• Title, Summary, Keyword: kanjang

Search Result 79, Processing Time 0.04 seconds

Characterization of Microorganisms in Eoyukjang (어육장의 미생물학적 특성)

  • Oh, Eu-Jin;Oh, Mi-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Mee;Cho, Mi-Sook;Oh, Sang-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.40 no.6
    • /
    • pp.656-660
    • /
    • 2008
  • Fermented soybean foods are an important component of the Korean diet. Eoyukjang is a type of traditional fermented soybean source. Microbial analysis of eoyukjang was conducted during the fermentation period in this study. Microorganisms isolated from eoyukjang were identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. 17 different microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast, and fungi were detected in eoyukjang during the fermentation period. Even though Aspergillus participated in the early stage of fermentation of eoyukjang, Bacillus species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the major microzymes in eoyukjang throughout the maturation period. Eoyukjang is generally consumed after the boiling of the final sample. Therefore, the final sample of eoyukjang was boiled and analyzed. Our results showed that no vegetative microorganisms survived under the boiling conditions for eoyukjang. Fermented soybean products in the domestic market were also assessed for comparison with the results from eoyukjang. The total cell number of kanjang (soy sauce) samples was between 0 to 42 CFU/mL. The isolated microorganisms were identified as Bacillus species. All Bacillus isolates were not found to harbor the three enterotoxin-producing and emetic toxin-producing genes.

Evaluation of Dry Rehydratable Film Method for Enumeration of Microorganisms in Korean Traditional Foods (한국 전통식품 중 미생물 분석을 위한 건조필름법 평가)

  • Kim Kwan-Sik;Bae Eun-Kyung;Ha Sang Do;Park Young Seo;Mok Chul Kyoon;Hong Kwan Pyo;Kim Sang Phil;Park Jiyong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.209-216
    • /
    • 2004
  • Dry rehydratable film methods were compared to conventional methods for the enumeration of microorganisms in Korean traditional foods. Kimchi, doenjang, kochujang, kanjang, takju, sujeongkwa and sikhe were used as Korean traditional foods. $Petrifilm^{TM}$ aerobic count plate, $Petrifilm^{TM}$ coliform count plate, $Petrifilm^{TM}$ E. coli/coliform count plate, $Petrifilm^{TM}$ yeast and mold count plate and $Petrifilm^{TM}$ staph express count plate were compared to plate count agar, most probable number (MPN) for coliform, MPN for E. coli, potato dextrose agar and coagulase test, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficient values were 0.974-0.998, 0.913-0.995, 0.955-0.978, 0.968-0.986 and 0.998-0.999 for total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. There were no significant differences between two methods, suggesting that $Petrifilm^{TM}$ plates can be used as an alternative to conventional method for the determination of microorganisms in Korean traditional foods.

The Odd Pair Family's Dietary management in rural, Korea - Comparison with the Pair Family - (농촌거주 외짝가족의 식생활관리 -부부가족과의 비교-)

  • Rhie Seung Gyo;Chung Kum Ju;Won Hyang Rye
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.89-103
    • /
    • 2005
  • Recently the rural Korea has been remarkedly changed of family and social value in accordance with the development of industry. The lower economic class made by social economic growth is widespread with increasing aged, specially odd pair family in rural. The purpose of this study was to investigate to help and keep improve health of rural lower economic class, family system by comparing and analyzing the dietary management, between pair and odd pair family, and to get the data helpful the right guidance for rural. The subjects 1870 collected in 9 provinces by sampling with probability proportional to size (PPS). Questionnaire about dietary habit, food cultivation, production and preservation survey was conducted by trained interviewers. The main results were as follows : 1) The characteristics of odd pair families, head of household was female(77%), over 65 years(84.9%), small family(1.76 persons) and lower education(male 7.5 years, female 3.1 years) status. 2) As the states of diets of odd pair family, having breakfast(87.1 %) but one or two kinds of side dishes(31.3 %) only possible to guess lower status of food intake balance. Nutritional supplements(21. 7 %) was lower than that of paired family. 3) The aspects of dietary habit of odd pair family, no instant foods(70.7%), no snack(38.4%) no dine out(69.2%) were common. 4) Dietary habit scores were 7.78 points of odd pair family compared 8.34 points of paired family. 5) Food purchase place of odd pair family was market(44.2%) but super-market(42.7%) of paired family. 6)In odd pair family, seldom traditional dish preparation(62.0%) but prepared winter kimchi(81.9%), comparing seldom traditional dish(38.6%) and winter kimchi(96.4%) in paired family. 7)The food cultivation state was surveyed, pepper( 42.2 %) and chinese cabbage( 43.9 %) were consumed after cultivation, but sesame(59.4%), bean sprout(90.2%), tofu(92.8%) and egg(93.3%) were consumed by purchase in odd pair family.8) Food cultivation score of odd pair family was 2.98/12points significantly lower than 4.50/12 points of paired family(p<0.01). 9) At the status of fermentation food production in odd pair family, Duenjang(72.1 %) and Gochujang(69.7%) Kanjang(68.3%) Kimchi(82.1 %) and Meju(68.3%) were high rate of production, but more frequently producted in pair family. 10) The score of fermentation food production of odd pair family was 8.57/12points but significantly lower than 10.24/12 points of pair family(p<0.0001). 11) Food preservation score 0.48/6 points in odd pair family was not significantly different than that of pair family(1.07/6points).

