• Title, Summary, Keyword: ion assisted reaction

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TENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF ALUNMINA CORE TREATED BY ION ASSISTED REACTION (이온보조반응법으로 처리한 알루미나 코아의 인장결합강도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Seob;Woo, Yi-Hyung;Kwon, Kung-Rock;Choi, Boo-Byung;Choi, Won-Kook
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.704-723
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    • 2000
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the tensile bond strength of In-Ceram alumina core treat-ed by ion assisted reaction(IAR). Ion assisted reaction is a prospective surface modification technique without damage by a keV low energy ion beam irradiation in reactive gas environments or reactive ion itself. 120 In-Ceram specimens were fabricated according to manufacturer's directions and divided into six groups by surface treatment methods of In-Ceram alumina core. SD group(control group): sandblasting SL group: sandblasting + silane treatment SC group: sandblasting + Siloc treatment IAR I group: sandblasting + Ion assisted reaction with argon ion and oxygen gas IAR II group: sandblasting + Ion assisted reaction with oxygen ion and oxygen gas IAR III group: sandblasting + Ion assisted reaction with oxygen ion only For measuring of tensile bond strength, pairs of specimens within a group were bonded with Panavia 21 resin cement using special device secured that the film thickness was $80{\mu}m$. The results of tensile strength were statistically analyzed with the SPSS release version 8.0 programs. Physical change like surface roughness of In-Ceram alumina core treated by ion assistad reaction was evaluated by Contact Angle Measurement, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy; chemical surface change was evaluated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The results as follows: 1. In tensile bond strength, there were no statistically significant differences with SC group, IAR groups and SL group except control group(P<0.05). 2. Contact angle measurement showed that wettability of In-Ceram alumina core was enhanced after IAR treatment. 3. SEM and AFM showed that surface roughness of In-Ceram alumina core was not changed after IAR treatment. 4. XPS showed that IAR treatment of In-Ceram alumina core was enabled to create a new functional layer. A keV IAR treatment of In-Ceram alumina core could enhanced tensile bond strength with resin cement. In the future, this ion assisted reaction may be used effectively in various dental materials as well as in In-Ceram to promote the bond strength to natural tooth structure.

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A Study on the Surface Treatment of Spectra Fibers Using an ion Assisted Reaction Method (이온도움 반응법을 이용한 스펙트라 섬유의 표면처리에 대한 연구)

  • 이경엽;신동혁;지창헌
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2002
  • It is known that ion-assisted reaction method is effective for the surface modification of polymers. The surface treatment of Spectra fibers using the ion-assisted reaction method was investigated in the present study The Spectra fibers were treated by $Ar^{+}$ / ion irradiation under oxygen environment. The treatment was carried out at different $Ar^{+}$ ion doses. The$ Ar^{+ }$ /ion doses used were $6$\times$10^{15}$ , $1$\times$10^{16}$ , $5$\times$10^{16}$ , $1$\times$10^{17}$ / ions/$\m^2$. Optimal $Ar^{+}$ ion dose in the treatment of Spectra fibers was determined by measuring the tensile strength and modulus of Spectra/vinylester composites as a function of ion dose. It was found that the optimal ion dose was $1$\times$10^{16}$ions/$\m^2$. It was also found from the scanning electron microscope examination that the surface-treatment improved adhesion between fibers and vinylester resin.

Hydrophilic surface formation of polumer treated by ion assisted reaction and its applications (이온빔보조 반응법을 이용한 고분자 표면의 친수성처리와 그 응용)

  • Cho, J.;Choi, S. C.;Yun, K.H.;Koh, S. K.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.8 no.3B
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    • pp.262-268
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    • 1999
  • Polycarbonate (PC) and Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface was modified by ion assisted reaction (IAR) technique to obtain the hydrophilic functional groups and improve the wettability. In conditions of ion assisted reaction, ion beam energy was changed from 500 to 1500eV, and ion dose and oxygen gas blown rate were fixed $1\times10^{16}$ ions/$\textrm{cm}^2$ and 4ml/min, respectively. Wetting angle of water on PC and PMMA surface modified by $Ar^+$ ion without blowing oxygen at 4ml/mon showed $5^{\circ}$ and $10^{\circ}$. Changes of wetting angle with oxygen gas and $Ar^+$ ion irradiation were explained by considering formation of hydrophilic group due to a reaction between irradiated polymer chain by energetic ion irradiation and blown oxygen gas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that hydrophilic groups such as -C-O, -(C=O)- and -(C=O)-O- are formed on the surface of polymer by chemical interaction. The polymer surface modification using ion assisted reaction only changed the surface physical properties and sept the bulk properties. In comparison with other modification methods, the surface modification by IAR treatment was chemically stable and enhanced the adhesion between metal and polymer surface. The applications of various kinds of polymer surface modification methods, metal and polymer surface. The applications of various kinds of polymer surface modification could be appled to the new materials about hydrophilic surface properties by IAR treatment. The adhesion between metal film and polymer measured by Scotch tape test whether the hydrophilic surfaces could improve the adhesion strength or not.

