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A Patterns of Care Study of the Various Radiation Therapies for Prostate Cancer among Korean Radiation Oncologists in 2006 (Patterns of Care Study를 위한 2006년 한국 방사선종양학과 전문의들의 전립선암 방사선치료원칙 조사연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Jae-Sung;Ha, Sung-Whan;Shin, Seong-Soo;Park, Won;Cho, Jae-Ho;Suh, Chang-Ok;Oh, Young-Taek;Shin, Sei-Won;Kim, Jae-Chul;Jang, Ji-Young;Nam, Taek-Keun;Choi, Young-Min;Kim, Il-Han
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.96-103
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To conduct a nationwide academic hospital patterns of the practice status and principles of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The survey will help develop the framework of a database of Korean in Patterns of Case Study. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire about radiation treatment status and principles was sent to radiation oncologists in charge of prostate cancer treatment at thirteen academic hospitals in Korea. The data was analyzed to find treatment principles among the radiation oncologists when treating prostate cancer. Results: The number of patients with prostate cancer and treated with radiation ranged from 60 to 150 per academic hospital in Seoul City and 10 to 15 outside of Seoul City in 2006. The primary diagnostic methods of prostate cancer included the ultrasound guided biopsy on 6 to 12 prostate sites(mean=9), followed by magnetic resonance imaging and a whole body bone scan. Internal and external immobilizations were used in 61.5% and 76.9%, respectively, with diverse radiation targets. Whole pelvis radiation therapy(dose ranging from 45.0 to 50.4 Gy) was performed in 76.9%, followed by the irradiation of seminal vesicles($54.0{\sim}73.8$ Gy) in 92.3%. The definitive radiotherapy doses were increased as a function of risk group, but the range of radiation doses was wide(60.0 to 78.5 Gy). Intensity modulated radiation therapy using doses greater than 70 Gy, were performed in 53.8% of academic hospitals. In addition, the simultaneous intra-factional boost(SIB) technique was used in three hospitals; however, the target volume and radiation dose were diverse. Radiation therapy to biochemical recurrence after a radical prostatectomy was performed in 84.6%; however, the radiation dose was variable and the radiation field ranged from whole pelvis to prostate bed. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a nationwide Korean Patterns of Care Study is necessary for the recommendation of radiation therapy guidelines of prostate cancer.

Reading Deviations of Glass Rod Dosimeters Using Different Pre-processing Methods for Radiotherapeutic in-vivo Dosimetry (유리선량계의 전처리 방법이 방사선 치료 선량 측정에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Hosang;Nam, Jiho;Park, Dahl;Kim, Yong Ho;Kim, Wontaek;Kim, Dongwon;Ki, Yongkan;Kim, Donghyun;Lee, Ju Hye
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 2013
  • The experimental verification of treatment planning on the treatment spot is the ultimate method to assure quality of radiotherapy, so in-vivo skin dose measurement is the essential procedure to confirm treatment dose. In this study, glass rod dosimeter (GRD), which is a kind of photo-luminescent based dosimeters, was studied to produce a guideline to use GRDs in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance of radiotherapy. The pre-processing procedure is essential to use GRDs. This is a heating operation for stabilization. Two kinds of pre-processing methods are recommended by manufacturer: a heating method (70 degree, 30 minutes) and a waiting method (room temperature, 24 hours). We equally irradiated 1.0 Gy to 20 GRD elements, and then different preprocessing were performed to 10 GRDs each. In heating method, reading deviation of GRDs at same time were relatively high, but the deviation was very low as time went on. In waiting method, the deviation among GRDs was low, but the deviation was relatively high as time went on. The meaningful difference was found between mean reading values of two pre-processing methods. Both methods present mean dose deviation under 5%, but the relatively high effect by reading time was observed in waiting method. Finally, GRD is best to perform in-vivo dosimetry in the viewpoint of accuracy and efficiency, and the understanding of how pre-processing affect the accuracy is asked to perform most accurate in-vivo dosimetry. The further study is asked to acquire more stable accuracy in spite of different irradiation conditions for GRD usage.

