• Title, Summary, Keyword: ketosis

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Risk Factors for Ketosis in Dairy Cows and Associations with Some Blood Metabolite Concentrations

  • Jeong, Jae-Kwan;Choi, In-Soo;Moon, Sung-Ho;Lee, Soo-Chan;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Jung, Young-Hun;Park, Soo-Bong;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2017
  • Ketosis has become a very common and important metabolic disorder that causes substantial economic loss in modern dairy herds. We determined the risk factors for ketosis and associations with some blood metabolite concentrations in dairy cows. Blood from 475 Holstein cows on four dairy farms was collected weekly until 4 weeks after calving to measure blood ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations using electronic handheld meters. Cows were grouped based on the BHBA concentration into two groups: a ketosis group (${\geq}1.2mmol/L$, n = 150) and a non-ketosis group (< 1.2 mmol/L, n = 325). Peripartum health status (dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis), cow parity, and calving season were recorded to identify the risk factors for ketosis. Serum albumin, total cholesterol (TCH), and haptoglobin concentrations were compared between sub-groups of cows selected from the ketosis (n = 92) and non-ketosis (n = 50) groups 1 week postpartum ($7.5{\pm}0.2days$). The farm influenced the incidence of ketosis (P < 0.05). Cows calved during summer tended to have a higher risk (odds ratio [OR]: 1.61, P < 0.1) of ketosis than cows calved during spring. Cows with parities of two (OR: 1.95, P < 0.05) and three or higher (OR: 2.55, P < 0.01) were at higher risk than primiparous cows. Cows with metritis had a higher risk (OR: 7.02, P < 0.0001) of ketosis than cows without metritis. Serum albumin and TCH concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in the ketosis group than in the non-ketosis group, whereas haptoglobin concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in the ketosis group than in the non-ketosis group. In conclusion, our results indicate that farm, summer calving, parity greater than one, and postpartum disease (metritis) were risk factors for ketosis. In addition, lower serum albumin and TCH concentrations and higher haptoglobin concentration were also associated with the incidence of ketosis in dairy cows.

Cross-sectional study: prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle at Chungnam province

  • Faruk, Md. Shohel Al;Park, Byeongsu;Jin, Sujeong;Ha, Seungmin;Cho, Yong-il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to demonstrate the prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle based on days in milk and herd level. Four to five blood samples were collected in five different lactation periods and analyzed for ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate using a Portable Ketone Test Kit. Subclinical ketosis was observed in 12 herds at prevalence of 6.3~57.1% depending on herd level, with four herds showing more than 40% subclinical ketosis prevalence. The distribution of subclinical ketosis in the early lactation period, high yield lactation period, mid lactation period, late lactation period and dry period was 9.5%, 27.5%, 36.8%, 27.9% and 12.5%, respectively. Clinical ketosis was only observed during early lactation (9.5%) and mid lactation (2%) period.

Prevalence of Subclinical Ketosis in the Dairy Cows of Chonnam Area} (전남지방의 우유에 발생하는 준임상형 케토시스 조사)

  • 이정길;조신형;위성기
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.153-157
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    • 1996
  • Ketosis can exist in both clinicla and subclinical forms. Detection of the subclinical form of ketosis by the use of a nitroprusside based test powder gas been shown to be a relatively simple and reliable procedure. Howere, very liffle is known about the indcidence or prevalence of the subclinical ketosis in Korea. In the present study, samples of urine taken from 288 dairy cows in Chonnam area were examined to demonstrate the presence of ketone bodies, using ross test. All the cows were within 4 weeks either before or after parturition. The gerd size was from 10 to more than 100 cows, and the cows did not show any clinical signs of ketosis. Of the 288 cows, 85 (29.5%) were positive to Ross test; of the positive cases 42.4% were +, 44.7% were ++, and the remaining 12.9% were +++. The prevalence increased from 3rd parity, peaked at 6th parity and thereafter decreased. The prevalence was higher after parturition than before parturition, with the highest occurrence during the 2nd week after calving. The prevalence was higher during winter. Also cows kept indoor throughout the year showed higher occurrence of the subclinical ketosis. The subclinical ketosis did not affect the specific gravity of the urine; however, increasing amount of ketone bodies in the urine decreased the pH of urine.

