• Title, Summary, Keyword: kanjang

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Fermentation Patterns of Chungkookjang and Kanjang by Bacillus licheniformis B1 (Bacillus licheniformis B1에 의한 청국장 및 간장 발효)

  • Lee, Jae-Jung;Lee, Dong-Seok;Kim, Han-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.296-301
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    • 1999
  • A Bacillus strain from Korean soil was isolated and identified to be Bacillus licheniformis B1 through various biochemical tests, VITEK, and MIDI system analysis. The strain produced extracellular amylase and protease. Whether or not the strain can perform Chungkookjang fermentation with autoclaved soybean and Kanjang fermentation was determined in this study. In Chungkookjang fermentation, browining materials of strong anti-oxidant increased 8-fold, and 2-fold in Kanjang, compared with initiation material for fermentation. Maximal protease activity in Chungkookjang was observed one day after inoculation. Protease activities in Kanjang decreased to the half, and then maintained constant values during fermentation, probably due to the inhibitory effect of salt on protease activities. High molecular mass of nucleic acids was identified in Chungkookjang and Kanjang. Since the nucleic acids were not observed in autoclaved soybean, they seem to be originated from B. licheniformis B1. This study demonstrated successive fermentation of Chungkookjang and Kanjang by B. licheniformis B1 isolated from nature, and suggested possible development of food rich in browing and nucleic acids.

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Chemical Changes of Kanjang Made with Barley Bran (보리등겨로 제조한 간장의 각종 성분 변화)

  • Lee, Eun-Jeong;Kwon, O-Jun;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Choi, Ung-Kyu;Son, Dong-Hwa;Lee, Suk-Il;Kim, Dae-Gon;Cho, Young-Je;Kim, Woo-Seong;Kim, Sung-Hong;Chung, Yung-Gun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.751-756
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    • 2002
  • For the development of functional jang-products, kanjang was prepared using barley bran. Optical density of barley bran kanjang was significantly high at 15 days after fermentation, and the amount of extract was $2{\sim}3$ fold higher than that of soybean kanjang. Among the flavor components identified in barley bran kanjang, the content of 2-furancarboxaldehyde was the highest, followed by 4-vinyl-2-methoxy-phenol, benzene-acetaldehyde, palmitic acid, and methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate. In barley bran and soybean mixtare (1 : 1) kanjang, the content of 2-furancarboxaldehyde was the highest, followed by benzeneacetaldehyde, diethyl phtalate, palmitic acid, and 2-chloroethyl linoleate. Flavor components detected in both barley bran kanjang and barey bran and soybean mixture kanjang were 2-furancarboxaldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldthyde, 4-vinyl-2-mehtoxy-phenol, 1-furfuryl-2-formy pyrrole, dimethyl-1,2-benzenedicarboxylate, diethyl phtalate, palmiticacid, dibutyl-1,2-benzenedicarboxylate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

Biological Activities of Soybean Sauce (Kanjang) Supplemented with Deep Sea Water and Sea Tangle (해양심층수 및 다시마 분말을 첨가하여 제조한 간장의 생리활성 효과)

  • Ham, Seung-Shi;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Yoo, Su-Jong;Oh, Hyun-Taek;Choi, Hyun-Jin;Chung, Mi-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the antimutagenic and anticancer effects of soybean sauce (kanjang) supplemented with deep sea water and Sea Tangle. The Ames test indicated that kanjang had no mutagenicity but it significantly inhibited mutations induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Kanjang (200 ug/plate) with supplementary deep sea water and Sea Tangle had approximately 90.9% and 62.0% inhibitory effect, respectively, against mutagenesis of TA100 induced by MNNG and 4NQO. There was 61.7% inhibition of mutagenesis induced by 4NQO against the TA98 strain. Kanjang inhibited growth of cell lines of human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B), human gastric carcinoma (AGS), human lung carcinoma (A549), and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with kanjang supplemented with 1.0 mg/mL deep sea water had cytotoxicities of 69.4% 70.5% 55.6% 82.1 % and 73.2% against HeLa, Hep3B, AGS, A549 and MCF-7 cells respectively. In contrast kanjang supplemented with 1 mg/mL deep sea water had only $10{\sim}40%$ cytotoxicity on normal human embryonal kidney cells (293). Kanjang supplemented with deep sea water significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice injected sarcoma-180 cells. In particular, kanjang supplemented with deep sea water (25 mg/kg) inhibited tumor cell activity by 40.9%.

