• Title, Summary, Keyword: internal sizing

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Development of Synthetic Sizing Agent Using Recycling Polyethylene Terephthalate and its Sizing Efficiency (Part 2) - Sizing efficiency of modified PET - (재활용 PET를 활용한 합성 사이즈제 개발 및 종이의 내수성 부여에 관한 연구 (제2보) - 개질 PET의 내수특성 평가 -)

  • Park, Jae-Seok;Kim, Hyoung-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2010
  • For the development of higher-sizing performance of paper, a sizing agent using recycled PET was synthesised. Polyester resin was extracted from wasted PET by subcritical hydrolysis and finally modified to synthetic sizing agent by mixing water-disperse PET with triphenyl phosphite(TPP). The modified PET was considered as an internal sizing agent in different wet-end papermaking conditions. The optimum condition in sizing efficiency was obtained in initial pH of 6.5 in case of rosin+alum system, and 7.5 in case of rosin+alum+PET system, respectively, and in addition amount of PET 3%. The sizing efficiency was also closely related according to the fiber properties of wet-end slurry, such as virgin fibres from UKP and recycled fibres from KOCC. The application of modified PET was good in strength improvement of paper, specially in tensile strength.

The Influence of Paper Stock Type on Characteristics of Sizing (지료조성에 따른 종이의 사이징 특성)

  • Cheong Sang Jin;Kim Bong Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influence of paper stock type and heat treatment on sizing effect. Various types of pulps were used to make handsheets sized internally with AKD(alkyl ketene dimer) and externally with CMC(carboxyl methyl cellulose). Most of the handsheets were treated with heat by dry oven $(100^{\circ}C,\;30min)$ to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on sizing development. Internal sizing development of newsprint was very bad, but the effect of heat treatment was much higher than those of NBKP, BCTMP. In case of surface sizing, newsprint was more effective compared to the other pulps. Considering above mentioned results, it seems that internal sizing slows down water into paper by molecular diffusion much more than capillary penetration, but surface sizing slows down capillary penetration. With regard to density, a higher thickness sheets showed high heat treatment effect on sizing, therefore it assumed that heat treatment effect on sizing had very close relationship with sheet density.

Characterization of Base Paper Properties on Coating Penetration

  • Kim, Bong-Yang;Douglas W. Bousfield
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2003
  • The influence of base paper properties and fiber type on coating penetration was studied in terms of characterization of coating holdout using two types of hand sheets as the base paper which were prepared from thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and hardwood bleached kraft pulp(KP) sized internally with alkyl ketene dimmer (AKD). Laboratory rod draw down coater was used for surface sizing and coating application. Characterization of coating penetration was done by measuring the roughness of the backside of coating layer. The backside of the coating was exposed by dissolving the fibers in a solution of cupriethylenedimine (CEO). Data show that internal sizing of base paper is effective and surface sizing is more effective to prevent coating penetration. Comparing between the two types of base papers, backside roughness of coating layer of TMP sheet is much larger and sizing is more effective to reduce coating penetration than those of KP sheet. From the result of water absorption and sizing degree after surface sizing, it seems that internal sizing slows down molecular diffusion much more than capillary penetration, but surface sizing reduces the capillary penetration. Furthermore, predominant mechanism of water into paper of TMP sheet seems to be capillary penetration, but it is molecular diffusion in the case of KP sheet.

Fundamental Study on the Substitution of Surface Sizing Using Internal Starches(Part 1) (내첨 전분을 이용한 표면사이징 대체에 관한 기초연구(제1보))

  • Kim, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Ji-Young;Back, Kyung-Kil;Lee, Young-Rok;Chung, Ho-Kyung;Lee, Hui-Jin;Gwak, Hye-Joeng
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.20-25
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    • 2009
  • Many researches are carried out for developing the technology to substitute the surface sizing, although this process improves physical properties and water resistance of paper. This is because surface sizing has fundamental limitation to increase drying energy consumption and to restrict speed of paper machine. However, practical and effective technologies were not developed yet. In this study, we investigated the possibility of the substitution of surface sizing using internal starches, such as cationic starch and oxidized starch. To identify effects of internal starches on physical and optical properties, papers were not only made by adding internal starches into pulp slurry but papers surface sized with oxidized starch were also prepared to compare physical and optical properties. Consequently, tensile strength and internal bond of paper containing internal starches were higher than those of surface sized paper by controlling the type and addition level of cationic starch.

Development of Synthetic Sizing Agent Using Recycling Polyethylene Terephtahalate and its Sizing Efficiency (Part 1) - Manufacture of sizing agent with recycling PET - (재활용 PET를 활용한 합성 사이즈제 개발 및 종이의 내수성 부여에 관한 연구 (제1보) - 재활용 PET를 이용한 내수제 제조 -)

  • Park, Jae-Seok;Kim, Hyoung-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2008
  • Polyethylene terephtahalate has been used in several areas such as fiber, film, bottle, and disposable products. Production of PET has been rapidly increasing these days. Since PET is a semi-permanent material, it has a non-biodegradable character in itself. Wasted PET products can cause serious environmental problems. Many countries around the world impose environmental legal restrictions over their abandonments. Many researches on the enviromental influence factors and treatment techniques of the wasted PET have been carried out. The main objective of this study is to develop a new sizing agent using recycling PET and improve its internal sizing effect. Dried powder of PET was used to make the modified PET. After extracting water-dispersible PET by subcritical hydrolysis, polyester resins have been extracted and triphenyl phosphate(TPP) has been added to obtain optimal internal sizing agent. It was found that the optimum dosage of TPP was 2% (per PET weight) and the hydrolysis temperature was independent on making the modified PET.