Comparison of Irradiated Food with Electron Beam and Gamma-ray by PSL and TL Methods (광자극발광법과 열발광법 분석을 통한 전자선과 감마선 조사식품의 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Kwak, Ji-Young;Yoon, Jin-Ho;Park, Young-Eun;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Yong-Chjun;Jo, Tae-Yong;Lee, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Sang-Jae;Han, Sang-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.258-266
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the PSL and TL properties of foods irradiated with electron beam and gamma-ray. 5 kinds of food including cereal, pulse, fish powder, dried vegetable and tea were irradiated at 0 to 10 kGy by electron beam accelerator or $^{60}Co$ gamma-ray irradiator. The PSL analysis showed negative results for most of the non-irradiated samples. Non-irradiated shrimp powder showed intermediate result. Irradiated samples gave negative or intermediate or positive value which presented the limitation of PSL technique. In TL analysis, there were TL glow curves at around $300^{\circ}C$ with low intensity on non-irradiated samples. Maximum peak in the range of $150-250^{\circ}C$ was appeared on irradiated samples. TL ratio obtained by re-irradiation with 1 kGy was less than 0.1 on non-irradiated samples and higher than 0.1 on irradiated samples. Therefore, in PSL measurement, electron-beam irradiated samples could obtain more clear results. TL analysis showed obvious difference between non-irradiated and irradiated samples. But the identification was impossible for the sample of rice and lemon tea. Because of it's low contents of mineral.

Enhancement of Erythrosine Photodynamic Therapy against Streptococcus mutans by Chlorhexidine (Streptococcus mutans에 대한 클로르헥시딘과 Erythrosine 광역동 치료의 상승효과)

  • Park, Jongcheol;Park, Howon;Lee, Siyoung
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of erythrosine sensitized with a conventional halogen curing unit and sub-minimal bactericidal concentration(sub-MBC) of chorhexidine on bacterial viability of Streptococcus mutans in planktonic state. Sub-minimal bactericidal concentration of chlorhexidine was added into wells containing bacteria and erythrosine. The range of concentrations tested for chorhexidine was from 0.0000001% to 0.001%. The irradiation of the bacterial suspensions was performed for 15 sec with a conventional halogen curing unit light. In another set of experiment, the effects of 0.001% chlorhexidine were observed by adding chlorhexidine into wells containing the sub-minimal bactericidal concentration of erythrosine. At the concetration of 0.001% chlorhexidine, there were no antibacterial effects in the absence of erythrosine PDT(p < 0.05). At the concentraton of $1{\mu}M$ erythrosine, there was no photodynamic therapy effect in the absence of chlorhexidine(p < 0.05). But in the presence of sub-minimal bactericidal concentration of erythrosine with light exposure, the addition of 0.001% chlorhexidine increased the bactericidal rate(p < 0.05). A combination of erythrosine PDT with sub-MBC chlorhexidine resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial counts when compared to the case with the absence of chlorhexidine.

Relation of Self-Efficacy and Cognition of Irradiated Food among High School Students (고등학생의 방사선조사식품에 대한 인식과 자기효능감과의 관련성)

  • Han, Eun Ok;Choi, Yoon Seok
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.106-118
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, we analyzed the Cognition of irradiated food and its relation with self-efficacy. The most important variables described behaviors based on health choices compared with the choice to choose irradiated food items. According to the survey, 33.1% of respondents said that the reason why irradiated food is considered to be a health risk is because "radiation is dangerous". 27.9% of respondents answered that "eating irradiated food is like eating a radioactive substance", 21.1% said radiated food is comparable to a "genetic variation in food" while 10.1% said "food goes bad during the irradiation process". On this basis, it is reasonable to conclude that respondents have a misunderstanding of irradiated food without reference to the general theory of irradiated knowledge. In this respect, it would be helpful to provide education showing that irradiated food is not related to eating harmful or genetically modified food to help high school students create informed opinions of irradiated food. In terms of relevance with health-specific self-efficacy, experience of acquiring information about irradiated food was marked at r=0.148 (p<0.01), experience of purchasing irradiated food was marked at r=0.077 (p<0.05), experience of eating irradiated food was marked at r=0.113 (p<0.01) while knowledge of irradiated food, attitude towards irradiated food and behavior was marked at r=0.103 (p<0.01), r=0.076 (p<0.05) and r=0.105 (p<0.01) respectively. This shows that self-efficacy is high when one has experience of acquiring information about irradiated food, purchasing or eating irradiated food resulting in a high level of knowledge, attitude and behavior. Education which serves to improve the level of self-efficacy needs to be provided along with an educational program which will increase the public's understanding of irradiated food. It is expected that if this education which increases the level of self-efficacy is provided together with correct information of irradiated food, behavior to choose and eat irradiated food will also improve.

