• Title, Summary, Keyword: intracellular $Mg^{2+}$

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Relationship between Phosphorus Release and Intracellular Storage Polymer Synthesis by Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (인축적 미생물의 인방출과 세포내 저장물질 합성관계)

  • Shin, Eung-Bai;Kim, Mee-Kyung;Hong, Jun-Hyeok;Kong, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.692-697
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    • 2004
  • Biological phosphorus removal is characterized by complex interactions between different intracellular components of energy as PHA. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the behavior of the intracellular components and their influence on the removal of phosphorus is essential before control strategies to stabilize the proper process. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between release of phosphorus and synthesis of intracellular storage polymer. Mass of stored intracellular storage polymer was 21.2 mg PHA/L, 28.8 mg PHA/g MLSS. And phosphorus release/intracellular storage polymer synthesis rate was 1.8545 mg stored polymer/mg Phosphate. In the aerobic phase, mass of PAOs synthesis is 49.37 mg PAOs/L. And PAOs fraction was 6.7-6.9%. Thus intracellular storage polymer synthesis by PAOs is calculated as 493mg PHA/g PAOs.

Intracellular Mg2+ concentration dependent Mg2+ release in the hearts (심장에서 세포내 Mg2+ 농도 의존적 Mg2+ 유리)

  • Baek, Sung-soo;Kim, Shang-jin;Kim, Jln-shang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.291-299
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    • 2000
  • Magnesium ($Mg^{2+}$) transport across the plasma membrane of cardiac myocytes appears to be under hormonal control. Repeated stimulations with adrenergic or histaminergic agonist produced a progressive decrease in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux from hearts. Thus we hypothesized that the $Mg^{2+}$ efflux may be resulted from a down-regulation of receptors or from a depletion of $Mg^{2+}$ from intracellular pool(s) in the hearts. In the present study, the regulation of $Mg^{2+}$ homeostasis by receptor stimulation was studied in perfused rat and guinea pig hearts. The successive short addition of norepinephrine (NE) to rat and guinea pig, and of histamine (HT) to perfused guinea pig hearts induced a progressive decrease in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux. These $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes were blocked by propranolol or ranitidine, respectively. These decrease in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux were inhibited by sodium cyanide (NaCN), which increases intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ ($[Mg^{2+}]_i$) levels. When NE (or HT) was added after HT (or NE), this efflux was also decreased in the guinea pig hearts. In the rat hearts and myocytes, HT did not stimulate $Mg^{2+}$ efflux. But NE produced a large $Mg^{2+}$ efflux after stimulation with HT. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-adenosine cAMP (cAMP), like NE and HT, also induced a progressive decrease in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in guinea pig hearts. This effect was inhibited by NaCN. These data provide evidence that the progressive decrease in receptor-stimulated $Mg^{2+}$ efflux is considered to be due to a decrease in $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ levels rather than receptor down-regulation.

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lntracellular $Ca^{2+}$ Mediates Lipoxygenase-induced Proliferation of U-373 MG Human Astrocytoma Cells

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Chung, Young-Ja;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.664-670
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    • 1998
  • The role of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$, in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation by products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism was investigated using U-373 MG human as trocytoma cells. Treatment with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor, or caffeic acid (CA), a specific 5-LOX inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of the tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, indomethacin (indo), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, did not significantly alter proliferation of the tumor cells. At anti-proliferative concentrations, NDGA and CA significantly inhibited intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release induced by carbachol, a known intracelluar $Ca^{2+}$ agonist in the tumor cells. Exogenous administration of leukotriene $B_4(LTB_4)$, an AA metabolite of LOX pathway, enhanced proliferation of the tumor cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. In addition, $LTB_4$, induced intracelluar $Ca^{2+}$ release. Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$-inhibitors, such as an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator (BAPTA) and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$-release inhibitors (dantrolene and TMB-8), significantly blocked the LTB4-induced enhancement of cell proliferation and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release. These results suggest that LOX activity may be critical for cell proliferation of the human astrocytoma cells and that intracelluar $Ca^{2+}$ may play a major role in the mechanism of action of LOX.

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Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Increases Intracellular Magnesium Concentration through the Specific Signaling Pathways

  • Hong, Bing-Zhe;Park, Sun-Ah;Kim, Han-Na;Ma, Tian-Ze;Kim, Han-Gyu;Kang, Hyung-Sub;Kim, Hwan-Gyu;Kwak, Yong-Geun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2009
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. $Mg^{2+}$ is the most abundant intracellular divalent cation in the body and plays critical roles in many cell functions. We investigated the effect of bFGF on the intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ concentration ($[Mg^{2+}]_i$) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). bFGF increased ($[Mg^{2+}]_i$) in a dose-dependent manner, independent of extracellular $Mg^{2+}$. This bFGF-induced $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ increase was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tyrphostin A-23 and genistein), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) and a phospholipase $C{\gamma}$ ($PLC{\gamma}$) inhibitor (U73122). In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (SB202190 and PD98059) did not affect the bFGF-induced $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ increase. These results suggest that bFGF increases the $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ from the intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ stores through the tyrosine kinase/PI3K/$PLC{\gamma}$-dependent signaling pathways.