  • PDF

The Elderly Families' Daily Food Cultivation, Preservation in Rural, Korea -Comparison with middle aged families- (농촌거주 노년가족의 일상 식품 생산과 가공 및 저장 -중년가족과의 비교-)

  • Rhie Seung Gyo;Chung Kum Ju;Won Hyang Ryu
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-120
    • /
    • 2005
  • Recently, the number of elderly people in the rural area of Korea has increased remarkably and their food security has become deteriorated mainly due to the low economic status. To investigate the food security for the elderly people, relevant data were obtained by offering questionnaire to the rural elderly people who were engaging in traditional agricultural production for daily foods. The subjects of 1870 were collected in 9 provinces according to PPS(Probability Proportional to Size). Questionnaire contained the items of dietary habit, food cultivation, Production and Preservation, and the suey was conducted by trained interviewers. SAS (ver 8.1) was used for statistical analyses in which Chi-square tests and General Linear Models were made. Family of the elderly people was $45.4\%$ of the total and the characteristics of elderly families were that age of male head was 82.1 years and that of female was 67.7 years, and that $68.8\%$ of elderly women were working for family income or pocket money. The elderly families' food cultivation state was surveyed and they were pepper$(59.1\%)$, chinese cabbage$(61.91\%)$, and sesame$(48.6\%)$ for their own consumption. But, bean sprout$(6.5\%)$, tofu$(7.7\%)$ and egg$(5.1\%)$ showed low rate of cultivation for the family. The rate of cultivating chinese cabbage$(61.9\%)$, and sesame$(48.6\%)$ was significantly higher than that of middle aged family. At the status of fermented food production for the elderly family, Doenjang$(87.4\%)$ and Gochujang$(86.3\%)$ Kanjang$(84.0\%)$ Kimchi$(92.9\%)$ Jangachi$(27.6\%)$ and Meju$(91.61\%)$maintained higher rate than that of middle aged families' Food preservation of elderly families was low and there are just jam$(5.3\%)$ and bottled products$(1.4\%)$. A little higher rate was observed lot the preserved food such as alcohol$(9.9\%)$ and powder$(9.8\%)$. For the elderly family the score of food cultivation was 4.08/12 points and that of food preservation was 0.62/12 points. The score of fermented food production for elderly family was 10.24/12 points which was significantly different from that of middle aged family (9.58/12 points, p<0.001). This result suggests that for the elderly people food with more protein is needed for production.

  • PDF

Quality Characteristics of Soy Sauces containing Gastrodia elata during Fermentation (천마가 함유된 간장의 발효 중 품질 특성)

  • Park, Shin-Young;Jang, Yeon-Jeong;Kim, Eun-Ju;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Choi, Hye-Seon;Choi, Ji-Ho;Song, Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.24 no.6
    • /
    • pp.875-882
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study investigated changes in quality characteristics of soy sauce (Kanjang) with Gastrodia elata (GK) in aged for 6 months, and developed new soy sauce products with improved sensory characteristics. The pH level was maintained in all samples. The salinity slowly increased, and then decreased in GK 10% after 5 months. The sugar content (Brix) increased after 2 months, except in GK 10%. Crude protein and amino nitrogen contents increased with time. The optical density showed significant differences after 5 months in GK 5%. The total polyphenol contents were highest in GK 5% aged for 5 months up to 31 mg/mL. The flavonoid contents of GK 5% were highest after 5 months up to 122 mg/mL. Finally, sensory tests of GK 10% showed higher total acceptance after 2 months. The results show that an aging period of 5 months in GK 5% greatly enhanced quality characteristics.

Antioxidant activity and quality characteristics on the maturation period of the soy sauce with Gastrodia elata and oak mushroom (Lentinus edodes) (천마 및 표고버섯 첨가 전통간장의 숙성기간별 품질특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Jin;Kim, Hwa-Sun;Choi, Yoon-Hee;Choi, Ji-Ho;Choi, Hae-Sun;Song, Jin;Park, Shin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.231-238
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes in antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of soy sauce with Gastrodia elata (GK) and oak mushroom (MK) in maturation period to develop a new Kanjang product with improved functional and sensory characteristics. The pH was decreased, and the total acidity was higher in GK at 25-day maturation period. Although the total sugar content increased at 15 days with GK, it was reduced after 20 days. The reducing sugar, however, showed no notable differences after 20 days. The protease activities of GK was rapidly increased after 20 days. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents tended to be similar and dramatically increased after 15 days. On the other hand, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of MK was higher than that of GK. These results showed that the 20-day maturation period of GK greatly enhanced its antioxidant activity and quality characteristics. It is thus expected to be used as functional materials.