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Tribological Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Prepared by Ion-Assisted Reaction (이온도움반응법에 의한 탄소섬유복합재의 트라이볼로지 특성연구)

  • 오성모;김정기;이봉구
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2004
  • Carbon fiber reinforced composites(CFRP) were fabricated with phenolic resin matrix by hot press molding, and its surface was modified by the ion-assisted reaction process. When we tested the friction coefficient and wear rate variation and observed the effect of fibers with respect to friction and wear characteristics, the amount of pitch based carbon fiber was 45wt% and the average friction coefficient was the lowest at 0.12. When the amount of ion-irradiation was $1\times10^{l6}ions/cm^2$, the friction coefficient of the composites was about 0.12 and the wear mode was stable, whereas, the friction coefficient of the non-treated composites was about 0.16 and the wear mode was very unstable. But if the amount of ion-irradiation was $5\times10^{l6}ions/cm^2$$1\times10^{l6}ions/cm^2$ion-irradiation case.

Improvement of Adhesion Between metal and Polymer by Ion Assisted Reaction (IAR) (이온 보조 반응법을 이용한 금속과 고분자의 접착력 향상)

  • 최성창;김현주;고석근
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 1998
  • Enhancement of adhesion between polymer films and metal films are obtained by forming the hydrophilic functional groups on the polymer surfaces by ion assisted reaction which uses ion beam in reactive gas environments. In ion assisted reaction, ion dose, blown gas flow rate and ion energy were changed from $5\times 10^{14}$ to $1\times 10^{17}\textrm{ions/cm}^2$, from 0 to 8 sccm, and 0.3 to 1.2 kV, respectively. Wetting angle of water on polymer films modified by $ Ar^+$ ion without blowing oxygen decreases to ~$40^{\circ}$. Contact angle of water on polymer films modified by $ Ar^+$ ion with blowing oxygen decreases to ~$20^{\circ}$, and the surface free energy increases to ~70 dyne/$\textrm{cm}^2$. However, contact angle of water on polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) modified by ion assisted reaction increases with ion dose. The adhesion strength of metal film deposited on the polymer surface was investigated. In the case of the metal film deposited on the untreated polymers, the metal films are detached from the polymer surface. While, In the case of the metal film deposited on the polymers treated by ion assisted reaction, the metal films are strongly adhere to the polymer surfaces.

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The improvement of Cu metal film adhesion on polymer substrate by the low-power High-frequency ion thruster

  • Jung Cho;Elena Kralkina;Yoon, Ki-Hyun;Koh, Seok-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.60-60
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    • 2000
  • The adhesion interface formation between copper and poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET), poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) and Polyimide films was treated using Ion assisted reaction system to sequential sputter deposition by High-Frequency ion source. The ion beam modification system used a new type of low power HF ion thruster for space application as new low thruster electric propulsion system. Low power HF ion thruster with diameter 100mm gives the opportunity to obtain beams of Ar+ with currents 20~150 mA (current density 0.5~3.5 mA/cm2) and energy 200~2500eV at HF power level 10~150 W. Using Ar as a working gas it is possible to obtain thrust within 3~8 mN. Contact angles for untreated films were over 95$^{\circ}$ and 80 for Pet, 10o for PMMA and 12o for PI samples as a condition of ion assisted reaction at the ion dose of 10$\times$1016 ions/cm2, the ion beam potential of 1.2 keV and 4 ml/min for environmental gas flow rate. 900o peel tests yielded values of 15 to 35 for PET, 18 to 40 and 12 to 36 g/min. respectively. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectrocopy is the Cls region for Cu metal on these polymer substrates showed increases in C=O-O groups for polymide, whereas PET and PMMA treated samples showed only C=O groups with increase the ion dose. Finally, unstable polymer surface can be changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic formation such as C-O and C=O that were confirmed by the XPS analysis, conclusionally, the ion assisted reaction is very effective tools to attach reactive ion species to form functional groups on C-C bond chains of PET, PMMA and PI.

