• Title, Summary, Keyword: kidney metabolism

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Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disease in Children

  • Suh, Jin-Soon
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 2020
  • Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism caused by CKD. Patients with early-stage CKD who present with disordered regulation of bone and mineral metabolism may be asymptomatic. However, if untreated, the condition can be a significant barrier in achieving optimal bone strength, linear growth, and cardiovascular health in pediatric patients with CKD. Thus, the current study evaluated the definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pediatric CKD-MBD.

Effects of Milk Protein levels and Casein/Whey Ratios on Organ Growth and Protein Metabolism in Early Weaned Rats (조기 이유한 흰쥐에서 유단백질의 섭취수준과 조성비가 기관성장과 단백질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 박미나
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.3-11
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of protein levels and casein/whey ratios on organ growth and protein metabolism in early weaned rats. Premature rats weaned by the 17th day were fed six semipurified synthetic, isocaloric and gel diets that contained three levels (low, medium and high) and two different combinations(casein/whey ; 80 : 20 or 20 : 80) of milk protein for 8 days. On the 25th day postpartum, frest weigth and DNA, RNA and milk protein contents in brain, liver, kidney and muscle were determined to ascertain organ and cellular growth. Futher, with a view to ascertain protein metabolism and renal functions, serum total protein, $\alpha$-amino N, urea N, and creatinine and creatinine and urinary urea N, creatinine and hydroxproline were determined. Total DNA contents of brain, liver and kidney, which may represent as an index of cell numbers in those organs were significantly decreased in the rats fed diets containing low level protein regardless of casein/whey ratio. However, as fat as the rats fed high protein diets were concerned, their fresh weight, protein contents and GFR of kidney were significantly increased. Furthermore, nitrogen components, $\alpha$-amino N, urea N and creatinie in serum and urine were also increassed. Another observation was that high casein/whey ratio significantly facilitated accumulation of porteins in muscle and kidney and urinary hydorxyproline excretion, not affecting the DNA content of those organs. This study showed that low(8%) or high(32%) contents of protein had less desirable effects either on protein metabolism or on organ cellular growth in prematurely weaned rats, whereas there were no effects on general growth and bone strength.

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Effects of Dietary Protein Levels on Organ Growth and Protein Metabolism in Early and Normally Weaned Rats (단백질 섭취수준이 조기 이유 및 정상이유 흰쥐의 기관성장과 단백질 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 박미나
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1998
  • This study was designed to examine how dietary protein levels affect organ growth and protein metabolism in early and normally weaned rats. Early and normally weaned rats separated fro the dam on the 15th and 121st day postpartum, respectively. were fed diets containing three levels of protein : low(10%) , normal (20%),and high(40%) . On the 35th day, the weight and DNA, RNA and protein contents in brain , liver, and kidney were determined to ascertain organ and cellular growth. Furthermore, serum total protein , albumin , $\alpha$-amino N and creatine and urinary urea N, and creatinine were determined in order to ascertain protein metabolism and renal functions. Dietary protein levels were not observed to significantly affect total DNA content, which may represent an index of cell number in the liver, brain and kidney. Fresh weight and protein/DNA ratio, which may represent indices of cell size, significantly increased in proportion to dietary protein in the kidney. As for the early weaned rats , the liver cell size significantly decreased. Dietary protein levels and weaning periods did not affect serum total protein and albumin . However, serum urea-N significantly increased in proportion to dietary protein levels whereas serum $\alpha$-amino N was decreased by early weaning . Nitrogen retention was lower in early weaned rats fed low or high levels of protein than in normally weaned rats. The results demonstrate that low or high levels of dietary protein have less desirable effects on protein metabolism in prematurely weaned rats.

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Mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in acute kidney injury

  • Jang, Hee-Seong;Padanilam, Babu J.
    • The Journal of Medicine and Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2018
  • Mitochondrial injury in renal tubule has been recognized as a major contributor in acute kidney injury (AKI) pathogenesis. Ischemic insult, nephrotoxin, endotoxin and contrast medium destroy mitochondrial structure and function as well as their biogenesis and dynamics, especially in renal proximal tubule, to elicit ATP depletion. Mitochondrial fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation (FAO) is the preferred source of ATP in the kidney, and its impairment is a critical factor in AKI pathogenesis. This review explores current knowledge of mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion in AKI and prospective views on developing therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in AKI.