Total sizing system (총 사이징 시스템)

  • Proverb, Robert J.;Pawlowska, Lucyna;Komarowska, Kasia;Garro, Gina;Dilts, Kimberly
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.19-42
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    • 2004
  • Sizing properties in paper are generally developed through the application of both internal and surface sizes. Rosin, wax, and synthetic sizes including ASA, AKD, and stearic anhydride are and have been used to provide wet-end sizing to paper. In many cases, the use of some of these sizes leads to runnability problems that are inherent in the wet-end operation. Variability in furnish, fines, broke, filler, water chemistry, conductivity, and pH control impacts the wet-end operation. Size press chemicals including starch and polymers such as styrene-acrylic, styrene-maleic, and styrene acrylate emulsions are used in conjunction with internal sizes to improve the paper surface for printing and strength properties, porosity, and opacity improvement. This paper will discuss results from a new, proprietary formulation and process that allows application of sizing chemistry more totally at the size press with reduced emphasis on wet end sizing. Runnability issues are thus minimized at the wet-end, chemical usage is more efficient, and significant cost savings can be realized. Case histories will be presented illustrating the advantages of this new application in commercial trials.

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The Study on Hardware Sizing Method Based on the Calculating (계산에 기초한 하드웨어 도입 규모산정 방식 연구)

  • Ra, Jong-Hei;Choi, Kwang-Don;Jung, Hae-Yong
    • Journal of Information Technology Services
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2006
  • According to the policy for "e-Korea construction" of Korean government, Investment of information system during the past decade are dramatically increasing. More than a half of this investment is cost of hardware infrastructure. So, accurate hardware sizing are essential for higher efficiency of investment. Accurate hardware sizing benefits are generally viewed in terms of the avoidance of excess equipment and lost opportunity costs by not being able to support business needs. Unfortunately, however, little research effort to make the hardware sizing methodology are doing. We propose a sizing method for information system in public sector. This method is determinate empirical study that are gathering and analyzing cases, making method and reviewing expert. Finally we are proposed calculating method for hardware components that is CPU, memory, internal and external disk according to the application system type which is OLTP, Web, WAS. Our study certainly will act as a catalyst for higher investment-efficiency of the future information programs in public sector.

Influence of Base Paper Properties on Coating Penetration

  • Kim, Bong-Yong;Bousfield, Douglas W.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.148-153
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    • 2003
  • The influence of sizing, fiber and pigment type on coating penetration, using commercial paper and two types of handsheets as the base paper which were prepared from thermomechanical pulp(TMP) and hardwood bleached kraft pulp(KP) sized internally with alkyl ketone dimmer(AKD), was studied in terms of characteristics of coating holdout. Laboratory rod draw down coater was used for surface sizing and coating application. Characterization of coating penetration was done by measuring the roughness of the backside of coating layer. The backside of the coating was exposed by dissolving the fibers in a solution of cupriethylenedimine(CED). Data show that internal sizing of base paper is effective and surface sizing is more effective to prevent coating penetration. Comparing between the two types of base papers, backside roughness of coating layer of TMP sheet is much larger and sizing is more effective to reduce coating penetration than those of KP sheet. With regard to pigment type, clay is more effective than calcium carbonate for better coating holdout.

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Review of Reaction Drive Rotor System Sizing Methodology (반작용 구동로터 시스템의 사이징 방법론에 대한 고찰)

  • Ali, Freshipali Rasheeth;Jeon, Kwon-Su;Lee, Jae-Woo
    • 한국항공운항학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2016
  • Reaction drive rotor system is capable of providing hover and low speed capabilities to different aircraft concepts such as stopped rotor wing, canard rotor wing, compound gyroplane etc. Existing sizing and analysis tools for shaft drive rotor system cannot be applied directly to this system. The available methodologies to size this system were reviewed. Power available calculation procedure and factors affects it were addressed prior to sizing process. Various design issues of this system due to interrelationship of internal gas flow dynamics and rotor external aerodynamics was discussed. Finally, a modification that is required in existing sizing methodologies was identified and combined approach in sizing process to consider the interrelationship among engine, rotor and blade duct was introduced.

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Evaluation on the Effect of Ultrasonic Testing due to Internal Medium of Pipe in Nuclear Power Plant (원자력발전소 배관 내부 매질이 초음파검사에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Yoon, Byung Sik;Kim, Yong Sik;Yang, Seung Han
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Pressure Vessels and Piping
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2013
  • The periodic inspection of piping and pressure vessels welds in nuclear power plant has to provide reliable result related to weld flaws, such as location, maximum amplitude response, ultrasonic length, height and finally the nature or flaw pattern. The founded flaw in ultrasonic inspection is accepted or rejected based on these data. Specially, the amplitude of flaw response is used as basic parameter for flaw sizing and it may cause some deviation in length sizing result. Currently the ultrasonic inspections in nuclear power plant components are performed by specific inspection procedure which describing inspection technique include inspection system, calibration methodology and flaw characterizing. To perform ultrasonic inspection during in-service inspection, reference gain should be established before starting ultrasonic inspection by the requirement of ASME code. This reference gain used as basic criteria to evaluate flaw sizing. Sometimes, a little difference in establishing reference gain between calibration and field condition can lead to deviation in flaw sizing. Due to this difference, the inspection result may cause flaw sizing error. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the ultrasonic amplitude difference between air filled and water filled pipe in nuclear power plant. Additionally, the accuracy of flaw sizing is estimated by comparing both conditions.