• Title, Summary, Keyword: irradiation

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Effect of gamma-irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Hemoglobin

  • Lee, Seung-hwan;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.135.1-135
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    • 2003
  • To elucidate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the molecular properties of hemoglobin, the secondary, tertiary structure, and the molecular weight size of the protein were examined after irradiation at 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 kGy. Gamma-irradiation of hemoglobin solutions caused the disruption of the ordered structure of the protein molecules, as well as degradation, cross-linking, and aggregation of the polypeptide chains. A SDS-PAGE study indicated that irradiation caused initial fragmentation of the proteins and subsequent aggregation due to cross-linking of the protein molecules. The effect of irradiation on the protein was more significant at lower protein concentrations. Ascorbic acid decreased the degradation and aggregation of proteins by scavenging oxygen radicals that were produced by irradiation. A circular dichroism study showed that irradiation decreased the helical content of hemoglobin with a concurrent increase of the aperiodic structure content. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that irradiation decreased the emission intensity that was excited at 280 nm.

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Power Pattern Analysis According to Irradiation and Module Temperature for Photovoltaic Systems (태양광 발전시스템의 모듈온도와 일사량에 따른 전력 패턴 분석)

  • Hong, Jung-Hee;Choi, Yong-Sung;Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.174-176
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    • 2009
  • This paper aims to investigate generation conditions necessary for the most efficient generation by measuring electricity power under various irradiation conditions, since the photovoltaic generation system has high costs and low efficiency. This thesis aims to investigate generation conditions necessary for the most efficient generation by measuring electricity power under various irradiation conditions, since the photovoltaic generation system has high costs and low efficiency. Although the generation power increased with the irradiation, the former did not vary directly as the latter. This meant that the variation of the generation power was concerned in the temperature of a module, the ambient temperature, and the directions of irradiation as well as the irradiation. As for the monthly accumulated irradiation and monthly accumulated power, the maximum irradiation and generation power were observed in May and October and the irradiation, the power and the accumulated generation power were all the highest in spring, followed by fall, summer and winter.

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Effect of quercetin on impaired immune function in mice exposed to irradiation

  • Jung, Ji-Hye;Kang, Ji-In;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.301-307
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    • 2012
  • Radiation used in cancer treatment may cause side effects such as inflammation. Quercetin is a polyphenol that reduces inflammation. This study evaluated the recovery efficacy of quercetin on impaired immune function in irradiation-induced inflammatory mice. Quercetin administered at two concentrations of 10 and 40 mg/kg body weight was initiated 2 weeks before irradiation and was continued 30 days after irradiation. The animals exposed/not exposed to radiation were sacrificed on radiation days 10 and 30. Splenocyte proliferation, which was diminished after irradiation, was enhanced significantly by quercetin supplementation after 30 days of irradiation. Cytokine secretion increased in the radiation group compared to that in the non-radiation control group. After 30 days of radiation, interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 secretion decreased significantly in the radiation-quercetin groups. When quercetin was administered for 44 days, it showed a possible protective effect against irradiation-induced inflammation in mice. Quercetin could be beneficial in the recovery of irradiation-induced increases in cytokine secretion.

ACUTE RESPONSE OF THE RAT INCISOR BY SINGLE AND FRACTIONATED IRRADIATION (단일 및 분할 방사선조사에 의한 백서절치의 급성반응에 관한 연구)

