• Title, Summary, Keyword: irritation

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Comparison of Eye Irritation Potency with Skin Irritation and Cytotoxicity Potency of Anti-wrinkle Agents (주름방지용 화장품원료의 안점막 자극성과 피부자극성 및 세포독성과의 비교)

  • 이은희;이종권;김주환;정경미;정해관;이선희;정수연;홍진태
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2001
  • In the present study, we examined eye irritation oj six anti-wrinkle agents (ascorbic acid, glycolic acid, all trans-retinoic acid, ginseng extract, retinol, EB). We also compared eye irritation with skin irritation and cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells by these agents. The highest eye irritation was found in glycolic acid, but all trans-retinoic acid showed the highest skin irritation. The rank of eye irritation was not correlated with the cytotoxicity of agents. This result shows that eye irritation potency by these agents were not correlated with skin irritation potency, and cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells.

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Eye Irritation, Skin Irritation and Skin Sensitization Tests for Aloewhite in Animals (Aloewhite의 안점막 및 피부에 대한 국소자극시험)

  • 김형식;곽승준;김규봉;이승기;박현선;홍채영;안미영;조태형;오선택
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 1996
  • Eye irritation, primary skin irritation and skin sensitization tests for Aloewhite were tested in New Zealand White rabbits and Hartley guinea pig. In primary skin irritation test of male New Zealand White rabbits, body weights were not significantly changed and Primary Irritation Index (PII) was O.47, indicating Aloewhite as mildly irritating material. In ocular irritation test, any injury on iris, conjunctival membrane, and cornea in New Zealand White rabbits was not observed. No injuries of the ocular mucous membrane were also recorded. Skin sensitization was tested in guinea pig after intradermal and epicutaneous induction and graded 1 with zero % sensitization rate. These results indicate that Aloewhite was not considered to be irritant in test organs of animals.

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Correlation Between Skin Irritation and Cytotoxicity of Anti-wrinkle Agents (화장품 원료의 피부자극성과 세포독성의 관련성)

  • 이은희;이종권;김용규;박기숙;안광수
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.310-319
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    • 2001
  • To compare skin irritation and cytotoxicity of anti-wrinkle agents, we examined skin irritation of six anti-wrinkle agents (ascorbic acid, glycolic acid, all trans-retinoic acid, ginseng extract, retinol, EB) in New Zealand white rabbit. Cytotoxicity of these agents was determined by MTT [tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] at multi-time points in cultured HaCaT cell, a human immortalized keratinocyte cell. We then analyzed correlation between skin irritation and cytotoxicity by spearman's rank correlation analysis. All trans-retinoic acid showed the highest primary irritation index (0.92) in skin irritation test. Being all the six agents not irritant, retinal showed the most cytotoxic agents. The correlation between skin irritation and cytotoxicity ($IC_{50}$/ at different time point was 0.814, 0.757, 0.814 and 0.7 at 3, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. We also fecund that IC$_{20}$ and IC$_{80}$ of these agents showed similar correlation with skin irritation. These results therefore demonstrated that there is close correlation between skin irritation and cytotoxicity $IC_{50}$/ value by MTT in HaCaT cell at early time points by anti-wrinkle agents or IC$_{20}$ value. $IC_{50}$/ at earily time point or IC$_{20}$ values may be reliable alternative determinant of skin irritation.n.

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A Study on Ocular and Skin Irritation Test of EPO(Erythropoietin) (토끼에서 EPO(Erythropoietin)의 안점막자극성 및 피부자극성시험)

  • 강병철;남정석;제정환;이석만;양재만;이학모;박재학;송동호;유선희
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.149-152
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    • 1997
  • This test was performed to evaluate the ocular and skin irritation of EPO (Erythropoietin). The results as follows: 1. Ocular irritation test There were no observed clinical signs, body weght changes by EPO during experimental period. The acute ocular irritation index(A.O.I.), mean ocular irritation index(M.O.I.) and Day-7 individual ocular irritation index(I.O.I.) of EPO at dose of 1000U and 10, 000U were 0, respectively. Therefore we evaluated that EPO was non-toxic to eyes. 2. Skin irritation test There were no observed clinical signs, body weght changes and gross pathologic findings by EPO during experimental period. There were no observed erythema, eschar formation and edema formation on intact and abraded skin treated by EPO. The primary irritation index(P.I.I.) of EPO at dose of 1000U and 10, 000U were 0, respectively and were evaluated none irritating product about skin irritation.

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Studies on the Correlation between SPF index and Primary Irritation Index of Octylmethoxycinnamte (Octylmethoxycinnamate의 SPF 지수와 피부자극지수와의 상관성 연구)

  • 서수경;김종원;최주영;서경원;박창원;김규봉;김광진;이선희
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.296-302
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    • 2002
  • In recent years, the safety of sunscreens have been challenged based on the reports of its adverse effects on users; dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, photoallergic contact dermatitis. In the toxicological aspect, the need to investigate the safety of sunscreens is steadily increasing. However, there were few studies on the correlation between sun protection factor (SPF) and the safety of sunscreens. The objective of this study was to assess whether there was a correlation between SPF and the skin irritation index of sunscreens. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) was selected, which was the most frequently used (about 92% in korea and about 90% in the world) in sunscreens. In vitro SPF test was performed using the standard samples recommended by KFDA guideline. We examined primary and cumulative skin irritation and eye irritation of OMC standard sample as well as homosalate. As in vitro SPF was increased, skin irritation index was increased in primary skin irritation test ($r^2$=0.986) and cumulative skin irritation test ($r^2$=0.939). In addition, OMC was non-irritating and non-sensitizing. In this results, there was a good correlation between SPF index and skin irritation index.

