• Title, Summary, Keyword: ion-selective electrode

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Fluoride content of bottled water available in South Korea (국내 시판 생수의 불소 이온농도 측정)

  • Kim, Ji-Soo;Nam, Yong-Tae;Kim, Se-Yeon;Jun, Eun-Joo;Kim, Jin-Bom;Jeong, Seung-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The market for bottled water is increasing steadily in South Korea. Bottled water contains several naturally occuring minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and fluoride. Fluoride is proven to be effective in preventing dental caries. In South Korea, the maximum permissible concentration of fluoride is 2 ppm for bottled water and 1.5 ppm for tap water. The aim of this study was to investigate the fluoride content of different commercially available brands of bottled water in South Korea, and compare the measured fluoride concentration to the concentration written on the label of each brand of bottled water. Methods: Twenty-seven of the 59 different brands of bottled water produced in South Korea were investigated in this study. Three bottles of each brand were purchased from supermarkets, marts, and convenience stores in each region of Korea in August 2016. For each bottled water brand, the fluoride content was measured three times using a fluoride-ion selective electrode (Orion ionplus Fluoride Electrode 9609, Orion Research, USA). The calibration curve was generated using 0.2 and 2 ppm standard solutions, and confirmed using a 1 ppm standard solution. Results: The mean fluoride content of the 27 brands of bottled water was $0.374{\pm}0.332mg/L$ (range=0.040 to 1.172 mg/L). The fluoride content was labeled by the manufacturer, on each of the tested brands of bottled water. In eight brands, the labeled fluoride content differed from the experimental data. The minimum to maximum fluoride content measured from 10 brands showed a variation of 0.3 mg/L or more when compared to the labeled fluoride content. Conclusions: This study investigated the fluoride content of various brands of bottled water produced in South Korea and compared the measured fluoride levels with fluoride information on the bottle labels. To ensure that consumers are suitably informed regarding their exposure to fluoride, correct labelling of fluoride content in bottled water is important.

Complexation of Cadmium(Ⅱ) with Soil Fulvic Acid : Effect of pH and Fulvic Acid Concentration (풀빅산과 카드뮴(Ⅱ)과의 착화합 반응 : 풀빅산의 농도와 pH의 영향)

  • Choe, Se Yeong;Jeong, Geun Ho;Jeon, Song Hui;Mun, Hui Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.585-589
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    • 1994
  • The complexation of cadmium(II) with a well characterized local soil fulvic acid was investigated at different solution pH and fulvic acid concentration using ion selective electrode. The stability constants were determined using a continuous distribution model based on Scatchard Plot; this model takes into consideration the diversitv of cation binding sites on a naturally occurring organic macromolecules even if the nature of the binding sites may not be known. The mean value of $logKi(\mu)$ was found to increase at higher pH(pH 4.0: ${\mu}=3.79{\pm}0.74$ l\;mol^{-1}; pH 6.0: ${\mu}=4.51{\pm}0.78$ l\;mol^{-1}$), and in more dilute fulvic acid concentration([FA] = 50 mgl$^{-1}: {\mu}=4.16{\pm}0.60$ l\;mol^{-1}; [FA]=151 mgl$^{-1}:{\mu}=3.75{\pm}0.5\;l\;mol^{-1}$). The intrinsic constant(logKint) for binding at the strongest site was measured to be around $4.72\;l\;mol^{-1}$ at both pH4.0 and 5.0, but was found to be increased to $6.03\;l\;mol^{-1}$ when pH was 6.0.

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Fabrication of Hydrogel and Gas Permeable Membranes for FET Type Dissolved $CO_{2}$ Sensor by Photolithographic Method (사진식각법을 이용한 FET형 용존 $CO_{2}$ 센서의 수화젤막 및 가스 투과막 제작)

  • Park, Lee-Soon;Kim, Sang-Tae;Koh, Kwang-Nak
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1997
  • A field effect transistor(FET) type dissolved carbon dioxide($pCO_{2}$) sensor with a double layer structure of hydrogel membrane and $CO_{2}$ gas permeable membrane was fabricated by utilizing a $H^{+}$ ion selective field effect transistor(pH-ISFET) with Ag/AgCl reference electrode as a base chip. Formation of hydrogel membrane with photo-crosslinkable PVA-SbQ or PVP-PVAc/photosensitizer system was not suitable with the photolithographic process. Furthermore, hydrogel membrane on pH-ISFET base chip could be fabricated by photolithographic method with the aid of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl othylenediarnine(TED) as $O_{2}$ quencher without using polyester film as a $O_{2}$ blanket during UV irradiation process. Photosensitive urethane acrylate type oligomer was used as gas permeable membrane on top of hydrogel layer. The FET type $pCO_{2}$ sensor fabricated by photolithographic method showed good linearity (linear calibration curve) in the range of $10^{-3}{\sim}10^{0}\;mol/{\ell}$ of dissolved $CO_{2}$ in aqueous solution with high sensitivity.