  • Rhee In-Suk;Park Tae-Won;Ahn Hyung-Kyu
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 1989
  • Six to eight-month-old female albino rats were used as experimental animals. As an irradiation equipment, a Co-60 was used. The experimental animals were divided to; 6 of the control group, 12 of the 500cGy single irradiation group, 12 of the 1000cGy fractionated irradiation group, and 12 of the 1500cGy fractionated irradiation group. From the first week to the forth, 3 rats were picked from each group every week to be sacrificed and fixed with formalin. Those rats were observed by means of H-E stain after being taken radiograph and decalcified. The analysis of radiographic findings and light microscopic findings gives results as follows: 1. The delay of dental eruption rate was found in every group which underwent the irradiation experiment. Dentin niche, osteodentin, and dentin island were formed in the parts which were damaged by the irradiation. 2. The longer the observation period was, the more deposit of osteodentin and dentin island was formed. 3. In the single irradiation group, the damage effect was in proportion to the increase of radiation dose, whereas the damage was much less in the fractionated group receiving the same dose. 4. The 500cGy single irradiation group got temporary repairable damage, while the 1000cGy single irradiation group got considerable damage and showed much slower eruption rate than the 500cGy single irradiation group. The basal portion of the 1500cGy single irradiation group, whose growth was arrested, was destroyed. 5. The fractionated group were irradiated 500cGy everyweek. Repair was visible during the interval periods. The damage was accumulated as irradiation repeated, but degree of damage was lower than that of the 1000cGy and 1500cGy single irradiation group.

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Removal and Decomposition of Organochlorine Compounds in Water Using UV Irradiation (자외선에너지를 이용하여 물속에 함유된 유기염소계 화합물의 분해 및 제거)

  • Kim, Jong Hyang
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.30-34
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    • 1999
  • Photolysis behavoirs of pesticides(Chlorothalonil and Endosulfan) over UV irradiation UV irradiation with pH 3.0 and irradiation with 3.5% salt were studied. The analyses of pesticides were carried out using gas chromatograph with an electron-capture detector, total organic carbon, and Ion chromatograph, respectively. The reactions were conducted in a alumium annular reactor equipped with a low pressure mercury multilamp ($8W{\times}6$) and initial concentration was 10 ppm. Chlorothalonil was almost photodegraded by UV irradiation, UV irradiation with pH 3.0 and 3.5% salt within 30 min of reaction time. Endosulfan-${\alpha}$,${\beta}$(100%) were photodegraded to 38% of Endosulfan-${\alpha}$ and 25% of Endisulfan-${\beta}$ by UV irradiation. Endosulfan-${\alpha}$(83%) was photodegraded to 66% by UV irradiation, 70% by UV irradiation and pH 3.0 and 75% by UV irradiation and 3.5% salt. Endosulfan-${\beta}$(16%) was photodegraded to 80% by UV irradiation, 98% by UV irradiation and pH 3.0 and 90% by UV irradiation and 3.5% salt.

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Effect of irradiation on the expression of caspase-3 in the submandibular gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (방사선조사와 당뇨병이 백서 악하선의 caspase-3 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Heung-Ki;Hwang Eui-Hwan;Lee Sang-Rae
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : To observe the histopathological changes and caspase-3 expression in the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. Materials and Methods : The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups: control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5days, rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. Results : In the irradiation group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, and degeneration of the acinar cells and atrophy of the duct cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 28 days after irradiation. In the diabetes group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, atrophy, and degeneration of the acinar cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 21 days after diabetic state induction. In the diabetes-irradiation group, the ductal epithelial cells were predominant in their glandular tissues at 28 days after irradiation. In all of the experimental groups, the most prominent change of the acinar cells and ductal cells were observed at 14 days after diabetic state induction and irradiation. Conclusion The expression of caspase-3 in the acinar cells and ductal cells of the submandibular gland was weak after irradiation, but that in the acinar cells, ductal cells, and fibrous cells of the submandibular gland was prominent after diabetic state induction.

