• Title, Summary, Keyword: ivermectin

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Erects of Ivermectin Contained-Cattle Dung on the Development of Earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Ivermectin이 함유된 우분이 줄지렁이에 미치는 영향)

  • Bang, Hea-Son;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Han, Min-Sun;Lee, Jeong-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.114-117
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    • 2007
  • The effects of faecally excreted ivermectin on the survival and growth of the common Korea earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny), have been studied in the laboratory. Cow dung was collected 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after ivermectin subcutaneous injection. The mortality of the worms provided with untreated dung was 0% whereas mortality within a week was high as 73.7%, 98.3% in dung which were excreted 1 and 2 days from dosing, respectively. The growth rate of the worms fed dung from 1 day excreted dung from cattle given ivermectin was 75% lower than that recorded on the control. In total number of hatchling earthworm in each treatment, 1 day after treatment produced the lowest compared with untreated control. However, dung from cattle treated with ivermectin did not prevented the rate of hatchling from each cocoon of earthworm. The results show that ivermectin is less toxic to $2^{nd}$ generation of earthworm. We concluded that ivermectin have adverse effects on the survival and growth of E. fetida when exposed through dung under laboratory conditions. This results will be discussed in relation to the effects of anthelmintics on non-target organism in our ecosystem.

The anti-parasitic efficacy of ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate compound against canine Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis

  • Youn, Heejeong;Ra, Jeong Chan;Kim, Byung Ki;Bae, Bokyoung;Lim, Yong Suk;Kim, Kyong Hee;Lee, Kyong-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.289-295
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    • 2011
  • Toxocara (T.) canis and Trichuris (T.) vulpis are very important canine parasitic nematodes. T. canis parasitize in small intestine and T. vulpis parasitize in large intestine. In order to control of these nematodes, ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate compound was applied to the dogs infected with these parasites naturally and artificially. This drug was composed of $68.0{\mu}g$ of ivermectin and 57.0 mg of pyrantel pamoate for small animal, $136.0{\mu}g$ of ivermectin and 114.0 mg of pyrantel pamoate for middle animal, and $272.0{\mu}g$ of ivermectin and 227.0 mg of pyrantel pamoate for large animal. Ivermectin in this drug is activity to nematodes and ectoparisites. Pyrantel pamoate in this drug is also activity to nematodes. In this experiment, this drug had a good efficacy against T. canis and T. vulpis in the infected dogs.

Toxicity of ivermectin in Jindo-dogs 1. Clinical and hematological observation (진돗개에서 ivermectin의 독성 I. 임상증상과 혈액학적 변화 관찰)

  • Lee, Chai-yong;Oh, Seok-il;Lee, Chung-gil
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.855-862
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    • 1997
  • Ivermectin is a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring avermectin $B_{1a}$ (22, 23-dihydroavermectin $B_{1a}$) and $B_{1b}$ (22, 23-dihydroavermectin $B_{1b}$), It is widely used as antiparasitic and pesticidal agents because of its remarkably potent and broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. Although the drug has shown excellent anthelmintic effects, development of toxicosis in some animals such as the Collie species of dog is well documented. However, no studies have been reported on the toxic effects of the drug in Korean native animals such as the Jindo dog. The toxic effect of ivermectin was evaluated in 25 Jindo dogs divided into five groups which were orally administered with ivermectin at dosage levels of $200{\mu}g/kg$, $300{\mu}g/kg$, $600{\mu}g/kg$ and $2,500{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight, respectively. Toxic signs were not observed in the groups receiving $200{\mu}g/kg$ and $300{\mu}g/kg$ B.W. ivermectin. One dog developed mild clinical signs of toxicosis in the group receiving $600{\mu}g/kg$ dosage of ivermectin. In the group with $2,500{\mu}g/kg$ dosage, all dogs developed mild (salivation, drooling, vomiting, mydriasis, and/or confusion) and/or moderate (ataxia and tremors) clinical signs of toxicosis. Hematologic changes were not observed in the groups receiving $200{\mu}g/kg$, $300{\mu}g/kg$ and $600{\mu}g/kg$ B.W. ivermectin. In the groups receiving $2,500{\mu}g/kg$ B.W., total erythrocyte counts, total and differential leukocyte counts and hemoglobin levels were not affected by drug. Aspartate aminotransferase levels were increased after administration of ivermectin, while serum cholesterol and blood glucose levels were decreased.