Analysis of Ochratoxin A from Deonjang, Kanjang, Gochujang Collected from Houses and Traditional Markets (가정과 재래시장에서 수거한 된장, 간장, 고추장에 존재하는 Ochratoxin A 분석)

  • 김종배;김철재;박경란;신현길
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 1994
  • The quantitative detection of ochratoxin A (OT-A) in the traditional fermented foods were investigated to develop the analytical procedures, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay(ELISA) and Chemiluminescence Immunoassay(CIA). Products used were divided into two groups: the first was the home-made 13 Doenjang, 12 Kanjang, and 14 Gochujang; and the second the traditional commercial products, 17 Deonjang and 11 Kanjang, which collected throughout the country. The standard curve for the quantitative determination of OT-A showed that the sensitivities in ELISA and CIA were upto the level of 20 pg/assay, and that the OT-A recovery rates were appeared to be more than 90%. The residual OT-A in the home-made products were 7.1$\pm$3.7 ng/g for Deonjang, 2.1$\pm$4.1 ng/g Kanjang were found in the traditional commercial products. Residual OT-A in the home-made products was comparatively far less than that of the traditional commercial products. At heat stability test of OT-A in the traditional fermented foods was found to be stable even at 121$^{\circ}C$ for 120 min.

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Effects of Mashing Proportion of Soybean to Salt Brine on Kanjang(soy sauce) Quality (메주의 담금비율이 간장의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Kwang-Soo;Choi, Jong-Dong;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Young-Ho;Kim, Woo-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.174-180
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    • 2000
  • This work was carried out to investigate the effects of mashing proportion of meju(as wet weight basis of raw soybean) to 20% salt brine on the chemical compositions and sensory characteristics of kanjang. By increasing the salt brine proportion in the kanjang mash, total nitrogen, TCA soluble nitrogen and total free amino acid content in kanjang were decreased accordingly, but although pH values and organic acids content were not different noticeably, the major organic acids in kanjang, lactic acid, pyroglutamic acid and acetic acid were increased up to the mashing proportion of 1:2 from 1:1 and pH values decreased up to that of 1:2.5. Residual sugar content in 1:1 kanjang was exceptionally high. The major free amino acids in kanjang were glutamic acid, lysine, alanine and leucine. The acceptability scores of kanjang tested by sensory evaluation were decreased in inverse proportion to the salt brine proportion of kanjang mash, but those of kanjang samples with $1:1{\sim}1:2.5$ mashing proportions were not significantly different but that of 1:3 different from 1:1 statistically at 5% level. The major chemical compositions, significantly effective to the acceptability of kanjang, were found to be glutamic acid and free amino acid by statistical analysis.

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Effects of Flow Rate of Feed Kanjang and Volume Reduction Ratio of Retentate on the Permeate Flux and Rejection of Microbes Cells and Components in Kanjang during Ultrafiltration Operations (재래식 간장의 한외여과시 공급액의 주입속도와 잔류액의 용량감소율이 간장의 투과유속, 미생물균체 및 성분저지율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Kwang-Il;Lee, Jong-Gu;Choi, Jong-Dong;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Ki-Ju;Kim, Woo-Seong;Sung, Jun-Hyun;Kwon, O-Jun;Kim, Young-Ji;Suh, Chung-Sik;Choi, Cheong;Choi, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.72-76
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    • 2003
  • Ultrafiltration (UF) tests performed on traditional soy sauce (kanjang) using UF flat membrane test cell unit with thin film laminar flow similar to the spiral type membrane module in batch operations revealed reduction in permeate flux is proportional to the logarithm values of volume reduction ratio of the retentate kanjang at different feed rate of kanjang. Feed rate of 1.5 L/min was found to be adequate for long-term UF operation of kanjang using the test unit attached with MW cut-off size of 200,000 dalton polyoleffin plastic membrane in batch operation with the least concentration polarization. The higher the feed rate of kanjang, the lower the permeability of total nitrogen and NaCl, resulting in lower optical density at 500 nm and lower permeability of minerals such as Cu, Mn, and Mg. Microbial cells were completely rejected regardless of the feed rate, whereas most free amino acids were not.

Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation of low-salted raw kanjang digestion liquor made from Bacillus subtilis var. globigii and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis inoculated meju (Bacillus subtilis var. globigii와 Scopulariopsis brevicaulis 접종메주로 단기숙성 저염생간장의 젖산 및 알콜발효)

  • Chung, Yeung-Gun;Choi, Choeng;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Choi, Jong-Dong;Lee, Choon-Woo;Choi, Kwang-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.405-409
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    • 1998
  • This work was carried out to investigate the behavior of sugars contained in raw soybean during cooking and meju preparation processes, and the effects of sugar addition to the raw kanjang digestion liquor made from G8 and SB meju on the lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation of kanjang. Sharp reduction in sugars content in soybean during cooking and meju preparation process was observed. Rapid lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation in the G8 and SB kanjang with 5% added glucose was observed but not in the corresponding kanjang without sugar addition after inoculation of Pediococcus halophilus, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis starter culture to the low-salted raw kanjang digestion liquor made respectively from G8 and SB meju. 0.46% and 0.88% of lactic acid and 1% and 2% of alcohol content in the G8 and SB kanjang respectively was observed 160 hours after the inoculation of the lactic acid bacteria starter culture.