Regulation of Mg2+ efflux by cAMP in perfused rat heart and isolated ventricular myocytes (흰쥐의 심장과 심근세포에서 cyclic AMP에 의한 Mg2+ 유리조절)

  • Kang, Hyung-sub;Kim, Jin-shang;Kang, Chang-won;Lee, Ho-il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 1999
  • Although it has been reported that hormones or chemicals, which increase in intracellular cAMP, produced $Mg^{2+}$ release from the heart, it is not well characterized whether a specific $Mg^{2+}$ exchanger is involved in cAMP-induced $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in the mammalian hearts. In this work, we studied the relationship between the increase in intracellular cAMP and ion transport system on $Mg^{2+}$ regulation in the perfused rat heart and isolated myocytes. The $Mg^{2+}$ content in the perfusate and supernatant were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The addition of membrane permeable cAMP analogue to the perfused hearts and myocytes induced a $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in the dose dependent manners. $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was stimulated by cAMP modulators (forskolin, IBMX and Ro20-1724) in the perfused hearts and myocytes. cAMP-induced $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was inhibited by $H_7$, benzamil or imipramine in the perfused hearts and myocytes, but not by EIPA. We confirmed that a significant $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was induced by an increase in intracellular cAMP in the hearts and myocytes. The cAMP-induced increase of $Mg^{2+}$ efflux in the hearts may be involved in ion transport system ($Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ and $Na^+-Mg^{2+}$ exchanger).

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Inhibitory Effect of $Mg^{2+}$ on the Release of $Ca^{2+}$ from Ryanodine Receptor of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in the Skeletal Muscle (골격근 망상체 $Ca^{2+}$유리 Channel[Raynodine receptor]의 $Mg^{2+}$에 의한 유리 억제)

  • 이철주
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.347-355
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    • 1992
  • The precise mechanism of the Excitation-Contraction Coupling is still uncertain. But the concept that Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release [CICR] from the Ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum [foot structure] may play a major role in E-C coupling has been widely accepted since 1970`s. It is believed that increased cytosolic Ca2+ followed by CICR is main contributor for E-C coupling of striated muscle. Resulting phenomena of ischemic /post-reperfusion myocyte is increased cytosolic Ca2+, even to the absence of Ca2+ in reperfusate. So intracellular inhibitor to CICR might prevent the ischemic and reperfusion damage of myocardial cells. The relatively purified foot protein, especially heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum rich, of the skeletal muscle was incorporated into the black lipid bilayer [Phosphatidyl ethanolamine: Phosphatidyl serine=l: 1]. Under the steady state of membrane potential [+20 mV], ionic current through Ryanodine receptor was measured with Cs+ as charge carrier. In the cis chamber [Cytoplasmic side], Mg2+ strongly inhibited CICR of Ryanodine receptor[Kd=6.2 nM]. In conclusion, naturally existing intracellular free Mg2+ can inhibit CICR from intracellular Ca2+ reservior [heavy SR]. So post-ischemic or post-reperfusing myocardium could be preserved using additional free Mg2+ in cardioplegic solution or reperfusate, otherwise the optimal concentration is undetermined.

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Magnesium Uptake by the Green Microalga Chlorella vulgaris in Batch Cultures

  • Ayed, Hela Ben Amor-Ben;Taidi, Behnam;Ayadi, Habib;Pareau, Dominique;Stambouli, Moncef
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2016
  • The accumulation (internal and superficial distribution) of magnesium ions (Mg2+) by the green freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was investigated under autotrophic culture in a stirred photobioreactor. The concentrations of the three forms of Mg2+ (dissolved, extracellular, and intracellular) were determined with atomic absorption spectroscopy during the course of C. vulgaris growth. The proportions of adsorbed (extracellular) and absorbed (intracellular) Mg2+ were quantified. The concentration of the most important pigment in algal cells, chlorophyll a, increased over time in proportion to the increase in the biomass concentration, indicating a constant chlorophyll/biomass ratio during the linear growth phase. The mean-average rate of Mg2+ uptake by C. vulgaris grown in a culture medium starting with 16 mg/l of Mg2+ concentration was measured. A clear relationship between the biomass concentration and the proportion of the Mg2+ removal from the medium was observed. Of the total Mg2+ present in the culture medium, 18% was adsorbed on the cell wall and 51% was absorbed by the biomass by the end of the experiment (765 h). Overall, 69% of the initial Mg2+ were found to be removed from the medium. This study supported the kinetic model based on a reversible first-order reaction for Mg2+ bioaccumulation in C. vulgaris, which was consistent with the experimental data.