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Environmental Damage to Nearby Crops by Hydrogen Fluoride Accident (불화수소 누출사고 사례를 통한 주변 농작물의 환경피해)

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Lee, Eunbyul;Lee, Myeong Ji
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Hydrogen fluoride is one of the 97 accident preparedness substances regulated by the Ministry of Environment (Republic of Korea) and chemical accidents should be managed centrally due to continual occurrence. Especially, hydrogen fluoride has a characteristic of rapid diffusion and very toxic when leaking into the environment. Therefore, it is important to predict the impact range quickly and to evaluate the residual contamination immediately to minimize the human and environmental damages. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to estimate the accident impact range, the off-site consequence analysis (OCA) was performed to the worst and alternative scenarios. Also, in order to evaluate the residual contamination of hydrogen fluoride in crop, the samples in accident site were collected from 15-divided regions (East direction from accident sites based on the main wind direction), and the concentration was measured by fluoride ($F^-$) ion-selective electrode potentiometer (ISE). As a result of the OCA, the affected distance by the worst scenario was estimated to be >10 km from the accident site and the range by the alternative scenario was estimated to be about 1.9 km. The residual contamination of hydrogen fluoride was highest in the samples near the site of the accident (E-1, 276.82 mg/kg) and tended to decrease as it moved eastward. Meanwhile, the concentrations from SE and NE (4.96~28.98 mg/kg) tended to be lower than the samples near the accident site. As a result, the concentration of hydrogen fluoride was reduced to a low concentration within 2 km from the accident site (<5 mg/kg), and the actual damage range was estimated to be around 2.2 km. Therefore, it is suggested that the results are similar to those of alternative accident scenarios calculated by OCA (about 1.9 km). CONCLUSION: It is difficult to estimate the chemical accident-affecting range/region by the OCA evaluation, because it is not possible to input all physicochemical parameters. However simultaneous measurement of the residual contamination in the environment will be very helpful in determining the diffusion range of actual chemical accident.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FLUORIDE RELEASE AND RE-UPTAKE OF SEVERAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS (수종 수복재에 불소 도포제 적용 후 불소유리에 관한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Yeon;Kim, Jong-Soo;Yoo, Seung-Hoon
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.408-419
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    • 2007
  • In the child, it is very important that he/she will have the ability to suppress aesthetic restorative materials of secondary caries. With the representative preventive material against caries, the importance of fluoride is more emphasized. This study examined the differences in fluoride release and re-uptake among some restorative materials, following a treatment of APF gel and fluoride varnish. The surface roughness was observed under scanning electron microscope. Studying this will provide for the research to find effective restorative materials and fluoride type in tooth caries prevention. It is applied from presence at a clinic that restorative materials are resin, flowable resin, compomer and glass ionomer. Fluoride release was measured at 24-hour intervals for 7 days, 3-day intervals from 8th to 38th day using an ion-selective electrode and analyzer. Then, the materials were treated with the fluoride gel and fluoride varnish respectively, fluoride release was measured and specimens were evaluated under scanning electron microscope for 4 weeks. It was concluded that 1. Fluoride was released for 38 days from restorative materials under 1 ppm in case of flowable resin, 1-2 ppm in compomer and 2-8 ppm in glass ionomer, a few of fluoride was released after 45 days 2. Fluoride has more releasing after application of APF gel than fluoride varnish. Fluoride re-uptake was observed under 0.6-0.2 ppm in fluoride varnish and 0.6-2.6 ppm in APF gel after starting the procedure one day(p<0.05). For the remaining 4 weeks, they demonstrated a similar release. 3. Specimens were evaluated under scanning electron microscope. Applied fluoride in the experimental group surface was rougher than the control group that did not receive fluoride application. Fluoride varnish group had a smoother surface than both the APF gel group and the varnish APF gel group that received a fluoride application.

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