Evaluation of Ovary Dose for woman of Childbearing age Woman with Breast cancer in tomotherapy (가임기 여성의 유방암 토모치료 시 난소선량 평가비교)

  • Lee, Soo Hyeung;Park, Soo Yeun;Choi, Ji Min;Park, Ju Young;Kim, Jong Suk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.337-343
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. Materials and Methods : The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Results : Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of $64.94{\pm}0.84mGy$ and $37.64{\pm}1.20mGy$ in left ovary part and average of $64.38{\pm}1.85mGy$ and $32.96{\pm}1.11mGy$ in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Conclusion : Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required.

The Output Factor of Small Field in Multileaf Collimator of 6 MV Photon Beams (다엽제한기 소조사면의 6 MV 광자선 출력선량계수)

  • Lee, Ho Joon;Choi, Tae-Jin;Oh, Young Kee;Jeun, Kyung Soo;Lee, Yong Hee;Kim, Jin Hee;Kim, Ok Bae;Oh, Se An;Kim, Sung Kyu;Ye, Ji Woon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2014
  • The IMRT is proper implement to get high dose deliver to tumor as its shape and selective approach in radiation therapy. Since the IMRT is performed as modulated the radiation fluence by the MLC created the open shapes and its irradiation time, the dose of segment of radiation field effects on the cumulated portal dose. The accurate output factor of small and step shape of segment is important to improve the determination of deliver tumor dose as it is directly proportional to dose. This experiment performed with the 6 MV photon beam of Clinac Ex(Varian) from $3{\times}3cm^2$ to $0.5{\times}0.5cm^2$ small field size for collimator jaw in MLC free and/or for MLC open field in fixed collimator jaw $10{\times}10cm^2$ using the CC01 ion chamber, SFD diode, diamond detector and X-Omat film dosimetry. As results of normalized to the reference field of $10{\times}10cm^2$ of MLC, the output factor of $3{\times}3cm^2$ showed $0.899{\pm}0.0106$, $0.855{\pm}0.0106$ for $2{\times}2cm^2$, $0.764{\pm}0.0082$ for $1{\times}1cm^2$ and $0.602{\pm}0.0399$ for $0.5{\times}0.5cm^2$. The output factor of MLC open field has shown a maximum 3.8% higher than that of the collimator jaw open field.

Isolation and Identification of a Photosensitizer from Pueraria thunbergiana Leaves that Induces Apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 Cells (P. thunbergiana 잎으로부터 SK-HEP-1세포에 대한 apoptosis를 유도하는 광과민성물질의 분리 및 구조동정)

  • Lee, Jun Young;Kim, Mi Kyeong;Ha, Jun Young;Kim, Yong Gyun;Hong, Chang Oh;Kim, So Young;Kim, Chung-Hwan;Kim, Keun Ki
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.242-251
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to isolate a photosensitizer from Pueraria thunbergiana leaves that induces apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 cells. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography were used to isolate active compounds from extracts of P. thunbergiana leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and FAB-mass spectroscopy. A substance, named M4-3, was purified from the leaves of P. thunbergiana using various chromatography methods, and the absorbance of the substance was measured. The absorbance was highest at 410 nm, suggesting that the M4-3 substance was a different compound from chlorophyll a and b, which absorb at 410, 502, 533, and 607 nm. Further analyses revealed that the M4-3 compound was a $13^2$-hydoxy pheophorbide, a methyl ester with a molecular weight of 662. M4-3 was identified as a derivative compound of pheophorbide, with a structure that magnesium comes away from the porphyrin ring. The results of the analysis of the cytotoxicity of the M4-3 substance against the SK-HEP-1 cells revealed that it inhibited rates of cell growth by 40% and 80% at a concentration of 0.04 ${\mu}M$ and 0.08 ${\mu}M$, respectively. The M4-3 compound was found to be a photosensitizer for cytotoxicity because it was appeared only in light condition as examining activity in different irradiation conditions (light condition and nonlight condition) under the same concentration. Analysis of morphological changes in the cells following cell death induced by exposure to the M4-3 substance reveled representative phenomena of apoptosis (nuclear condensation, vesicle formation, and fragmentation of DNA). The induction of apoptosis was attributed to the compound's photodynamic activity.

