0.49segments$, respectively. Spread levels to the caudad for patients in the two groups were $4.59{\pm}0.93segments$ and $4.47{\pm}0.51segments$, respectively. The results showed no significant difference in the spread level between the two groups. Conclusions: Use of a small volume of drug (2 ml) can provide a sufficient spread level of the injected drug that is desirable for patients with a cervical herniated disk.

Comparison of effectiveness for fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroid in cervical post-surgery syndrome

  • Manchikanti, Laxmaiah;Malla, Yogesh;Cash, Kimberly A;Pampati, Vidyasagar;Hirsch, Joshua A
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.277-288
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    • 2018
  • Background: Neck and back pain are leading sources of disability placing substantial burden on health care systems. Surgical interventions in managing chronic neck pain secondary to various disorders continue to increase. Even though surgical interventions are effective, a significant proportion of patients continue to have symptomatology and develop cervical post-surgery syndrome. This study was performed to know the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids. Methods: The effectiveness of fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections in post-surgery syndrome was evaluated in a randomized, active controlled trial. The study population included 116 patients assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 received cervical interlaminar epidural injections with local anesthetic alone and Group 2 received injection with local anesthetic and steroids. The main outcomes were defined as significant improvement (greater than 50%) of pain relief using the numeric rating scale and/or functional status improvement using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Results: Both groups had similar results with significant improvement (${\geq}50%$ pain relief and functional status improvement) in 69% of the patients in Group I, whereas, in Group II, 71% of the patients showed significant improvement at the end of 2 years. During a 2-year period, the average number of procedures was 5 to 6, with an average of approximately 12 weeks of significant improvement per procedure. Conclusions: Fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections administered in cervical post-surgery syndrome using local anesthetic, regardless of the use of steroids, may be effective in approximately 70% of the patients at 2-year follow-up.

Quantitative assessment of steroid amount in the tissue after epidural steroid injection: a new rabbit model

  • Cho, Jungheum;Lee, Joon Woo;Lee, Eugene;Kang, Yusuhn;Cho, Ha Ra;Kim, Dong Yoon;Ho, Myoung Jin;Kang, Myung Joo;Choi, Yong Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.264-270
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    • 2019
  • Background: To develop a rabbit epidural steroid injection (ESI) model for analyzing steroid retention in the tissue, and to assess the difference in steroid retention in the model according to the location and time elapsed after ESI. Methods: Fluoroscopy-guided ESI was performed using the interlaminar approach between the lowest two lumbar segments in 13 female New Zealand white rabbits. Four rabbits were allocated to each of three different groups according to the time of sacrifice: 3, 7, and 15 days post-ESI; the remaining rabbit was sacrificed immediately post-ESI to obtain baseline data. After sacrifice, two segments were harvested: the lowest two lumbar vertebrae and another two lumbar vertebrae immediately above these. The residual steroid amount (RSA) and residual steroid concentration (RSC) in the collected spinal columns were analyzed. A linear mixed model was used to compare RSAs and RSCs between the injected and adjacent segments, and among the number of days until sacrifice; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Both RSA and RSC of the injected segment were significantly higher than those of the adjacent segment (P < 0.001, both). The RSA and RSC significantly decreased over time (P = 0.009 and P = 0.016, respectively). Conclusions: The developed rabbit ESI model verified that significantly more steroid was retained at the injected segment than at the adjacent segment and the residual steroid decreased over time. This model could be useful not only for comparing current steroid medications, but also for developing new, better steroid formulations.

Effect of Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: Analysis According to the Neck Pain Patterns and MRI Findings

  • Choi, Ji Won;Lim, Hyung Woo;Lee, Jin Young;Lee, Won Il;Lee, Eun Kyung;Chang, Choo Hoon;Yang, Jae Young;Sim, Woo Seog
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2016
  • Background: It is widely accepted that cervical interlaminar steroid injection (CIESI) is more effective in treating radicular pain than axial neck pain, but without direct comparison. And the differences of effect after CIESI according to MRI findings are inconsistent. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic response of CIESI according to pain sites, durations, MRI findings, and other predictive factors altogether, unlike previous studies, which evaluated them separately. Methods: The medical records of 128 patients who received fluoroscopy guided CIESI were analyzed. We evaluated the therapeutic response (more than a 50% reduction on the visual analog scale [VAS] by their second visit) after CIESI by (1) pain site; neck pain without radicular pain/radicular pain with or without neck pain, (2) pain duration; acute/chronic (more than 6 month), and (3) findings of MRI; herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD)/spinal stenosis, respectively and altogether. Results: Eighty-eight patients (68%) responded to CIESI, and there were no significant differences in demographic data, initial VAS score, or laboratory findings. And there were no significant differences in the response rate relating to pain site, pain duration, or MRI findings, respectively. In additional analysis, acute radicular pain with HIVD patients showed significantly better response than chronic neck pain with spinal stenosis (P = 0.04). Conclusions: We cannot find any sole predictive factor of therapeutic response to the CIESI. But the patients having acute radicular pain with HIVD showed the best response, and those having other chronic neck pain showed the worst response to CIESI.

Comparison of clinical efficacy in epidural steroid injections through transforaminal or parasagittal approaches

  • Hong, Ji Hee;Park, Eun Kyul;Park, Ki Bum;Park, Ji Hoon;Jung, Sung Won
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2017
  • Background: The transforaminal (TF) epidural steroid injection (ESI) is suggested as more effective than the interlaminar (IL) route due to higher delivery of medication at the anterior epidural space. However, serious complications such as spinal cord injury and permanent neural injury have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the clinical effectiveness, technical ease, and safety of the TF and parasagittal IL (PIL) ESI. Methods: A total of 72 patients were randomized to either the PIL group (n = 41) or the TF group (n = 31) under fluoroscopic guidance. Patients were evaluated for effective pain relief by the numerical rating scale (NRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (%) before and 2 weeks after the ESI. The presence of concordant paresthesia, anterior epidural spread, total procedure time, and exposed radiation dose were also evaluated. Results: Both the PIL and TF approach produced similar clinically significant improvements in pain and level of disability. Among the 72 patients, 27 PIL (66%) and 20 TF (64%) patients showed concordant paresthesia while 14 (34%) and 11 (36%) patients in the same respective order showed disconcordant or no paresthesia. Radiation dose and total procedure time required were compared; the PIL group showed a significantly lower radiation dose ($30.2{\pm}12$ vs. $80.8{\pm}26.8$ [$Cgy/cm^2$]) and shorter procedure time ($96.2{\pm}31$ vs. $141.6{\pm}30$ seconds). Conclusions: ESI under fluoroscopic guidance with PIL or TF approach were effective in reducing the NRS and ODI. PIL ESI was a technically easier and simple method compared to TF ESI.