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The Analysis of the Genetic Variance and Combining Ability in some Quantitative Characters by Daillel Crosses of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (이면교잡에 의한 가잠의 몇가지 실용형질의 유전변이와 조합능력 분석)

  • 장창식;손해룡
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.7-19
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    • 1985
  • The genetic variances and combinding ability of some useful characters were analyzd on sixty four combinations in the 8$\times$8 diallel cross using the four Japanese races(Jam 107, Jam 113, Jam 117 and Jam 119) and the four Chinese races(Jam 108, Jam 114, Jam 118 and Jam 120). The eight quantitative characters were the total larval stage period(TP), the fifth larval instar period(FP), the female cocoon total weight(FW), the male cocoon total weight(MW), the female cocoon layer weight(FL), the male cocoon layer weight(ML), the female cocoon layer ratio(FR), and the male cocoon layer ratio(MR). The results were as follows: The analysis of the genetic variance and the combining ability in the TP and the FP. In TP and FP, h2N was less than h2B. The GCA, SCA and RCA were at a high significant level. Hl/D and (Hl/D)1/2 ere large. The heterosis were small minus. E and D were large. The r was in the positive direction, because the recessive genes were mainly expressed as a short rearing periods. The regressions of the characters were passed below 0 point, because the characters in the TP and the FP were appeared overdominant. The order of the dominance in the TP of the parents were in the order of Jam 119>Jam 113>Jam 117>Jam 108>Jam 120>Jam 114>Jam 107>Jam 118, and that in the FP of the parents were followed in the orders of Jam 117>Jam 113>Jam 108>Jam 114>Jam 119>Jam 107>Jam 120>Jam 118. The analysis of the genetic variance and the combining ability of the FW and the MW. In the FW and the Mw, h2N was less the h2B. The GCA and SCA were large but RCA was little. Hl/D and (Hl/D)1/2 in the parents were large. Heterosis was large. E was appeared large in the FW, and small in the MW. D was small. The r was of the minus direction, because the dominance genes were less expressed. The regression of the these characters were padded below 0 point, because the characters in FW and MW were appeared overdominant. The orders of the dominance in the FW of the parents were as the order of Jam 107>Jam 108>Jam 119>Jam 113>Jam 114>Jam 120>Jam 117>Jam 118, and in the MW of them in the order of Jam 114>Jam 120>Jam 108>Jam 113>Jam 107>Jam 119>Jam 117>Jam 118. The analysis of the genetic variance and the combining ability of the FL and ML. In the FL and the ML, h2N was less than h2B. GCA and SCA were large. RCA was little. Hl/D and (Hl/D)1/2 ere large. Heterosis was large. The r was in the negative direction, because the dominance genes were less expressed. The regression of the characters of FL and ML were appeared overdominant. The dominance in the FL of parents ere in the order of Jam 120>Jam 114>Jam 119>Jam 119>Jam 118>Jam 107>Jam 117>Jam 113, and the ML of them in the order of Jam 114>Jam 108>Jam 120>Jam 117>Jam 118>Jam 107>Jam 119>Jam 113. The analysis of the genetic variance and combining ability of the FR and the MR. In the FR and the Mr, h2N was less than h2B. GCA was large. The SCA and RCA were little. In the FW, Hl/D was large but (Hl/D)1/2 was a little. In MR, Hl/D and (Hl/D)1/2 both were a littel. Heterosis was a little. E in the FR was in the negative direction, because the dominance genes were less expressed but that in the MR was the positive direction because the recessive genes were mainly expressed. The order of the dominance in the FR of the parents were in the order of Jam 117>Jam 114>Jam 108>Jam 120>Jam 118>Jam 119>Jam 107>Jam 113 and that in the MR these were in the order of Jam 114>Jam 117>Jam 108>Jam 118>Jam 107>Jam 119>Jam 120.

