• Title, Summary, Keyword: kanjang

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Changes in Microbiological and General Quality Characteristics of Gamma Irradiated Kanjang and Shoyu (감마선을 조사한 간장의 미생물 및 일반품질 특성)

  • Song, Tae-Ho;Kim, Dong-Ho;Park, Byoung-Jun;Shin, Myung-Gon;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.338-344
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    • 2001
  • The effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbiological and general qualities of Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Korean type) and Shoyu (fermented soy sauce, Japanese type) was studied. Samples were prepared, irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy, and then stored at $25^{\circ}C$ for 18 weeks. The results showed that the Bacillus spp. was inactivated by 3 log cycles with the irradiation dose of 10 kGy and the number of Bacillus cells that survived from 10 to 20 kGy of gamma irradiation was decreased gradually during storage. Yeasts and Lactobacillus were nearly eliminated at 5 to 10 kGy of irradiation. The $D_{10}$ values of Bacillus, yeast and Lactobacillus in Shoyu were 2.67 kGy, 0.81 kGy and 1.30 kGy, in Kanjang were 2.75 kGy, 0.99 kGy and 1.47 kGy, respectively. The general quality of gamma irradiated Shoyu and Kanjang, such as total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, protease activity and pH were more stable than that of control during storage periods. Decolorization was observed just after irradiation, but the color was recovered during storage. The sensory evaluations showed that irradiated samples were more acceptable. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation was effective for maintaining better quality of Shoyu and Kanjang during storage.

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Fermentation of Kanjang, Korean Soy Sauce, in Porosity-Controlled Earthenwares with Changing the Mixing Ratio of Raw Soils (흙배합비를 달리하여 기공율이 조절된 담금용기 항아리에서의 간장 발효)

  • Chung, Sun-Kyung;Lee, Kwang-Soo;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.215-221
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    • 2006
  • This study focuses on investigating the effect of porosity-controlled earthenware on fermentation of kanjang, Korean soy sauce. Porosity of fermentation vessel was controlled by changing the mixing ratio of raw soils at manufacturing earthenware. Earthenwares contented 0%, 40% and 60% of the mixture of red brown soil and powdered soil (1 : 1), respectively. The more contents of the mixed soil, the more porosity in earthenware. During fermentation of kanjang in porosity-controlled earthenwares at $30^{\circ}C$ for 4 months, physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality attributes were monitored. Compared to other containers, kanjang in the earthenware that had 0% mixed soil showed less water loss, salt content and pH. It also produced higher total acidity, protease activity, total nucleotide, and microbiological changes which included total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Total nitrogen and free amino acids in kanjang did not show the consistency with the mixed soil contents of fermentation containers, which may take more effect of other factors as water loss than the porosity of vessels. However, the percentage of glutamic acid in total free amino acids was a little higher in the earthenware that had 0% of mixed soil than other containers. These positive physicochemical, microbiological changes also resulted in higher sensory quality.

Effects of Meju Manufacturing Periods on the Fermentation Characteristics of Kanjang, Korean Traditional Soy Sauce (메주의 제조기간에 따른 재래간장의 발효특성)

  • Chung, Hyun-Chae;Choi, Jong-Dong;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Young-Ji;Seo, Jung-Sik;Choi, Kwang-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to clarify the microorganisms which participated in the fermentation of kanjang. The changes in the viable cell counts of total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for raw soybean, soybean during cooking, meju during cultivation, and kanjang mash during maturing were investigated along with the changes in components during those periods. Lactic acid bacteria that were found to be $6{\times}10^2\;CFU/g$ in raw soybean were disappeared after cooking process, but total aerobic bacteria were diminished from $1.9{\times}10^6\;CFU/g$ to $10^2\;CFU/g$. Aerobic bacteria of inner and outer parts of meju increased to more than $10^9\;CFU/g$. The higher viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria in the inner parts of meju were observed than those in outer ones. On the contrary, significantly higher viable cell counts of yeasts in the outer parts of meju were found. Total nitrogen content and color density of kanjang increased by using meju with extended cultivation periods. No significant differences were observed in microbial counts between kanjang mash with aeration and non-aeration during kanajng mash maturing.