Kainate-induced Elevations of Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ and Extracellular Glutamate are Partially Decreased by NMDA Receptor Antagonists in Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons

  • Oh, Seikwan;Shogo-Tokuyama;Patrick P.McCaslin
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.391-395
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    • 1995
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that physiological activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was blocked by physiological concentration of $Mg^{2+}$ (1.2 mM). However, the activity of NMDA receptor may not be blocked totally with this concentration of $Mg^{2+}$ under elevated membrane potential by kainate. Here, we described the effect of $Mg^{2+}$ on NMDA receptor and how much of NMDA receptor functions could be activated by kainate. Effects of NMDA receptor antagonist on kainate-induced elevation of intracellualr $Ca^{2+}$ levels $([Ca^{2+}]_i)$ and extracellular glutamate level were examined in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. kainate-induced elevation of $([Ca^{2+}]_i)$ was not affected by physiological concentration of $Mg^{2+}$. Kainate-induced NMDA-induced elevation was blocked by the same concentration of $MG^{2+}$Kainate-induced elevation of [$([Ca^{2+}]_i)$ was decreased by 32% in the presence of NMDA antagonists, MK-801 and CPP (3-[2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl]propyl-1-phosphonic acid), in $Mg^{2+}$ free buffer. Kainate receptor-activated gluamate release was also decreased (30%) by MK-801 or CPP. These resuts show that certain extent of elevations of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ and extracellular glutamate by kainate is due to coativation of NMDA receptors.

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Regulation of Magnesium Release by cAMP during Chemical Hypoxia in the Rat Heart and Isolated Ventricular Myocytes

  • Kim, Jin-Shang;Scarpa, Antonio
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 1999
  • Chemically induced hypoxia has been shown to induce a depletion of ATP. Since intracellular free $Mg^{2+}\;([Mg^{2+}]_i)$ appears to be tightly regulated following cellular energy depletion, we hypothesized that the increase in $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ would result in $Mg^{2+}$ extrusion following hormonal stimulation. To determine the relation between $Mg^{2+}$ efflux and cellular energy state in a hypoxic rat heart and isolated myocytes, $[Mg^{2+}]_i,$ ATP and $Mg^{2+}$ content were measured by using mag-fura-2, luciferin-luciferase and atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes were stimulated by norepinephrine (NE) or cAMP analogues, respectively. $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes induced by NE or cAMP were more stimulated in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (MI). Chemical hypoxia with NaCN (2 mM) caused a rapid decrease of cellular ATP within 1 min. Measurement of $[Mg^{2+}]_i$ confirmed that ATP depletion was accompanied by an increase in $[Mg^{2+}]_i.$ No change in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was observed when cells were incubated with MI. In the presence of MI, the cAMP-induced $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes were inhibited by quinidine, imipramine, and removal of extracellular $Na^+.$ In addition, after several min of perfusion with $Na^+-free$ buffer, a large increase in $Mg^{2+}$ efflux occurred when $Na^+-free$ buffer was switched to 120 mM $Na^+$ containing buffer. A similar $Mg^{2+}$ efflux was observed in myocytes. These effluxes were inhibited by quinidine and imipramine. These results indicate that the activation of $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes by hormonal stimulation is directly dependent on intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ contents and that these $Mg^{2+}$ effluxes appear to occur through the $Na^+-dependent\;Na^+/Mg^{2+}$ exchange system during chemical hypoxia.

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The effect of extracellular Mg2+ on action potential in guinea pig papillary muscles (기니픽 심장 유두근에서 magnesium이 활동전위에 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Sung-Eun;Kim, Shang-Jin;Kang, Hyung-Sub;Kim, Jin-Shang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2003
  • We have investigated the effect of extracellular $Mg^{2+}$ ($[Mg^2+]_o$) on action potential duration (APD) in guinea pig papillary muscles by using microelectrodes. Increasing $[Mg^2+]_o$ resulted in progressive negative inotropic effect, progressive ascending depolarization of membrane potential, and increase in intracellular $Mg^{2+}$ concentration. In addition, increase in $[Mg^2+]_o$ from 1.1 to 3, 6, 10, and 20 mM produced a reversible dose-dependent shortening of both APD at 30% ($APD_{30}$) and 90% repolarization ($APD_{90}$), especially showing a tendency towards more remarkable prominent shortening in $APD_{30}$ than $APD_{90}$. Cooling from 37 to 33 and $27^{\circ}C$ diminished the $[Mg^2+]_o$-induced APD shortening. Increase in extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration from 1.8 to 3.6 and 5.4 mM caused a significant depressed effect on the increasing $[Mg^2+]_o$-induced APD shortening. Furthermore, increase in $[Mg^2+]_o$ from 1.1 to 10 and 20 mM produced a significant depressed effect on the APD shortening induced by extracellular $Ca^{2+}$. Pretreatment of verapamil and imipramine significantly attenuated the increasing $[Mg^2+]_o$-induced APD shortening in both $APD_{30}$ and $APD_{90}$, whereas the $[Mg^2+]_o$-induced APD shortening was not affected by strophanthidin, glibenclamide and tetrabutylammonium. These findings suggest that the effects of $[Mg^2+]_o$ on APD are probably due to a decrease in ionic transport across plasma membrane. In conclusion, the present study indicates that $[Mg^2+]_o$ exerts antiarrhythmic activities by antagonistic actions on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$.