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Tribological Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics by Surface modification (탄소섬유복합재의 표면개질에 따른 트라이볼로지 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 전승흥;양준호;오성모;이봉구
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2000
  • This investigation has been studied about friction and wear properties which were important problem, when carbon fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP) was used practically. Unidirection carbon fiber reinforced composites was fabricated with epoxy resin matrix and carbon fiber as a reinforced, and its surface was modified by the ion-assisted reaction. And then we tested the their friction and wear properties according to the ion-irradiation. when the amount of ion-irradiation was 1${\times}$10l6$\^$16/ ions/$\textrm{cm}^2$, the friction coefficient values were about 0.1, where as, the friction coefficient values of non-treatment composites were about 0.16. The former was the stablest in wear mode. We know that ion-irradiation was not proportioned to the friction coefficient, so we found the optimal conditions of the friction and wear according to the ion-irradiation.

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Surface energy change and hydrophilic formation of PE, PS and PTFE films modification by hydrogen ion assisted reaction

  • Jung Cho;Ki Hyun;Koh, Seok-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.202-202
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    • 1999
  • The Polyethylene (PE), Polystyrene (PS) and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface modification was investigated by hydrogen io assisted reaction (H-IAR) in oxygen environment. The IAR is a kind of surface modification techniques using ion beam irradiation in reactive gas environment. The energy of hydrogen ion beam was fixed at 1keV, io dose was varied from 5$\times$1014 to 1$\times$1017 ions/$\textrm{cm}^2$, and amount of oxygen blowing gas was fixed 4ml/min. Wettability was measured by water contact angles measurement, and the surface functionality was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The contact angle of water on PE modified by argon ion beam only decrease from 95$^{\circ}$ to 52$^{\circ}$, and surface energy was not changed significantly. But, the contact angle using hydrogen ion beam with flowing 4ml/min oxygen stiffly decreased to 8$^{\circ}$ and surface energy to 65 ergs/cm. In case of PS, the contact angle and surface energy changes were similar results of PE, but the contact angle of PTEE samples decreased with ion dose up to 1$\times$1015 ions/$\textrm{cm}^2$, increased at higher dose, and finally increased to the extent that no wetting was appeared at 1$\times$1017 ions/$\textrm{cm}^2$. These results must be due to the hydrogen ion beam that cleans the surface removing the impurities on polymer surfaces, then hydrogen ion beam was activated with C-H bonding to make some functional groups in order to react with the oxygen gases. Finally, unstable polymer surface can be changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic formation such as C-O and C=O that were confirmed by the XPS analysis, conclusionally, the ion assisted reaction is very effective tools to attach reactive ion species to form functional groups on C-C bond chains of PE, PS and PTFE.

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Surface Modification of Polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA) by Ion-assisted reaction (이온 보조 반응법(Ion-assisted-reaction)을 이용한 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)의 표면개질)

  • Jung, Sun;Cho, Jun-Sik;Choi, Sung-Chang;Koh, Seok-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.446-451
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    • 1999
  • Surface of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was modified by ion assisted reaction in which ion beam of Ar or$ O_2$is irradiated on polymer in reaction gas environment. Ion beam energy was changed from 600 to 1000eV, and ion doses were varied from $5\times10^{14} ions/cm^2 to 1\times10^{17} ions/cm^2$. Contact angle and surface energy of modified PMMA were measured by contact angle micrometer using distilled water and formamide. In the case of $Ar^+$ ion irradiation only, the contact angle reduced from $68^{\circ} to $35^{\circ}$ and the surface energy was changed from 46 dyne/cm to 60 dyne/cm. The contact angle significantly decreased to $14^{\circ}$and the surface energy increased to 72 dyne/cm when the surface of PMMA was modified by oxygen ion irradiation in oxygen gas environment. Improvement of wettability results from the formation of new hydrophilic group which is identified as C-O chain by XPS analysis. Recovery of wettability in dry air and maintenance of it in water condition were explained in view of the formation of hydrophilic group.

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