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The Developmental Characterization of the Sericin jam(Bombyx mori), a Mutant in the Synthesis and Secretion of Fibroin (세리신잠(Nd-s. $Nd^H$의 발육 특성)

  • 김수연;손해룡
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.6-9
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was done to know developmental characteristics of Sericin jam. Incubation periods were 10 day 2 hr, and 10 day 1 hr. 11 day 1 hr for Nd-s jam, N $d^{H}$ jam, and Baegok jam, respectively. Hatching rates were 83.9, 83.3 and 96.0% for Nd-s jam, N $d^{H}$ jam, and Baegok jam. Larval periods were, 20 days 1 hr for Nd-s jam, 20 days 5 hrs for N $d^{H}$ jam, and 22 days 12 hrs for Baegok jam. Death rate of larvae was highest in N $d^{H}$ iam, followed by Nd-s jam and Baegok jam. Pupation rate was highest in Baegok Jam followed by Nd-s jam and that of N $d^{H}$ jam was the lowest among the three. Cocoon weight was 1.39, 1.08, and 2.01 g for Nd-s jam, N $d^{H}$ jam, and Baegok jam, respectively. Shell weight were 13, 3, and 48 cg for Nd-s jam, N $d^{H}$ jam, and Baegok jam. Cocoon shell ratios were 9.0% for Nd-s jam, 2.8% for N $d^{H}$ jam and 23.9% for Baegok jam. Cocoon sizes were 30.6${\times}$15.8 mm for Nd-s jam, 24.7${\times}$14.9 mm for N $d^{H}$ jam and 35.8 ${\times}$ 20.5 mm(1${\times}$w) for Baegok jam.w) for Baegok jam.

The Use of Fibroin Light Chain Gene Sequence for the Genetic Marker of the Silkworm Races

  • Park, Kwang-Ho;Kang, Seok-Woo;Kang, Pil-Don;Goo, Tea-Won;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Yun, Eun-Young;Lee, Sang-Mong;Sohn, Hung-Dae;Jin, Byung-Rae
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.45-48
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    • 2003
  • We have previously cloned and characterized the complete fibroin L-chain gene from one of the silkworm races Baekok-Jam (Bombyx mori) and found two variable regions (I, intron 2 ~ exon 3; II, intron 6) with the primer sets designed to cover these variable regions. We tested the utility of these regions as genetic markers among silkworm races. For the purpose of study, Japanese race (Jam 123), Chinese race (Jam 124) and their F$_1$hybrid Baekok-Jam were used. The PCR product size of region I was 787 bp in Jam 123, 770 bp in Jam 124 and 768 bp in Baekok-Jam. The size of region II was 470 bp in Jam 123, 428 bp in Jam 124 and 429 Up in Baekok-Jam. In the extended experiment, Jam 125 (Japanese race), Jam 126 (Chinese race) and their F$_1$hybrid Daeseong-Jam were also analyzed. The sizes of region I and II in Jam 125, Jam 126 and Daeseong-Jam were similar to those of Jam 123, Jam 124 and Baekok-Jam. DNA sequence divergence between the two geographic races of Jam 123 or Jam 125 and Jam 124 or Jam 126 was substantial. The result suggests that the fibroin L-chain gene of F$_1$hybrids were inherited from Chinese races. These results are concordant with cocoon shapes of tested animals, and suggested that Baekok-Jam or Daeseong-jam is more closely related to Jam 124 or Jam 126 than to Jam 123 or Jam 125. Taken these data together, the primer sets designed from two variable regions of fibroin L-chain gene would be highly useful, as the genetic markers for silkworm races, at least in Japanese and Chinese races, although an extended study including more geographic races is required.

Genetic Relationships among the Parental Bombyx mori Strains of the Current F$_1$ Hybrid Silkworm based on RAPD (RAPD를 이용한 장려누에품종의 원종간 유전적 유연관계)