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AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE STRIATED DUCT CELLS OF THE SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND IN RATS (방사선 조사가 백서 악하선 줄무늬관세포에 미치는 영향에 관한 투과전자현미경적 연구)

  • Lee Gyu-Chan;Lee Sang-Rae
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.171-182
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    • 1990
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation on the striated duct cells of the rat submandibular gland ductal tissues which control the characteristics of saliva. For this study, the experimental group was composed of 36 irradiated Sprague Dawley strain rats divided into 8 subgroups 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours after irradiation. 4 non-irradiated rats were used as the control group. The experimental animals were singly irradiated with a dose of 18Gy gamma ray to their head and neck region by the Co-6- teletherapy unit and sacrificed after each experimental duration. The specimens were examined with a light microscope with an H-E stain and with a trans- mission electron microscope. The results of this study were as follows. In the light micrograph, a severe atrophic change occurred in the striated duct cells at 2hours after irradiation and gradual recovery occurred from 6 hours after irradiation. 2. The nuclear chromosomes of the striated duct cells were changed granular at 2 hours after irradiation. Recovery was observed at 6 hours after irradiation. Nuclear bodies were also observed from 3 hours after irradiation. 3. The mitochondria of the striated duct cells had indistinct cristae at 2 hours after irradiation, and were degenerated or swollen at 3 hours after irradiation. They recovered, however, from 6 hours, with an increasing number at 48 hours and a regular arrangement was observed at 72 hours after irradiation. 4. The microvilli showed atrophic changes at 2 hours after irradiation and were almost lost at 3 hours after irradiation. They were observed again from 48 hours after irradiation. 5. The rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi body were not apparent at 1 hour after irradiation and were dilated with degeneration 2 hours after, but intact rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed from 3 hours after irradiation and developed well at 24 hours after irradiation. By the result of this study, showing a mild change in the functional morphology of the salivary striated duct cells immediately following irradiation, it is considered that the many complications which occur after radiation therapy, will disappear in time with the histological and the functional recovery of the glandular tissues.

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Induction of Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cell Lines(Saos-2) by Single Fraction High Dose Irradiation (고용량 방사선 조사 후 골육종 세포주(Saos-2)의 아포프토시스 발생)

  • Kim, Jae-Do;Chung, So-Hak;Hong, Young-Gi;Choi, Jang-Seok
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1999
  • A single fraction of 50 Gy extracorporeal irradiation, as a modality of limb-sparing operation, has been used to achieve tumor necrosis in osteosarcoma. Although this modality of radiation therapy preserving the mobility of a joint is commonly practiced, the precise knowledge on the radiobiological response of osteosarcoma cell has remained to be elucidated. We therefore observed whether a single high dose irradiation caused apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells and whether the commitment to apoptosis was associated with cell kinetics. We also investigated radiation dose response along the time course for development of apoptosis following single high dose irradiation. The morphologic change in apoptosis was observed by fluorescence with Hoechst 33258 and the degree and the fraction of cells by flow cytometry. Irradiation of osteosarcoma cells with 10, 30 and 50 Gy resulted in chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation. The degree of apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells was $29.5{\pm}3.56%$, $39.9{\pm}4.83%$ at 24 and 48 hours after 10 Gy irradiation ; $41.1{\pm}3.93%$, $66.9{\pm}5.21%$ at 24 and 48 hours after 30 Gy irradiation ; and $48.0{\pm}3.69%$, $75.6{\pm}4.65%$ at 24 and 48 hours after 50 Gy irradiation. The fraction of cells in cell-cycle kinetic was $39.2{\pm}4.3%$ in G2/M, $22.1{\pm}4.65%$ in G1 at 24 hours after 10 Gy irradiation ; $51.0{\pm}4.3%$ in G2/M, $20.4{\pm}4.7%$ in G1 at 48 hours after 10 Gy irradiation ; $40.3{\pm}3.9%$ in G2/M, $26.1{\pm}4.7%$ in G1 at 24 hours after 30 Gy irradiation ; $59.2{\pm}3.9%$ in G2/M, $5.9{\pm}5.1%$ in G1 at 48 hours after 30 Gy irradiation ; and $44.3{\pm}4.2%$ in G2/M, $21.1{\pm}3.5%$ in G1 at 24 hours after 50 Gy irradiation. The fraction of cells at 48 hours after 50 Gy irradiation could not be observed because of irradiation induced cell death of most of cells. All values for irradiated cells showed accumulation in G2/M phase and reduction in G1 phase, irrespective of irradiation dose. The results suggest that a single fraction of high dose irradiation with 50 Gy results in accumulation of cells at G2/M phase, leading to apoptosis.