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The Effectiveness of Blood β-ketone Testing in Patients with Diabetic Ketosis: A Systematic Review & Meta-analysis (당뇨환자에서 자가관리형 베타케톤검사의 유효성: 체계적 문헌 고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Mo, Jin A;Jang, Sunyoung;Bang, Hee Young
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The effectiveness of Blood ${\beta}$-ketone testing by using self-monitoring strip on diabetic patients. Methods: Clinical effectiveness of blood ${\beta}$-ketone testing was assessed through correlation with reference test that measured blood ${\beta}$-ketone value through gas chromatography or enzyme method, diagnostic accuracy, time taken for the test and time taken for confirmative diagnosis of diabetic ketosis by selecting literatures on researches that conducted this test on ketosis(suspected) patients or diabetic ketosis(suspected) patients. Each of the stages from literature search to application of selection standards and extraction of data were carried out independently by the Subcommittee along with 2 researchers. Results: 7 reports were selected. ${\beta}$-ketone testing displayed high level of correlation in the range of r=0.92~0.99 with test using enzyme method as the reference standard. Regarding the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity of 0.82, specificity of 0.74. The time taken for the test was 30seconds for the index test, which is shorter than reference standard test. Conclusion: Blood ${\beta}$-ketone testing was assessed to be a safe and effective test to monitor ketosis and assess the level of risk of ketosis by measuring the blood ${\beta}$-ketone on ketosis patients and diabetic ketosis patients since it has high level of correlation with reference test and short period of testing.

Regulatory Mechanism of Cytochrome P450IIE in the Rat with Hepatic Injury and Ketosis (간장장해와 Ketosis시에 Cytochrome P450IIE의 Regulatory Mechanism에 관한 연구)

  • 윤여표;강원식;이세창;손동환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 1993
  • In order to elucidate the alteration of drug-metabolizing enzymes and mechanism in the animal with hepatic injury and ketosis, the regulation of P450IIE was studied in the rats with heaptic injury caused by CCl$_4$ and with ketosis caused by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. P450IIE expression in liver was examined by the combination of enzyme activities, Western immunoblot, and mRNA Northern blot analyses using specific polyclonal antibody and cDNA probe for P450IIE. Enzyme activity and amounts of immunoreactive P450IIE were rapidly decreased in a time-dependent manner after a single dose of CCl$_4$ . However, the decreases in P450IIE enzyme activity and immunoreactive protein by CCl$_4$ were not accompanied by a decline in its mRNA level. The data thus suggested a post-translational reduction of P450IIE by CCl$_4$. The enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase) in hepatic microsomes were elevated about 2-3-fold by streptozotocin and feeding with a high fat diet. This increases in enzyme activities were also accompanied by 3-fold increases in immunoreactive P450IIE protein and its mRNA. Our data thus indicated that P450IIE induction during the ketosis appears to be due to pretranslational activation.

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독성물질 대사효소 조절기전에 관한 연구

  • 윤여표;홍연탁;김부영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.54-54
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    • 1992
  • 약물, hormone, 독성물질등의 대사능과 발암 가능성등이 간장 장해시 및 ketosis시에 달라지는 원인과 기전, 독성물질 대사효소의 변동과 그 작용기전을 규명하고자, 대표적인 간장장해 물질인 carbon tetrachloride를 rat에 투여하여 간장 장해를 일으키고, 당뇨병, starvation, high-fat diet처리하여 ketosls상태를 만든 후에, specific cytochrome P45O polyclonal antibodies와 cDNA probes를 사용하여, enzyme activitieg, Western immunoblot analysis와 mRNA Northern blot analysis 등을 실험하여, 간장 장해와 ketosis시 cytochrome P45O의 변동과 그 작용기전, regulation을 규명하고자 하였다. 실험 결과, $CCl_4$투여후 P450IIE enzyme (aniline hydroxylase) 활성이 시간 의존적으로 급격히 떨어졌고, P450IIE protein양이 똑같은 방식으로 감소되었으나 mRNA level은 변화가 없었다. $CCl_4$에 의해서 P450IIE는 protein의 특이적인 파괴에 의한 post-translational reduction됨을 알 수 있었다. 반면에 당뇨병, starvation, high-fat diet등 ketosis시에는 P450IIE 효소활성이 2-3배 증가되었고, P450IIE protein양도 같은 수준으로 증가되었으며, mRNA도 증가 되었다. Ketosis시에는 P450IIE가 pretranslational activation됨을 알 수 있었다.