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Efficacy of Ivermectin in Combination Treatment with Amitraz in Dogs with Generalized Demodicosis (개의 전신성 모낭충증에 대한 ivermectin과 amitraz의 병용치료효과)

  • 오태호;박회명;윤화영;한홍율
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.209-213
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    • 1998
  • 난치성 전신성 모낭충증에 감염되어 약 4개월간 모낭충 치료제인 amitraz(0.0125%) 처치에도 불구하고 치유되지 않은 한국산 풍산개 2두에 대한 ivermectin 및 amitraz 의 병용치료효과를 알아보았다. 전신성 모낭충증은 신체의 50% 또는 4개의 발에 모두 모낭충 이 검출된 것으로 정의하였다. 내원시 신체검사, 심장사상충검사 및 최소 裂訃위에 대한 피부 박리검사를 실시하여 모낭충을 진단하였고 치료는 돼지용 ivermectin을 체중 kg당 0.5 mg을 피하로 매일 주사하였으며 1주일에 2회 amitraz 약욕을 실시하였다. 피부농피중은 cephalexin 20 mg/kg을 경구로 일일 2회 투여하여 치료하였다. 치료후 4주에 피부병변이 치유되기 시 작하였으며 6주에는 탈모 및 소수의 발진을 제외하고는 피부병변이 정상으로 회복하였다. 피 부박리검사는 6주에 모낭충이 검출되지 않았다. 이들 제제에 의한 부작용은 관찰되지 않았으며 매일 ivermectin 투여와 amitraz 약욕치료의 병용치료는 amitraz로 치료가 되지 않는 난치성의 전신성 모낭충증에 대한 치료기간을 단축시키는 효과적인 치료방법으로 생각된다.

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Studies on the anti-parasitic efficacy and safety of ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate compound against Dirofilaria immitis in dogs

  • Youn, Heejeong;Ra, Jeong-Chan;Kim, Byung-Ki;Lim, Yong-Suk;Kim, Kyong-Hee;Lee, Kyong-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2012
  • Dirofilaria (D.) immitis is an important canine parasitic nematode in dogs. D. immitis parasitizes the right ventricle and pulmonary artery of dogs. An ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate compound (IPPC) was administered to dogs naturally infected with this parasite. IPPC is composed of 68.0, 136.0 and $272.0{\mu}g$ of ivermectin and 57.0, 114.0 and 227.0 mg pyrantel pamoate for small, middle, and large animals. Ivermectin has activity against nematodes and ectoparasites in dogs. Pyrantel pamoate is also effective against nematodes in dogs. Our results showed that this drug combination has good efficacy in D. immitis infected dogs.

Therapeutic Potential of Myrrh and Ivermectin against Experimental Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice

  • Basyoni, Maha M.A.;El-Sabaa, Abdel-Aleem A.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2013
  • Trichinosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. Anthelmintics are used to eliminate intestinal adults as well as tissue-migrating and encysted larvae. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ivermectin and myrrh obtained from the aloe-gum resin of Commiphora molmol on experimental trichinosis. Ninety albino mice were orally infected with 300 T. spiralis larvae. Drugs were tested against adult worms at day 0 and day 5 and against encysted larvae on day 15 and day 35 post-infection (PI). Mature worms and encysted larvae were counted in addition to histopathological examination of muscle specimens. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, and creatinine values were estimated. Significant reductions in mean worm numbers were detected in ivermectin treated mice at day 0 and day 5 PI achieving efficacies of 98.5% and 80.0%, while efficacies of myrrh in treated mice were 80.7% and 51.5%, respectively. At days 15 and 35 post-infection, ivermectin induced significant reduction in encysted larval counts achieving efficacies of 76.5% and 54.0%, respectively, while myrrh efficacies were 76.6% and 35.0%, respectively. AST, ALT, urea, and creatinine levels were reduced, while total proteins were increased in response to both treatments compared to their values in the infected non-treated mice. Ivermectin use for controlling T. spiralis could be continued. Myrrh was effective and could be a promising drug against the Egyptian strains of T. spiralis with results nearly comparable to ivermectin.