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Enhancement of Chitooligosaccharides in Doenjang (Soybean Paste) and Kanjang (Soy Sauce) using Bacillus subtilis Koji and Rhizopus oryzae Koji (Bacillus subtilis koji와 Rhizopus oryzae koji를 이용한 된장 및 간장의 키토올리고당 함량 증대)

  • Eum, Byong-Wook;Kwak, Bo-Yeon;Kim, Soon-Young;Shon, Dong-Hwa;Lee, Ke-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 2003
  • Effects of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oryzae on chitooligosaccharides (COS) content of doenjang (soybean paste) and kanjang (soy sauce) were investigated using kojis made with the two strains. Competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cdELISA) system using anti-COS mixture (COSM) antibody was applied for COS detection ranging from 0.001 to $1{\mu}g/mL$, and the recoveries of COSM spiked to doenjang and kanjang were 102 and 115%, respectively. Doenjang and kanjang products made with a mixture of B. subtilis and R. oryzae kojis showed COS contents of 171 and $29{\mu}g/mL$, respectively, during two-month aging period, much higher than those of Japanese and Korean commercial ones.

Taste Characteristics of Kanjang Made with Barley Bran (보리등겨로 제조한 간장의 맛성분 특성)

  • Son, Dong-Hwa;Kwon, O-Jun;Choi, Ung-Kyu;Kwon, O-Jin;Lee, Suk-Il;Im, Moo-Hyeg;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Kim, Sung-Hong;Chung, Yung-Gun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to find out optimum conditions for kanjang fermented with barley bran. The correlation between taste components and sensory evaluation score was analyzed with stepwise multiple regression analysis. It was revealed that the taste of kanjang was explained with the mix of free amino acids, free sugars and organic acids. The highest multiple correlation coefficient was obtained from absolute value transformed with logarithm. Thus, stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted with absolute value transformed with logarithm, for which F-value was highest and standard error of estimation was lowest among the multiple regression models transformed with six variables. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the taste components which most contribute to the quality of taste of kanjang fermented with barley bran was salty taste component followed by palatable taste component, and bitter taste component.

Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce and Paste with Chopi (초피첨가 전통장류의 항균 및 항암활성)

  • Kim, Keun-Ki;Park, Hyean-Cheal;Son, Hong-Joo;Kim, Yong-Gyun;Lee, Sang-Mong;Choi, In-Soo;Choi, Young-Whan;Shin, Teak-Soon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1121-1128
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    • 2007
  • The fruits of Zanthoxylum piperitum are known as having various physiology vitality, and the abstraction ingredient of the pericarp is also known as having strong antibiotic activities against various bacteria. Therefore, this study was carried out to estimate the effect of physiology vitality when the abstraction ingredient of Z. piperitum was added in soy sauce(Chopi-kanjang) and soybean paste(Chopi-doenjang). For the antibiotic activity against the pathogens of sitotoxism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, the extracts of the Chopi-kanjang was added 1%, 2%, 4% pericarp of Z. piperitum in the manufacturing process of soy source. According to the results, the growth of E. coli 0157:H7 and V. parahemolyticus were respectively inhibited as 70% and 50% by the Chopi-kanjang added 2% of the ingredient. For the antibiotic effects of the aforementioned Chopi-kanjang against Sal. typhimurium and Sta. aureus, the growth of those pathogens was also inhibited between 40% and 60% according to the manufacturing period of Chopi-kanjang. It was confirmed that the antibiotic activity using the mixture of the abstraction ingredient and Chopi-doenjang was lower than those of Chopi-kanjang. In order to estimate the anticancer activity using by caspase-3 activity, the mixture of the abstraction ingredient of the pericarp of Z. piperitum and Chopi-kanjang was treated to leukemia cells. According to the results, the activities of caspase-3 using the mixture added 1%, 2% and 4% of the abstraction ingredient were respectively increased as much as 4, 12, 15 times comparing with the control which was treated with the soy source only. It could be that the mixture of the abstraction ingredient of the pericarp of Z. piperitum and soy source induced apoptosis, and the mixture of the abstraction ingredient and soybean paste had no effect on the activity of caspase-3. In order to find out the death of the aforementioned cells caused by necrosis or apoptosis, DNA fragmentation in the cell was examined. U-937 cells showed apoptotic DNA fragmentation in the incubation with Chopi-kanjang extract.