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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Polysaccharide Derived from Commercial Kanjang on Mast Cells (비만세포에서 시판 간장 유래 다당류의 항염증 효과)

  • Ko, Yu-Jin;Lee, Gyeong-Ran;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2013
  • Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning in several oriental countries, such as Korea and Japan, and recently it has been reported to have biological activities. In Korean soy sauce, soybeans and wheat are the two main raw materials. Polysaccharides that originate from the cell wall of soybeans are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. These polysaccharides remain in the soy sauce even after fermentation and are termed Kanjang polysaccharides (KPS). In this study, polysaccharides were obtained from dialysate of different soy sauces labeled as A~T and manufactured by fermentation or the acid-hydrolyzate method. We investigated anti-inflammatory activities by examining the effects of these KPS on proinflammatory cytokine release and mRNA expression in mast cells. Histamine and ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release were strongly decreased by the KPS treatment in RBL-2H3 cells. Treatment with KPS clearly reduced mRNA expression and the release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. In particular, KPS derived from fermented Kanjang products showed a significant anti-inflammation effect on mast cells compared to the acid-hydrolyzed Kanjang products. This study suggests that KPS appear to be effective in suppressing allergic inflammatory reactions.

Improvement of Meju Preparation Method for the Production of Korean Traditional kanjang (Soy Sauce) (한국 재래식 간장의 품질 향상을 위한 메주 제조법 개선)

  • Im, Moo-Hyeog;Choi, Jong-Dong;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Lee, Seon-Ho;Lee, Coon-Woo;Choi, Cheong;Choi, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.608-614
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    • 1998
  • In order to establish the scientific foundations for the production of Korean traditional kanjang (soy sauce) in a semi-pilot scale, meju preparation and kanjang mashing methods were investigated. Two types of meju, one that was prepared by conventional method (CM-meju) and the other that prepared by modified conventional method (MCM-meju), were made and compared their characteristics. The former made of cooked and crushed soybean with a brick shape was fermented at $15{\sim}20^{\circ}C\;and\;40{\sim}50%$ relative humidity (RH) for 30 days in koji room and the latter was fermented at $25{\sim}30^{\circ}C\;and\;80{\sim}90%$ RH seemingly being optimum for the growth of meju-organisms for the same period. The quality of MCM-meju as a raw material for the kanjang preparation was considered to be superior to that of CM-meju as the higher soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids content, the major factor for the evaluation of the quality of meju, were found in the former although the higher total nitrogen content and lower % weight loss were observed in the latter during meju preparation process. The quality of MCM-kanjang with higher total nitrogen, free amino acids, free sugars and the lower residual nitrogen content in cake after separation of kanjang was also found to be superior to that of CM-kanjang in sensory evaluation results.

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Quality characteristics of Korean traditional Kanjang containing Astragalus memvranaceus (황기 첨가량에 따른 전통식 간장의 품질특성)

  • Jang, Yeon-Jeong;Kim, Eun-Ju;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Choi, Hye-Seon;Song, Jin;Choi, Ji-Ho;Park, Shin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.885-891
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the physiochemical properties of Kanjang (soy sauce) contaning Astragalus memyranaceus to improve the acceptability and functionalities of Kanjang during its six-month ripening period. Kanjang was fermented in the traditional manner, and then 5 and 10% Astragalus memyranaceus (AM) were added to two samples of it, respectively. The pH, salinity, sugar content, crude protein, amino nitrogen, optical density, total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and sensory test results of Kanjang contaning Astragalus memyranaceus (AK) were then investigated. The pH remained the same in the two samples. The salinity was slowly increased, and the sugar content ($^{\circ}Brix$) was highest after 3 months. The crude protein and amino nitrogen contents increased with time. The optical density showed significant differences according to the rate of addition of AM. The total polyphenol contents were highest in the AK 5% sample aged for six months (up to 25.01 mg/mL). The flavonoid contents of the AK 5% sample was higher at five months (up to 200.15 mg/mL). Finally, the sensory test results of the AK 5% sample was higher than that of the other sample. These results suggest that Kanjang containing 5% Astragalus memyranaceus can be used as a functional Kanjang.

Changes in Free Sugars, Organic Acids and Fatty Acid Composition of Kanjang Prepared with Different Cooking Conditions of Whole Black Bean (원료콩의 증자조건을 달리한 검정콩 간장의 유리당, 유기산 및 지방산의 변화)

