• Title, Summary, Keyword: isoproturon

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The Effect of Isoproturon on Herbicidal Properties, Crop Injury and Yield in Barley and Wheat Cultivation (맥작(麥作)에 있어서 Isoproturon의 살초특성(殺草特性)과 약해(藥害) 및 수량(收量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ryang, Y.S.;Kim, J.S.;Han, S.S.;Ryang, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.152-159
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    • 1982
  • To investigate the effect of isoproturon (N,N-dimethyl-N-4-isopropyl phenyl urea) on weed-killing, crop injury and yield of barley, several experiments were conducted by application time, dosage, cultivars and soil texture. For the effective control of weeds the optimum application time was foliage application after winter. Alopecurus aequalis SOBOL was effectively controlled when isoproturon should be applied at three to four leaf-stage and most annual broad-leave weeds emerged through winter and spring could be controlled when applied even at five to six leaf-stage. But among the broad-leave weeds Vicia amoena Fisch. was resistant to isoproturn. The optimum application rate of isoproturon was 240g-300g/10a (prod.). Among 11 cultivars of barley and wheat, phytotoxicity of Olmil, Jokwang and Rye was slighter than that of the other cultivars when isoproturon was treated by foliage application after winter. At the time of foliage application after winter, the variation of phytotoxicity and effectiveness was a little despite the difference of soil texture and the grain yield of barley was higher in the plots treated 240-300g/10a than in other treated plots.

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Analysis of Four Pesticides, Isoproturon, Phenmedipham, Pyridate and Nitenpyram Residues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detector (HPLC를 이용한 Isoproturon, Phenmedipham, Pyridate 및 Nitenpyram 4종 성분의 잔류농약 분석법 개발)

  • Yang, Sung-Yong;Koo, Yun-Chang;Wang, Zeng;Heo, Kyeong;Kim, Hyeong-Kook;An, Eun-Mi;Shin, Han-Seung;Lee, Jin-Won;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.1165-1170
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    • 2010
  • A method for the determination of four pesticide compounds, urea (isoproturon), bis-carbamate (phenmedipham), thiocarbamate (pyridate) and vinyllidenediamine (nitenpyram) were examined and analyzed by HPLC with C-18 column ($250\;mm{\times}4.6\;mm$, $5\;{\mu}m$ diameter particle size). Mobile phase consisted of deionized water, acetonitrile and 50 mM $KH_2PO_4$ (pH 2.5). Isoproturon and phenmedipham analytical condition was isocratic elution of the column with 50% solvent A (acetonitrile) and 50% solvent B (deionized water); pyridate was 85% solvent A (acetonitrile) and 15% solvent B (deionized water) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min; and nitenpyram analytical condition was 90% solvent A (50 mM $KH_2PO_4$, pH 2.5) and 10% solvent B (acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. In results, retention times were 6.12, 8.63, 9.40 and 12.76 min for isoproturon, phenmedipham, pyridate and nitenpyram, respectively. All injection volumes were $10\;{\mu}L$ and the limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg/kg for four pesticide compounds, respectively. Recovery rate test was performed with three farm products, rice, apple and soybean. Four pesticide compounds were spiked at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg. The recovery rates were ranged from 70.18% to 118.08% and the standard deviations of all experiments were within 10%.