  • 황재삼;이진성;강현아;이상몽;손해룡
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.206-214
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    • 1997
  • The genetic relationships among the twenty parental silkworm, Bombyx mori strains authorized in Korea were evaluated using RAPDs-PCR(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs-Polymerase Chain Reaction). Twenty-six different 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were used to screen genetic characteristics of parental twenty silkworm strains by RAPD-PCR analysis. 24 primers showed different banding patterns among the strains. Based on these RAPD patterns, the genetic relationships among the silkworm strains were analyzed by UPGMA(Unweighed Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic average) method. The phylogenetic relationships in the twenty silkworm strains were classified into two major sub-groups at the genetic similarity coefficient of 0.60. The first sub-group included Jaml13, Jaml 19, Jaml20, Jam123, Jam1 25 and Jam 127. Jamll4, Jam1 2 I, Jam 122, Jam 124, Jam1 26, Jam 128, Jam129, Jam 130, Jam 131, Jam1 32, Jam133, Jam134, Jam301 and Jam302 were included in the 2nd group. The genetic distance values among Jam1 14, Jam120 and Jam127 were lower than those among the other strains, while Jam129 is very closely related to Jam131 as showing coefficient value of 1 .O.

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Varietal Difference in Amylase Activity of Larval Digestive Fluid of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on Artificial Diet (인공사료로 사육한 누에의 소화액Amylase활성에 있어서 품종간관 차이)

  • 문재유;설광렬
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 1983
  • 1. The varietal difference in amylase activity of the digestive fluid of the 5th instar larvae reared on the artificial diet was investigated, using the parent commercial silkworm varieties of Japanese strain. The amylase activity was large different among silkworm varieties. The activity was strong in Hansaeng-1, Jam 115 and Jam 117, medium in Hansaeng-3, Jam 113, Jam 119, and Jam 201, weak in Jam 107, Jam 121 and Gyeongchu. The amylase of the digestive fluid of ten parent commercial silkworm varieties is possible-(ae) type, compared with +(+$\^$ae/) type of Daizo. 2. To investigate the effect of a-amylase pre-treatment of the artificial diet, larvae were fed with the diet treated by a-amylase during 4th-5th instar periods. The blood sugar content and cocoon qualities were slightly higher in the experimental larvae than those in the control, while showing the slight less body weight, amylase activity and dietary efficient.

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Studies on the Developing New Methods to Prepare Strawberry Jam 1. Pouch Jam prepared by Concentration with Cut-back (새로운 딸기잼 제조방법 개발에 관한 연구 1. Cut-back농축방법을 이용한 Pouch Jam)

  • 심우만;이상현
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1989
  • Studies were conducted on the preparation methods of strawberry jam. Strawberry was homogenized and centrifuged to serum-pulp portion. Concentration of strawberry serum was carried out at 55~58$^{\circ}C$ under pressure of 30~60mmHg. Strawberry jam bases were mixed throughly and stuffed in retortable pouch, The pouch was sterilized to make a new strawberry jam. The characteristics of new type ism was analyzed gas chromatographic profile, and sensory evaluations.

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The Development Properties of Sericin Jam and Composition of Amino Acid in Hemolymph (세리신잠(Nd-s)의 발육특성과 혈액아미노산 조성)

  • Kim, Jong-Hyun;Sohn, Hae-Ryong
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.20
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was to know properties of Sericin Jam that development, growth of silkgland, content of sericin and composition of amino acid in hemolymph. The characters of Sericin Jam can he seen form this experiment. Hatching ratio was 85% in Sericin Jam and 95% in Jam 120. Especially hatching period of Sericin Jam was longer than Jam 120 and also hatching of Sericin Jam was ununiform. The larval duration of Sericin Jam was 20 days and 23 hours, and Jaw 120 was 21 days and 22 hours. In Sericin Jam, middle silkgland contain a great p arts in silkgalod and posterior silkgand is short and no curves. The period of mounting to emergence was 12 days in Sericin Jam. The period of pupa was 7day. It is property of Sericin Jam that the period is short. Cocoon was very thin and light in Sericin Jam. Weight of cocoon shell of Sericin Jam is 2.7cg. The sericin protein quantity was 100% in cocoon shell of Sericin Jam, about 28% in cocoon shell of Jam 120, however the sericin ratio per Sericin Jam cocoon was 34.6% compare to cocoon shell of Jaw 120 in sericin protein quantity. The amino acids in hemolymph of Sericin Jaw was much hidtidine, lysine, glut amic acid. And the amount of almost amino acids were increased depends upon development at t he 5th instar.