Effects of Acute Renal Ischemia on Aerobic Metabolism of Rabbit Kidney Homogenates (급성 신장 빈혈이 신장의 유기성 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Suk-Won
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 1972
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate systematically how the aerobic metabolic capacity of renal tissue reduced by the effects of a period of induced ischemia. Aerobic metabolic studies were performed on homogenates of cortex and medulla of rabbits. Ischemia was induced by occluding the renal vein or renal artery of the left kidney for an hour. The right kidney used as a paired control. Aerobic metabolism was asesssed by measuring the oxygen consumption using the Warburg's manometric apparatus. The results are summarized as follows: 1. One hour of occlusive ischemia does not increase in the kidney weight in the renal arterial occlusion but increase in the renal venous occlusion. 2. Occlusion of either the renal vein or renal artery for an hour did not reduce to any significant degree the level of endogenous substrate in cortical homogenates as measured the rates of $0_2$ consumption. 3. A significant reduction in the rate of $C_2$ consumption was noted in the medullary homogenates of renal venous occluded kidneys while renal arterial occlusion had less of an effect. 4. The capaciy of homogenates for aerobic metabolism is not reduced by acute ischemia, because of the higher rate of oxygen consumption induced by exogenous glucose in renal vein occlusion. 5. The oxygen consumption of medullary homogenate more decreased to acute ischemia than cortical homogenates. The results of this investigation suggest that one hour circulatory stasis does not reduce major potential capacity of renal cortical tissue at the subcellular level to produce energy. In contrast, the aerobic metabolism of medullary tissue is reduced by renal ischemia. Further, both cortex and medulla appear to be more sensitive to ischemia induced by renal venous occlusion than by renal arterial occlusion.

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Gemigliptin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis Through Down-Regulation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome

  • Seo, Jung Beom;Choi, Yeon-Kyung;Woo, Hye-In;Jung, Yun-A;Lee, Sungwoo;Lee, Seunghyeong;Park, Mihyang;Lee, In-Kyu;Jung, Gwon-Soo;Park, Keun-Gyu
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.830-839
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    • 2019
  • Background: The hypoglycemic drugs dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have proven protective effects on diabetic kidney disease, including renal fibrosis. Although NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation is known to play an important role in the progression of renal fibrosis, the impact of DPP-4 inhibition on NLRP3-mediated inflammation while ameliorating renal fibrosis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that the renoprotective effect of gemigliptin is associated with a reduction in NLRP3-mediated inflammation in a murine model of renal fibrosis. Methods: We examined the effects of gemigliptin on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced in mice by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Using immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis, we quantitated components of the NLRP3 inflammasome in kidneys with and without gemigliptin treatment, and in vitro in human kidney tubular epithelial human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2) cells, we further analyzed the effect of gemigliptin on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-stimulated production of profibrotic proteins Results: Immunohistological examination revealed that gemigliptin ameliorated UUO-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis. Gemigliptin-treated kidneys showed a reduction in levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and interleukin-1β, which had all been markedly increased by UUO. In line with the in vivo results, TGF-β markedly increased NLRP3 inflammasome markers, which were attenuated by gemigliptin treatment. Furthermore, gemigliptin treatment attenuated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB levels, which had been increased in the UUO kidney as well as in TGF-β-treated cultured renal cells. Conclusion: The present study shows that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to UUO-induced renal fibrosis and the renoprotective effect of gemigliptin is associated with attenuation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Effects of Dietary Fiber Sourecs on Lipid Metabolism and Kidney Function in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet (식이섬유 종류가 고콜레스테롤 식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 체내 지질대사 및 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 박영주;박양자;김민선
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fibers (cellulose ; polydextrose ; pectin ; ricebran) supplementation on the kidney fucntion of hyperlipidemic-induced rats on a high cholesterol diet (5% cholesterol). Serum lipid concentrations were not influenced by dietary fiber sources, but the pectin group was effective in reducing serum lipid levels. Total serum protein and albumin concentrations tended to higher in the polydextrose group, and serum creatinine and urea-N concentrations were higher in the pectin group than those in the other groups. Even though total urinary protein was high in the pectin group, GFR was reduced (18~30% decrease) as compared to other groups. The urea-N level was elevated in the polydextrose group as compared to that of cellulose group(25% increase). Total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in the liver of pectin group were lower than those of other groups. Total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in the kidneys were reduced in pectin and ricebran groups, respectively. The total cholesterol concentration infecal was significantly high in the polydextrose and pectin groups(p<0.05), and the triglyceride was highest in the pectin group. These results indicate no significant effects of dietary fiber supplementation on the kidney function of hyperlipidemic-induced rats on a high cholesterol diet, but pectin was very effective to improve lipid metabolism and to reduce GFR.

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Metabolic Activation of Ester- and Amide-Type Drugs by Carboxylesterases