Effect of mixtures of gibberellic acid and several herbicides on the herbicidal activity against wild oat (Avena fatua L.) (Gibberellic acid와 여러 가지 제초제와의 혼합처리가 메귀리에 대한 제초활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Seog;Choi, Jung-Sup;Hong, Kyung-Sik;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 1998
  • Based on the differential growth response to exogenous gibberellic acid ($GA_{3}$) between semi-dwarf wheat(Triticum aestivum) and wild oat(Avena fatua), we examined the possibility of improving the selective performance of several herbicides by $GA_{3}$ application and the physiological background of $GA_{3}$-induced increase in herbicidal activity. Growth of wild oat was 4 to 5 times higher than that of wheat by $GA_{3}$ treatment. Pretreatment of wild oat seed with 300 ppm $GA_{3}$ increased the herbicidal activities of trifluralin and isoproturon by soil-surface application, but not of alachor and metsulfuron-methyl. $GA_{3}$ applied simultaneously with post-emergence herbicides resulted in a significant or moderate improvement of the efficacy of such herbicides as tralkoxydim, fenoxaprop-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, metribuzine and isoproturon, but not in the mixtures of oxyfluorfen or paraquat with $GA_{3}$. In the sequencial treatment of tralkoxydim and $GA_{3}$ at interval of one-day, $GA_{3}$ applied prior to tralkoxydim significantly increased a chlorosis and desiccation of leaf without affecting the growth inhibition by tralkoxydim. Tralkoxydim followed by $GA_{3}$ application had lower herbicidal activity than that of $GA_{3}$ followed by tralkoxydim treatment. Electrolyte leakage response of $GA_{3}$-pretreated or $GA_{3}$-untreated wild oat leaf against several compounds inducing membrane. peroxidation was compared. Differencial responses were observed in oxyfluorfen and isoproturon treatments with an increased electrolyte leakage in $GA_{3}$-pretreated tissue, but not in paraquat and rose bengal treatments. These results suggest that $GA_{3}$-induced increase in herbicidal activity is likely to be dependent on a herbicide type and may be due to activation of a metabolic ability related with herbicidal reponse as well as an increase in the herbicide absorbtion and translocation, rather than due to membrane and cell wall extention induced by $GA_{3}$, which in turn makes the herbicides easily enter.

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Phytotoxic Effect of Herbicides on Upland Crops and Weeds (밭작물(作物) 및 잡초(雜草)에 대한 제초제(除草劑)의 약해(藥害) 약효(藥效))

  • Ryang, H.S.;Chun, J.C.;Yim, J.H.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 1984
  • This study was conducted to select herbicides effective for upland crops and to investigate the cause of crop injury in peanut cultivated with mulching. Crop such as radish (Raphanus acanthiformis Moor.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica raps L.), soybean (Glycine max Merr.), Peanut (Archis hypogaea L.), and marsh mallow (Malva olitoria Nakai) were tolerant to napropamide [2-(${\alpha}$-naphthoxy)-N, N-diethylpropionamide], alachlor [2-chloro-2', 6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide], trifluralin (${\alpha},{\alpha},{\alpha}$-trifluoro-2, 6-dinitro-N, N-dipropylp-toluidine) and nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenylether). Napropamide, diphenamide (N, N-dimethyl-2, 2-diphenylacetamide) and alachlor were safe for red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), while trifluralin, nitrofen and chlonitrofen (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl-4-nitrophenyl ether) could be used for water melon (Citrullus battich Forsk.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca scariola L.) without crop injury. Out of nine major weed species studied, Capsella bursa-pastoris Medicus was the most resistant species to the herbicides tested. Napropamide and alachlor could not control P. hydropiper, while P. oleracea and C. album were tolerant to diphenamide :and alachlor, respectively. Urea herbicides such as methabenzthiazuron [3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,3-dimethylurea], linuron [3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl~l-methoxy-i-methyl urea], and isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl) -1, 1-dimethylurea]gave a great injury to the crops studied. The weeding effect was greater for broadleaf weeds than for grasses. Isoproturon and linuron provided good selectivity for marsh mallow and carrot, respectively. In peanut, the crop injury caused by Four herbicides studied was greater when cultivated with mulching than when cultivated without mulching. With dinitroaniline herbicides the crop injury decreased as the gaseous herbicide was removed out of mulching. Alachlor gave little phytotoxicity to peanut grown under mulching condition and nitralin [4-(methylsuphonyl)-2, 6-dinitro-N, N-dipropylaniline] showed less toxicity to the peanut than pendimenthalin (3,4-dimethyl-2, 6-dinitro-N-1-ethyl propylaniline) and trifluralin.

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