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Prepartal Decrease in Plasma Total Cholesterol Concentration in Dairy Cows Developed Subclinical Ketosis

  • Ro, Younghye;Choi, Woojae;Kim, Hoyung;Kim, Danil
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.222-224
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    • 2017
  • A retrospective study was designed to determine whether there were any differences in prepartal blood biochemical parameters between cows developed subclinical ketosis (SCK) and non-SCK cows. Data on blood biochemistry from 33 Holstein parturient cows (15 SCK and 18 non-SCK cows) in one farm for one year, were compared. Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations were utilized in the diagnosis of SCK and showed significant differences between SCK and non-SCK cows after calving. Before calving, however, only plasma total cholesterol concentration in SCK cows was significantly lower than that in non-SCK cows. Consequently, it seems that lower plasma total cholesterol concentration before calving is related to the occurrence of SCK immediately after calving.

Changes of Plasma Metabolites, Hormones, and mRNA Expression of Liver PEPCK-C in Spontaneously Ketotic Dairy Cows

  • Xia, C.;Wang, Z.;Liu, G.W.;Zhang, H.Y.;Zhang, C.;Xu, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to understand changes of plasma metabolites, hormones, and mRNA level of cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in liver in spontaneous clinical ketosis; 10 clinically ketotic cows and 10 healthy cows were chosen from the same dairy farm. Eleven blood parameters and liver fat content were measured in all cows, and mRNA levels of PEPCK-C in liver were measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In ketotic cows, concentration of plasma glucose decreased (p<0.01), concentration of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and $\beta$-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) increased (p<0.01), liver fat content (18.8% wet weight) and activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased (p<0.01), but concentration of plasma total bilirubin (TBIL), $\gamma$-glutamyl transpeptidase ($\gamma$-GT), and cholinesterase (CHE) increased (p>0.05). In addition, concentration of plasma insulin decreased (p<0.05), concentration of plasma glucagons decreased (p>0.05), and mRNA level of PEPCK-C in liver increased (p<0.05). It is concluded that the adaptative changes of metabolites, hormones, and mRNA level of PEPCK-C in ketotic cows were in favor of the enhancement of gluconeogenesis, the decrease of fat mobilization and the relief of ketosis, but these were still inadequate to relieve ketosis.

Analysis of total mixed ration (TMR) nutrition and metabolic diseases in Korean dairy farm (국내 고능력우 Holsteins 농가의 TMR 영양성분 및 대사성 질병 분석)

  • Kim, SeonHo;Cho, Yong-il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2019
  • A variety of livestock feed resources were used in Korean dairy farm due to a lack of the endemic feed. However, there is inadequate real farm data to support farmers' decisions on the choice of options. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of total mixed ration (TMR) as well as the metabolic diseases status in Korean dairy farms. TMR samples were collected from nine feed companies and eight selected self-formulated by the dairy farms. The nutrient contents were examined by AOAC methods. The frequency of metabolic diseases such as ketosis and hypocalcemia were surveyed. The average moisture content was 36.2% although the min. and max. value were varied from 21.7% and 50.6% among farms. The mean${\pm}$standard deviation of crude fiber (CF), crude ash (CA), ether extract (EE), and crude protein (CP) were $21.4{\pm}2.5$, $4.6{\pm}0.4$, $3.2{\pm}0.5$ and $9.8{\pm}1.7$, respectively. However, the average ADF and NDF was $17.3{\pm}3.7$ and $31.0{\pm}5.7$, respectively. The compositions of TMR were varied significantly among the dairy farms. The frequency of clinical Ketosis (CK), subclinical ketosis (SCK) and hypocalcemia were higher in early lactation period with 4.5%, 11.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Also, the frequency of SCK was higher than CK and hypocalcemia throughout the lactation. Periodic TMR nutrient analysis based on herd production or physiology change would maximize the effects of TMR feeding. Furthermore, the study results would be useful to the farm practitioner and producer for their farm management.

Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

  • Lee, SeokHyun;Cho, KwangHyun;Park, MiNa;Choi, TaeJung;Kim, SiDong;Do, ChangHee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1530-1540
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.