  • 권선화;최재훈;고영란;손미예;박석규
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2003
  • pH values in all samples were in the range of 5.04 to 5.32. pH of kanjang prepared with normal pressure(NPK) was higher than that of kanjang prepared with high pressure(HPK) and kanjang prepared with steam(SPK). Titratable acidity(TA) in all samples were found to be 4.26~7.72 mL. TA in HPK(5.99~6.96 mL) was lower than that in SPK(4.26~5.61 mL) and NPK(7.32 mL). Reducing sugar(RS) contents in all samples were in the range of 25.18 to 194.81 mg%. RS contents of HPK and SPK were a similar pattern and were higher than that of NPK. Major free sugars(FS) were glucose, fructose and xylose. In total FS, SPK was higher than that of NPK and HPK. Major organic acids(OA) were succinic acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid and citric acid. In total OA contents, SPK(40.38~76.96 mg%) was higher than that of NPK(55.85 mg%)and HPK(27.78~34.21mg%). OA contents in HPK and SPK were decreased slightly according to the heating time of whole black bean. The highest percentage of fatty acid (FA) in all samples was palmitic acid(33.28~43.51 % as area % of GC chromatogram), followed in a decreasing order by stearic acid(14.15~19.16%) and myristic acid(5.93~19.14%). The composition ratios of three FA to total FA ranged from 55.97 to 72.85&. In all samples, there was myristic acid that was not contained in raw soybean.

Changes in Taste Components of Kanjang Made with Barley Bran during Fermentation (보리등겨로 제조한 간장의 발효기간별 맛성분 변화)

  • Lee, Eun-Jeong;Kwon, O-Jun;Choi, Ung-Kyu;Son, Dong-Hwa;Kwon, O-Jin;Lee, Suk-Il;Yang, Sung-Ho;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Dae-Gon;Chung, Yung-Gun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2002
  • The changes in taste components of kanjang made with barley bran during fermentation time were examined. The pH was gradually decreased and total nitrogen content reached to 0.7% at 90 days fermentation. Five kinds of free sugars, three kinds of volatile organic acid, and eight kinds of non-volatile organic acid were detected. Lactic acid known as abundant component in kanjang was not detected in kanjang made with barley bran. The content of free amino acid was $422.9{\sim}803.6\;mg%$. Glutamic acid was most abundant component among the amino acids, followed by proline and phenylalanine. Essential amino acid content was revealed $34.3{\sim}37.3%$. Based on result of sensory evaluation, it was most comfortable to eat sample of fermentation $45{\sim}60$ days.

Effects of Browning Products and Charcoal on the Degradation of Aflatoxin B, in Korean Soy Sauce (Kanjang) and its Model System (간장 및 모델시스템에서 간장 갈색물질과 숯이 Aflatoxin $B_1$의 파괴에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Kun-Young;Lee, Eun-Suk;Moon, Suk-Hee;Cheigh, Hong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.419-424
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    • 1989
  • The effects of browning Products (BP) from Kanjang(soy sauce) and charcoal on the degradation of aflatoxin $B_1(AFB_1)$ in Kanjang and its model system were studied. Approximately 60% of $AFB_1$ was degraded in the presence of 0.05% BP at pH 7 of phosphate buffer after 2 days of incubation at $30^{\circ}C$. The mutagenicity of the $AFB_1$ which reacted with the BP was decreased to about 50% and 70% in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, respectively (p<0.05). When a few pieces of charcoal were added to home made Kanjang, $AFB_1$ was quite stable for 5days at $30^{\circ}C$, however, about 80% of $AFB_1$ was removed when the charcoal was either in distilled water or in 20% of NaCl solution after 2 days of incubation. Activated carbon instead of the charcoal removed $AFB_1$ completely in the all samples under the same conditions.

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The Effects of Mashing and Maturing Conditions on The Quality of Korean Traditional Kanjang(Soysauce) (한국전통간장의 품질에 미치는 사입과 숙성조건의 영향)

  • Choi, Jong-Dong;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Chung, Hyun-Chae;Lee, Coon-Woo;Kim, Young-Ho;Choi, Cheong;Choi, Kwang-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.365-368
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimum mashing and maturing conditions for Korean traditional Kanjang(soy sauce) production and to reduce the fermentation period. The effects of maturing time of soy sauce mash, maturing temperature, salt concentration and the ratio of Meju to salt brine on the quality of Kaniang(total nitrogen, pH and color) were examined. Soy sauce pigments and about 90% of N constituents contained in soybean Meju(Koji) in soy sauce mash were degraded and solubilized into liquid portion (soy sauce) of the mash within five days of maturing at $30^{\circ}C$ with the mashing ratio(weight/volume) of 1 : 4 of soybean(as raw soybean) to 20% salt brine. No remarkable effects of soy sauce maturing temperature in the range of $5^{\circ}C{\sim}30^{\circ}$ on the digestion and solubilization of N components and pigment extraction during five days of soy sauce mash maturing were observed. Optimum mashing salt brine concentration for the digestion and solubilization of N components and pigment extraction during soy sauce maturing at $30^{\circ}C$ were observed to be in the range of $15{\sim}20%$. The suitable mashing ratio of Meju to salt brine (wt./vol.) to match N content of the standards of identity of Korean traditional Kanjang(soy sauce) was found to be below 1 : 5.

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