Examination of ivermectin residues in raw milk after skin administration (원유중 Ivermectin 구충제의 잔류실태 조사)

  • Bark, Jun-Jo;Youk, Ji-Hea;Kim, Hu-Kyoung;Park, Hye-Won;Kim, In-Kyung;Lee, Woo-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.421-428
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted two kinds of aims: 1) to modify the analytical methods (conditions) by high performance liquid chromatography - fluorescence detector for the detection of residual ivermectin in raw milk, 2) to provide basic information for the evaluation of standard of the residual ivermectin in raw milk. It could be considerable that negative ion spectra can be better method in the LC/MS analysis for the detection of residues, Characteristic daughter ions were observed in negative ion spectra, however, linear line was not formed in positive ion one. Three Holstein cows ($500{\pm}10kg$) were applied to commercial ointment of ivermectin just one time at the first day of test, and residues in raw milk were examined for 20day after administration. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.65ng (n=5) by HPLC/FLD, and recovery rates were $87.85%{\sim}99.47%$. The peak was observed at the 4th day, and residues lasted to the end. Thus ivermectin was prohibited when lactating.

Field Trials on the Efficacy of New Broad-Spectrum Anthelmintics - 2. Anthelmintic Efficacy of Ivermectin Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes, Trematodes and Cestode in Korean Native Goats (반추수의 내부기생충에 대한 신종 광범위구충제의 구충효과 : 2. Ivermectin의 구충효과)

  • Lee Soon-Sun;Cho Hee-Taek;Suh Myung-Deuk
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.723-728
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    • 1987
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Ivermectin(Ivomec) against naturally infected gastrointestinal nematoeds, trematodes and cestode in Korean Native goats. Ivermectin was injected at a dose rate 0.2mg/kg of body weight subcu

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Comparative Efficacy of Ivermectin and Levamisole for Reduction of Migrating and Encapsulated Larvae of Baylisascaris transfuga in Mice

  • Fu, Yan;Nie, Hua-Ming;Niu, Li-Li;Xie, Yue;Deng, Jia-Bo;Wang, Qiang;Yang, Guang-You;Gu, Xiao-Bin;Wang, Shu-Xian
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2011
  • The comparative efficacy of 2 anthelmintics (ivermectin and levamisole) against Baylisascaris transfuga migrating and encapsulated larvae was studied in mice. A total of 60 BALB/c mice inoculated each with about 1,000 embryonated B. transfuga eggs were equally divided into 6 groups (A-F) randomly. Mice of groups A and B were treated with ivermectin and levamisole, respectively, on day 3 post-infection (PI). Mice of groups A-C were killed on day 13 PI. Similarly, groups D and E were treated with ivermectin and levamisole, respectively, on day 14 PI, and all mice of groups D-F were treated on day 24 PI. The groups C and F were controls. Microexamination was conducted to count the larvae recovering from each mouse. The percentages of reduction in the number of migrating larvae recovered from group A (ivermectin) and B (levamisole) were 88.3% and 81.1%, respectively. In addition, the reduction in encapsulated larvae counts achieved by ivermectin (group D) and levamisole (group E) was 75.0% and 49.2%, respectively. The results suggested that, to a certain extent, both anthelmintics appeared to be more effective against migrating larvae than encapsulated larvae. However, in the incipient stage of infection, ivermectin may be more competent than levamisole as a larvicidal drug for B. transfuga.

A Case of Ascarid Impaction and Intestinal Perforation in an Adult Zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi) (성숙한 얼룩말에서 Ascarid Impaction 및 장천공)

  • Yang, Jae-Hyuk;Lim, Yoon-Kyu
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.442-445
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    • 2011
  • Macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. A Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi) was admitted to the Equine Hospital at Jeju Race Park with signs of chronic weight loss and severe depression. Clinical examination revealed tachycardia and dehydration. Over the course of a day, the zebra suffered from severe abdominal pain and subsequently died. Prior to admission, the zebra had received prophylactic anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin 3 times at 3-month intervals and was dewormed with ivermectin 30 days prior to the onset of depression. At necropsy, there were masses of ascarids in the stomach and small intestine, and intestinal perforation. There are many reports of ivermectin-resistant P. equorum in horses. However, anthelmintic resistance has not been formally demonstrated in zebras. This report describes diagnosed case of gastrointestinal impaction and intestinal perforation by P. equorum in an adult zebra. We suspect that ivermectin-resistant P. equorum larvae were the cause.