Korean Dietary Life from the View of Foreigner in the early 1900s (1900년대 초 외국인이 본 한국인의 식생활)

  • Chung, Kyung Rhan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.463-476
    • /
    • 2016
  • Western countries came to Asia aggressively in the early 1900s. Westerners who came to Korea at that time also had a various jobs with diplomats, missionaries, doctors, and so on. Korean diet was curious and shocking to foreigners in the early 1990s, so they made a record of the Korean diet. They thought Korea was peaceful, attractive and rich to eat. Koreans ate mainly rice and kimchi, a variety of grains, vegetables and bibimbap. Korea had a variety of meat and fish, seaweed, and herbs(ginseng). Foreigners said Koreans were greedy for food and ate a lot. Koreans ate basically a bowl of rice(bap), a bowl of soup(kuk), kimchi, soy sauce and other dishes. If Koreans wanted to set a table in abundance, they have meat soup(kuk) with meat and additional fish like as raw fish, dried fish, and boiled or fried fish. Korean people had a jangdokdae with Ongki(Earthen jar) where soy sauce(kanjang), soybean paste(doenjang), red pepper paste(kochujang), pickles (jang-achi) have been fermented. Foreigners felt the smell of lacquer tree and kimchi hung in the air from Korean people. While they were compared it to the smell of western rim cheese burger, they said Korea was a country with nasty smell in the feet. By the records of foreigners in the early 1900s, Korean's diets and image were appeared objectively.

Quality and sensory characteristics of soy sauces containing Astragalus membranaceus by aging period (숙성기간에 따른 황기 간장의 품질 및 관능적 특성)

  • Park, Shin-Young;Lim, Ji-Min;Choi, Yun-Hee;Choi, Hae-Sun;Kim, Jae-Hyeon;Kim, Eun-Ju;Ji, Soo-Jeong;Jang, Yeon-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.22 no.5
    • /
    • pp.636-643
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study investigated changes in quality and sensory characteristics of soy sauce (Kanjang) with added Astragalus membranaceus (AK) to develop a new soy sauce product with improved sensory characteristics. The pure salinity slowly increased, but AK 10% decreased. The pH was a constant in all samples. The soluble solid content (Brix) increased after 2 months, but AK 10% decreased. With increased addition of Astragalus membranaceus (AM), the optical density increased after 4 months. The amino nitrogen increased in soy sauce with AK 5%. The total free amino acid content gradually increased in soy sauce with AK 5% aged for 6 months. As the addition of AM increased, the crude protein level decreased, but there was no difference between AK 0% and 5%. The sensory tests of AK 5% after 6 months showed higher acceptance. According to the aging period, the acceptability of AK 5% was the best. The results showed that soy sauce with of AK 5% and aged for 6 months exhibits greatly enhanced quality and sensory characteristics. Therefore, it is expected to be used as a natural resources in seasoning area.

Effect of Ammonia and pH on the Degradation of Aflatoxin $B_1$ during the Storage of Korean Soy Sauce(Kanjang) (간장 저장중 암모니아와 pH가 Aflatoxin $B_1$의 파괴에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Kun-Young;Lee, Eun-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.115-122
    • /
    • 1989
  • The mechanisms of aflatoxin $B_1(AFB_1)$ degradation by ammonia and alkaline pH during the storage of Korean soy sauces were studied. In the 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% of ammonia solutions, almost all of $AFB_1$(96-100%) was degraded after 2 to 24 hrs of incubation at $30^{\circ}C$. Increased levels of ammonia in both home made soy sauce(HMSS) and commercial soy sauce(CSS) caused slow increases in pH. The pH change was higher in CSS than in HMSS. The degradations of $AFB_1$ were not observed in the samples of HMSS, CSS, distilled water and 20 % of NaCl solution during the storage, however, when the pHs of the samples were adjusted to 10, the toxin was completely removed in all samples. $AFB_1$ was stable at pH 5 and 7 in bath buffer solutions and buffer solutions+0.2% ammonia, however, $AFB_1$ was degraded completely at pHs more than 9. $AFB_1$ was not degraded even at high concentrations of ammonia(0.2-1.0%) when the pH was maintained at 7 in the buffer solution. It indicated that ammonia content in the system was not important but the higher pH was the reason to degrade $AFB_1$. When the pHs of HMSS, CSS, buffersolution and buffer solution + 0.2% ammonia were adjusted to 5 and then reacted with $AFB_1$ for 5 days, the toxin was stable in all samples. However, when the pHs of the samples were adjusted to 7, about 60-70 % of $AFB_1$ was degraded in HMSS and CSS after 5 days of incubation during which the pH was not changed, but $AFB_1$ in the buffer solution and buffer solution + 0.2% ammonia was not degraded at all in the same conditions.

  • PDF