Comparative Study of Toxic Effects of Anatase and Rutile Type Nanosized Titanium Dioxide Particles in vivo and in vitro

  • Numano, Takamasa;Xu, Jiegou;Futakuchi, Mitsuru;Fukamachi, Katsumi;Alexander, David B.;Furukawa, Fumio;Kanno, Jun;Hirose, Akihiko;Tsuda, Hiroyuki;Suzui, Masumi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.929-935
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    • 2014
  • Two types of nanosized titanium dioxide, anatase ($anTiO_2$) and rutile ($rnTiO_2$), are widely used in industry, commercial products and biosystems. $TiO_2$ has been evaluated as a Group 2B carcinogen. Previous reports indicated that $anTiO_2$ is less toxic than $rnTiO_2$, however, under ultraviolet irradiation $anTiO_2$ is more toxic than $rnTiO_2$ in vitro because of differences in their crystal structures. In the present study, we compared the in vivo and in vitro toxic effects induced by $anTiO_2$ and $rnTiO_2$. Female SD rats were treated with $500{\mu}g/ml$ of $anTiO_2$ or $rnTiO_2$ suspensions by intra-pulmonary spraying 8 times over a two week period. In the lung, treatment with $anTiO_2$ or $rnTiO_2$ increased alveolar macrophage numbers and levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); these increases tended to be lower in the $anTiO_2$ treated group compared to the $rnTiO_2$ treated group. Expression of $MIP1{\alpha}$ mRNA and protein in lung tissues treated with $anTiO_2$ and $rnTiO_2$ was also significantly up-regulated, with $MIP1{\alpha}$ mRNA and protein expression significantly lower in the $anTiO_2$ group than in the $rnTiO_2$ group. In cell culture of primary alveolar macrophages (PAM) treated with $anTiO_2$ and $rnTiO_2$, expression of $MIP1{\alpha}$ mRNA in the PAM and protein in the culture media was significantly higher than in control cultures. Similarly to the in vivo results, $MIP1{\alpha}$ mRNA and protein expression was significantly lower in the $anTiO_2$ treated cultures compared to the $rnTiO_2$ treated cultures. Furthermore, conditioned cell culture media from PAM cultures treated with $anTiO_2$ had less effect on A549 cell proliferation compared to conditioned media from cultures treated with $rnTiO_2$. However, no significant difference was found in the toxicological effects on cell viability of ultra violet irradiated $anTiO_2$ and $rnTiO_2$. In conclusion, our results indicate that $anTiO_2$ is less potent in induction of alveolar macrophage infiltration, 8-OHdG and $MIP1{\alpha}$ expression in the lung, and growth stimulation of A549 cells in vitro than $rnTiO_2$.

Comparison of Dosimetric Parameters of Patient with Large and Pendulous Breast Receiving Breast Radiotherapy in the Prone versus Supine Position (유방 크기가 큰 유방암 환자의 방사선 치료 시 환자의 자세에 따른 선량 비교)

  • Moon, Sun Young;Yoon, Myonggeun;Chung, Weon Kuu;Chung, Mijoo;Shin, Dong Oh;Kim, Dong Wook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze dosimetric parameters of patient with large and pendulous breast receiving breast radiotherapy in the prone versus supine position. The patient underwent computed tomography simulation in both prone and supine position. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), coverage index (CVI) to the left breast as planning target volume (PTV) and the doses to the lung, heart, and right breast as organ at risk (OAR) were compared by using dose-volume histogram. The lifetime attributable risk (LAR) according to the prone and supine position was measured for the lung and right breast. The HI, CI of the PTV decreased 21.7%, 6.49%, respectively and the CVI increased 10.8% with the prone position. The mean and maximum dose to the left lung decreased 91.6%, 87.0%, respectively and the volume parameters also decreased over 99% with the prone position. The parameters to the right lung were same regardless of the position. The mean and maximum dose to the heart decreased 51.6%, 14.2% with the prone position. But the mean and maximum dose to the right breast increased unlike the other OARs. The LARs to the lung decreased 80.3% (left), 24.2% (right) but the LAR to the right breast doubled with the prone position. The prone position is a favorable alternative for irradiation of breast in patients with large and pendulous breasts.