  • Satoh, Tetsuo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.71-71
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    • 1993
  • Carboxylesterase is widely distributed in the tissues of vertebrates, insects, plants and mycobacteria. Among various tissues of animals and humans, the highest esterase activity with various substrates is found in the liver. Kidney has moderate carboxylesterase activity in the proximal tubules. Considerable esterase activity is also found in the small intestine epithet elial cells and serum of mammals. Besides these tissues, carboxylesterase has been found in the lung, testis, adipose tissue, nasal mucosa and even in the central nervous system. Hepatic microsomal carboxylesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds such as carboxylester, thioester and aromatic amide. Since carboxylesterases are important for metabolic activation of prodrugs and detoxification of xenobiotics, differences in substrate specificity and immunological properties of this enzyme are important in connection with choosing a suitable laboratory animal for the evaluation of biotransformation and toxicity of drugs. On the other hand, liver, kidney, intestine and serum were found to contain multiple forms of carboxylesterases in animal species and humans. In fact, we have purified more than fifteen isoforms of carboxylesterases from microsomes of liver, kidney and intestinal mucosa of nine animal species and humans. and characteristics of these isoforms were compared each other in terms of their physical and immunochemical properties. On the other hand, we have reported that hepatic microsomal carboxylesterases are induced by many exogenous compounds such as phenobarbital, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Aroclor 1254, aminopyrine and clofibrate. Later, we showed that some isoforms of hepatic carboxylesterase were induced by glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and 16 ${\alpha}$-carbonitrile, but other isoforms were rather inhibited by these compounds. These findings indicate that involvement of carboxylesterases in the metabolism and toxicity of drugs should be explained by the isoforms involved. Since 1991, we have carried out detailed research investigating the types of carboxylesterases involved in the metabolic activation of CPT-11, a derivative of camptothecin, to the active metabolite, SN-38. The results obtained strongly suggest that some isoforms of carboxylesterase of liver microsomes and intestinal mucosal membrane are exclusively involved in CPT-11 metabolism. In this symposium, the properties of carboxylesterase isoforms purified from liver, kidney and intestine of animal species and humans are outlined. In addition, metabolism of CPT-11, a novel antitumor agent, by carboxylesterases in relation to the effectiveness will also be discussed.

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Effect of Recombinant Porcine Somatotropin(rPST) Administration on Pig Health (유전공학 Porcine Somatotropin의 투여가 돼지의 건강에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Chang-Woo;Bak Ung-Bok;Chang Byoung-Sun;Kim Nam-Joong;Lee Byung-Gueon
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.333-366
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    • 1992
  • Safety of recombinant porcine somatotropin administration on pig was studied using 32 Landrace x Yorkshire crossbred pigs. The starting body weight ranged from 55.5kg to 65.3kg. Eight pigs were allotted to each low dose group of sustained releasing rPST(SL), high dose group of sustained releasing rPST(SH), daily injection group of rPST(DI), and control group(C). Pigs in SL group and SH group were injected subcutaneously twice in 3 week-interval with 1000$\mu\textrm{g}$ and 2000$\mu\textrm{g}$ of sustained releasing rPST per kg body weight, respectively. Pigs in DI group were injected intramuscularly with 100$\mu\textrm{g}$ of rPST everyday for 6 weeks. Blood was collected from anterior vena cava just before the first treatment, and at four weeks and six weeks of experiment. Hematological parameters and blood chemical parameters indicating liver function, kidney function, electrolyte metabolism, mineral metabolism and lipid metabolism were determined. Necropsy and urinalysis were performed after final blood collection. The results were summarized as follows, and it is concluded that rPST administration does not affect pig health negatively. 1. rPST administration did not affect kidney function as manisfested by BUN, creatinine and urinalysis. 2. rPST administration did not affect liver function as manisfested by total protein, albumin, serum AST activity serum ALT activity serum ALP activity, serum LDH activity, serum GGT activity and serum SDH activity. 3. rPST administration did not affect skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and brain as manifasted by serum AST activity and serum LDH activity. 4. rPST administration increased blood glucose level within normal range. 5. rPST administration did not affect lipid metabolism as manisfested by triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid concentrati on. 6. rPst administration dia not affect mineral metabolism as manisfested by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron concentration. 7. rPST administration did not affect electrolyte metabolism as manisfested by Na, K, chloride concentration. 8. rPST administration did not affect erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, thrombocyte count, and plasma fibrinogen level.

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Study on the Relationship between Physiology of Humor and Body fluid and Pathology of 'Phlegm-retained fluid' (수액(水液) 및 진액(津液) 생리(生理)와 담음(痰飮) 병리(病理)의 상관관계에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jung Huk;Kim, Byoung Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • There are two kinds of body fluid metabolism in Traditional Korean Medicine based on 'Internal Classic'("內經"); one is metabolism of body fluid(津液) meaning metabolism of physiological substance, and another is metabolism of humor meaning a metabolic process that excretes waste out of the body. 'Phlegm-retained fluid'(痰飮) is a typical pathological condition caused by abnormal fluid metabolism in Traditional Korean Medicine. As a result of reviewing the literature on 'phlegm-retained fluid'(痰飮), the following facts were found; 'Phlegm-retained fluid'(痰飮) is formed by abnormal state of metabolism of body fluid(津液). In other words, because of the action of various etiologies, qi(氣) and body fluid(津液) metabolism can have abnormal conditions and these metabolic disorders cause formation of 'phlegm-retained fluid'(痰飮). Treatments for 'phlegm-retained fluid'(痰飮) include the following: Eliminating the causes of illness, recovery of metabolism of qi(氣) and body fluid(津液), and functional recovery of pancreas and kidney related to body fluid(津液) metabolism. These treatments are distinguished from promotion of sweating(發汗) and helping urination, the treatments for humor metabolism abnormality.