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The Effects of Fructo-Oligosaccharide on the Quality Characteristics of Strawberry Jam (프락토올리고당의 첨가가 딸기잼의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김문용;전순실
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.530-537
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    • 2000
  • Quality characteristics of strawberry jams made of 2 different strawberry cultivars, Bogyo-joseng and Suhong, with 25, 50, 75, 100% fructo-oligosaccharide in place of sucrose were evaluated. Moisture content of Suhong jam was higher than Bogyo-joseng jam. pH of Bogyo-joseng and Suhong jam was not different. The lightness, redness and yellow-ness of Bogyo-joseoung jam were higher than those of Suhong jam. Spreadmeter value of jams decreased with addition of fructo-oligosaccharide. The sweetness of Suhong jam was higher than Bogyo-joseng. Reducing sugar content of Suhong jam was higher than Bogyo-joseng jam. More of fructo-oligosaccharide added, reducing sugar content of jam increased. Residual anthocyanin in Bogyo-joseng strawberry jam was decreased by addition of fructo-oligosaccharide. However, the residual anthocyanin content of Suhong strawberry jams with fructo-oligosaccharide was lower than that of sugar-only control jam with an exception of 50% fructo-oli-gosaccharide jam. The 50% fructo-oligosaccharide jam had a higher residual anthocyanin content than sugar-only jam. As the addition rate of fructo-oligosaccharide increased, springiness and cohesiveness of jam increased, while resilience decreased. In sensory evaluation, Bogyo-joseng strawberry jams obtained highest score with 50% fructo-oligosaccharide, while Suhong strawberry jam was favored most with 25% fructo-oligosaccharide.

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Effects of Sugars and Pectin on the Quality Characteristics of Low Sugar Wild Vine (Vitis coignetiea) Jam (당과 펙틴이 저당 머루잼의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Moon-Jung;Yoon, Suk-Hoo;Jung, Mun-Yhung;Choe, Eun-Ok
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the feasibility of manufacturing a low-sugar wild vine jam by examining viscosity, water content, and pH, as affected by sugar and pectin content. The jams were prepared by adding various amounts of sucrose, glucose, or fructose (1.89 M, 2.34 M, 2.63 M, or 2.92 M) and/ or pectin (0%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.8%, or 1%) to wild vine juice and heating at $90^{\circ}C$ for 3 hrs. A higher viscosity was shown for the jam manufactured with sucrose as compared to those made with glucose or fructose, and the greater the sucrose level the higher the viscosity of the jam. The jam with 50% reduced sugar content showed a similar viscosity to the control jam, which contained only 2.92 M sucrose, when the sugar was co-added with pectin at 0.5% for the low sucrose jam, and at 0.8% for the low glucose or low fructose jams, respectively. The water content of the low sucrose jam was lower than that of the low glucose or low fructose jams, and adding pectin had no significant effect on the water content of the low sugar jam. The pH levels of the jams were not significantly different, regardless of the type and concentration of sugar, temperature, or pectin addition, and ranged between 3.6 and 3.8. Overall, the results clearly show that wild vine jam with 50% reduced sugar content and having the same viscosity as control jam, can be manufactured when pectin and sugar are added together.

Study on the Sensory Quality Characterization of Strawberry Jam by Cooking Method (제조방법에 따른 딸기잼의 관능적 품질 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김복자
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 1989
  • As the level of life improves, the eating habit is changing from rice meal to bread meal and at the time, eat more strawberry jam than before. We tried to study to select the good cooking method and the proper strawberry variety for the jam through the sensory evaluation We made four kinds jam of Bogyo-Joseoung and Ai-berry by different cooking methods, the result6s of the sensory evaluation are as follow: The jam of Ai-berry is better than that of Bogyo-Joseoung by the paired comparison test but the difference between those, if we add some lemon to the jam of Bogyo-Joseoung and Ai-berry, is very little. The multiple comparison test proves the sourness, if added some lemon and citric acid, become better and the color and viscosity, if added pectin, became better. The overall preference about jam, if pectin and citric acid were added together, was best. In addition, we evaluated the quality of jammed bread by multiple comparison test. The result is like this: The jam with lemon is very good in color, flavor, sourness and texture, but the jam with pectin and citric acid was the best in overall preference.

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