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Food Majoring College Students' Knowledge and Acceptance of Irradiated Food (식품전공 대학생들의 방사선 조사식품에 대한 인지도 및 수용성)

  • Nam, Hye-Seon;Kim, Kyeung-Eun;Yang, Jae-Seung;Ly, Sun-Yung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.269-277
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    • 2000
  • A survey was conducted to examine the knowledge and acceptance of food irradiation in order to provide baseline data required in the development of food irradiation education programs for college students. 150 students majoring in food and nutrition or food technology in the Chungnam National University were chosen for a survey. The results are as follows. First, college students' knowledge about food irradiation is scanty. Knowledge assessment showed that 56% of the participants had previously heard of food irradiation. 68% of the respondents thought that radioactivity remains in food after irradiation and 25.3% of them were not sure whether radioactivity remains in food after irradiation or not. Only half of the respondents thought that nutrient loss due to irradiation is equal to or lower than that due to cooking or freezing. Second, approximately 56% of the respondents showed that food irradiation is somewhat or strongly needed for meat or fish; whereas, over 60% of them showed that food irradiation is not needed for grain, vegetable and fruit. Almost 40% of the respondents were seriously concerned about irradiation of vegetables and fruits; whereas, they showed less concern about spice irradiation. More than half of the respondents were not willing to use irradiated food in all the six food groups. Third, the correlation analysis showed that the need of food irradiation is negatively correlated with concerning about the irradiated fish and fruits, but positively correlated with willingness to use irradiated food in all the five food groups, except in spices. Concern about the irradiated food is negatively correlated with willingness to use irradiated food from all the six food groups. Fourth, almost all the respondents (over 90%) agreed that the irradiated food labeling is required as well as the development of proper methods to identify irradiated foods.

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EFFECTS OF THE SINGLE AND FRACTIONATED IRRADIATION ON THE MICROVASCULATURE OF THE RAT SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND (단일 및 분할 방사선조사가 백서 악하선 미세혈관계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Seok-Ho;Choi Karp-Shik
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.71-85
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the single and fractionated irradiation on the microvascular structure of the submandibular gland in rats. For this study, 90 Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated to their neck region with equal split doses of 9Gy for a 4 hours interval and 15Gy single dose by 6MV X-irradiation and sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 27th day after irradiation. The author observed histological changes at Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and PAS staining under a light microscope, and also observed distribution and structural changes of the microvasculature in rat submandibular gland using a scanning electron microscope by forming vascular resin casting. The results were as follows: 1. In the light microscopic examination, the microvasculature was slightly dilated and decreased in number on the 1st day after irradiation, and increase in number of microvasculature was observed on the 3rd day after irradiation. And then distribution of microvasculature was markedly increased on the 7th day after iradiation, but decreased on th 14th day after irradiation again. Such changes were greater in the single irradiated group than in the fractionated irradiated group. 2. The reaction to PAS staining on glandular cell was decreased on the 1st and the 3rd day after irradiation, and recovered on the 7th day after irradiation. The reaction was decreased on the 14th day after irradiation again, and recovered on the 28th day after irradiation. Changes were more apparent in the single irradiated group. 3. In the scanning electron microscopic examination, early changes of microvasculature were decreased capillary density, dilation of conduits and meandering. Increased capillary dentsity or anastomosis due to vascular reproduction and smooth curved running were observed on the 7th and 14th day after irradiation. Decreased capillary and smooth running tendency were observed on the 28th day after irradiation again. Such changes were greater in the single irradiated group than in the fractionated irradiated group.

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