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A Study on Local Irritation Test of Bee Venom for Herb-Acupuncture (약침용(藥鍼用) 봉독액(蜂毒液)의 국소독성시험(局所毒性試驗)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Jong-Seok;Koh, Hyung-Kyun;Kim, Chang-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.227-249
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    • 1995
  • Pursuant to the Medical Product Safety Administration Guidelines for safety assessment of Korean bee vonom for herb-acupuncture, rabbits were used for skin, eye balls, subcutaneous and muscle irritation test. The results were as follows; 1. The skin irritation test of bee venom for herb-acupuncture did not produce any irritation reactions, when the skin was covered with bee venom. 2. The eye irritation test produced moderate to severe stimulating reactions, once the eye mucous membrane was contacted with bee venom. 3. The subcutaneous and muscle irritation test of bee venom showed such local inflammatory reactions as death of cells, infiltration of inflamed cells, dropsical swelling, and congestion, once injected under the skin and in the muscle. As the results of the study on bee venom for herb-acupuncture indicate that severe reactions in such tests as eye balls, subcutancous and muscle irritation exist in the laboratory, more professional caution should be taken in clinical application of the therapy. In addition, further study on subacute, chronic toxicity and allergy reactions should be pursued.

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Studies on the Dermal and Ocular Irritation of Prodigiosin Isolated from Zooshikella rubidus

  • Kim, Yong-Sook;Choi, Jong-Myoung;Yoon, Jung-Hoon;Choi, Myung-Jin;Reza, Md. Ahsanur;Park, Seung-Chun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the irritation of the prodigiosin isolated from Zooshikella rubidus on the skin and eyes in New Zealand white rabbits. The tests were performed on the basis of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines. Prodigiosin induced severe eye irritation at high concentration (0.5 g/site/ml) but there was no eye irritation at low concentration (0.3 mg/sitel ml). The primary irritation index was calculated from higher concentration (0.5 g/site/ml) to lower concentration (0.3 mg/site/ml). There were found non-irritation or induced mild irritation at lower concentration of prodigiosin application. On the basis of this study, it could be concluded that the prodigiosin may be non-irritant to mild irritant of usual application at lower concentration (0.3 mg/site) resulting it is safe and useful in dyeing technology of fabrics.

Assessment of the Dermal and Ocular Irritation Potential of Lomefloxacin by Using In Vitro Methods

  • Ahn, Jun-Ho;Eum, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Mi-Chael
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2010
  • The evaluation of eye and skin irritation potential is essential to ensuring the safety of human in contact with a wide variety of substances. Despite this importance of irritation test, little is known with respect to the irritation potency of lomefloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which has been known to cause phototoxicity with an abnormal reaction of the skin. Thus, to investigate the tendency of lomefloxacin to cause eye and skin irritation, we carried out in vitro eye irritation test using Balb/c 3T3, and in vitro skin irritation test using $KeraSkin^{TM}$ human skin model system. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay has been proposed as a potential replacement alternative for the Draize Eye irritation test. In this study, the $IC_{50}$ value obtained for lomefloxacin was 375 ${\mu}g$. According to the classification model used for determining in vitro categories, lomefloxacin was classified as moderately irritant. For evaluation of skin irritation, engineered epidermal equivalents ($KeraSkin^{TM}$) were subjected to 10 and 25 mg of lomefloxacin for 15 minutes. Tissue damage was assessed by tissue viability evaluation, and by the release of a pro-inflammatory mediator, interleukin- 1${\alpha}$. Lomefloxacin increased the interleukin-1${\alpha}$ release after 15 minutes of exposure and 42 hours of post incubation, although no decrease in viability was observed. Therefore, lomefloxacin is considered to be moderately irritant to skin and eye.

Risk Assessment of Persicaria nepalensis Extract by Skin Irritation, Ocular Irritation, and Maximization Tests for Delayed Hypersensitivity (산여뀌 추출물의 피부자극, 안점막 자극 및 피부감작성에 대한 위해성 평가)

  • Yang, Woong-Suk;Park, Jin-Sik;Lee, Jae-Yong;Hwang, Cher-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we evaluated the potential of 70% ethanol extract from Persicaria nepalensis (PNE) as a cosmetic ingredient by primary skin irritation, ocular irritation, and maximization tests for delayed hypersensitivity in New Zealand white rabbits and Hartley guinea pig. Skin safety study was performed to evaluate the potential toxicity of PNE using the primary irritation test. In the primary irritation test, 50% PNE was applied to the skin, and no adverse reactions such as erythema and edema were observed at the intact skin sites. Therefore, PNE was classified as a practically non-irritating material based on a primary irritation index of "0.0.". In the ocular irritation test, the 50% PNE applied did not show any adverse reactions in the different parts of rabbit eyes, including the cornea, iris, and conjunctiva. Thus, PNE was classified as a practically non-irritating material based on an acute ocular irritation index of "0.0.". Skin sensitization was tested by the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) using an intradermal injection of 10% PNE. Edema and erythema were not observed 24 and 48 h after the topical application of PNE in skin sensitization test, which exhibited a sensitization score of "0.0.". Therefore, it can be suggested that P. nepalensis could be used as potential candidates for cosmoceutical ingredients, without any major side effects.

A STUDY ON THE RECOMBINANT GRANULOCYTEMACROPHAGE COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR (LBD-005) FOR PRIMARY SKIN IRRITATION IN RABBITS

  • Park, Jong-Il;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Roh, Jung-Koo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.69-72
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    • 1993
  • LBD-005, a newly developed recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, was tested for primary skin irritation in male New Zealand White rabbits. In the primary skin irritation test, LBD-005 was applied to intact and abraded skins for 24 hours. Primary irritation index was "0" in test and control sites of all animals' thus LBD-005 was evaluated as a non-irritatant on the basis of the criteria of Draize et al. (1994).l. (1994).

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