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Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Steamed and Fermented Asparagus cochinchinenesis (증숙 및 발효한 천문동의 항균활성과 특성)

  • Lee, Seung-Min;Kim, Su-In;Kang, Moon-Sun;Lee, Chung-Yeol;Hwang, Dae-Youn;Lee, Hee-Sup;Kim, Dong-Seob
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to investigate antimicrobial activity and characteristics of Asparagus cochinchinenesis which was steamed and fermented with lactic acid bacteria. A. cochinchinensis was prepared to steaming process which was washed and freeze dried. A. cochinchinensis was steamed at $95^{\circ}C$ for 12 h and dried by hot air at $50^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. After steaming process, A. cochinchinensis was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides 4395, Lactobacillus sakei 383 and Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11322). Ethyl acetate extracts of fermented A. cochinchinensis had antimicrobial activities for the respiratory disease bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli). A. cochinchinensis had highest antimicrobial activity for the P. aeruginosa which fermented with L. mesenteroides 4395. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of A. cochinchinensis fermented with L. mesenteroides 4395 was 10 mg/mL for S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli and 5 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa. The MIC of A. cochinchinensis fermented with L. sakei 383 and A. cochinchinensis fermented with L. plantarum KCCM 11322 were the same. Total sugar was decreased from $863.33{\pm}17.47mg/mL$ to $722.67{\pm}5.51mg/mL$ during the steaming process. But reducing sugar was increased from $99.36{\pm}1.32mg/mL$ to $109.29{\pm}2.71mg/mL$ during the steaming process. Total sugar was decreased to 301.50-361.42 mg/mL and reducing sugar was decreased to 27.39-62.20 mg/mL during the fermentation process.

A Study on Nutritive Values and Salt Contents of Commercially Prepared Take-Out Boxed-Lunch In Korea (한국형 시판 도시락의 영양가 및 식염함량)

  • Kim, Bok-Hee;Lee, Eun-Wha;Kim, Won-Kyung;Lee, Yoon-Na;Kwak, Chung-Shil;Mo, Sumi
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.230-242
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    • 1991
  • This research was conducted on the 10 take-out boxed-lunches commercially prepared in the department stores. chain stores. and the public railroad trains in Korea. Sampling was conducted from February 1990 to March 1990. Nutritive values and sodium contents of the 10 boxed-lunch samples are summarized as follows : 1) The average weight(percentage) of the cooked rice and the side dishes were 304.6g(49.4) and 312.4(506%), respectively. The weight of these samples were significantly heavier than that of Japanese style boxed-lunches. 2) The average number of the side dishes was 12. The average numbers of food items classified by the five food groups were 6.1 in protein food group, 0.3 in calcium food group. 6.0 in vitamin and mineral food group. 1.5 in carbohydrate food group, and 1.5 in oil and fat food group. 3) They contained on the average 840.7kcal of energy, 38.9g of protein, 22.7g of fat, 120.4g of carbohydrate. 300.8mg of calcium. 410.8mg of phosphours, 6.61 mg of iron. 219.8 R.E. of vitamin A, 0.46mg of thiamin, 0.67mg of riboflavin, 10.5mg of niacin, 27.5mg of ascorbic acid. Thus. except vitamin t the content of all the nutrients were higher than the value of 1/3 of the RDA for adults. 4) The high priced group(group 2) had more protein, calcuim. iron and niacin contents than the cheaper group(group 1). Probably, it's because the group 2 had more animal foods than the group 1. 5) The average energy content per unit price(100 won) was 37.3kcal and the average protein content per unit price(100 won) was 1.64g. Korena style boxed-lunches had higher energy and protein contents per unit price than Japanese style, and the group 1 higher than the group 2. 6) The average energy Proportions of Protein, carbohydrate. and fat were 18.3%, 57.4%, and 24.3%, respectively. These proportions are good enough. 7) Frequency of cooking methods for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : pan-frying, frying, braising, seasoning, kimchi, grilling, pickling, stir-frying, steaming and fermenting. Generally simple cooking methods were used, thus the menus were lack or varieties. 8) Frequency of colors for the side dishes were found in the decreasing order : red, brown. yellow, green, black, white. Too much red pepper was used. 9) The average capacity of the containers for the staples and the side dishes were 468.1ml and 590.6ml, respectively. And the containers could not keep the food items well seperated. 10) The average contensts of sodium and salt were 2.287mg and 5.76g, in the range of 1, 398mg to 3, 489mg and 3.53g to 8.80g, respectively. These are much higher values than the recommended amount of salt.

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Comparison of the Dietary Pattern, Nutrient Intakes, and Blood Parameters According to Body Mass Index (BMI) of College Women in Seoul Area (서울지역 여대생의 BMI를 기준으로 식생활, 영양섭취상태 및 혈액인자 비교 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung-Soon;Shin, Kyung-Ok;Chung, Keun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.1589-1598
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on health by analyzing the factors which are related to obesity through the questionnaires on the dietary pattern, nutrient intake and physical measurements. The subjects, 419 college women aged 20 to 24 year-old, were randomly selected from Seoul and data were collected during March to May, 2008 and classified as under underweight, normal weight, and obesity groups according to BMI. However, weight, skeletal muscle mass, body fat mass, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, and waist to hip ratio showed significant differences among all the groups (p<0.05). In the obese group, 77.8% ate fat-rich foods such as galbi and samgyopsal more than two times per week, 66.7% ate vegetables other than kimchi (p<0.05) as compared to the underweight and normal groups by mini dietary assessment (p<0.05). The cholesterol intakes of the underweight, normal weight, and obese groups were $164.67{\pm}114.52mg/dL$, $143.31{\pm}99.58mg/dL$, and $121.92{\pm}54.91mg/dL$, respectively, and the obese group had a significantly lower intake than the other groups (p<0.05). The serum total cholesterol levels of the underweight, normal, and obese groups were $177.04{\pm}26.36mg/dL$, $189.46{\pm}29.05mg/dL$, and $170.00{\pm}12.75mg/dL$, respectively, and the obese group showed lower total cholesterol level than the other groups (p<0.05). The triacylglycerol level of the obese group ($132.00{\pm}64.60mg/dL$) was significantly higher than the other two groups (p<0.05). The HDL-cholesterol levels of the underweight, normal weight, and obese groups were $51.92{\pm}9.39mg/dL$, $59.20{\pm}13.53mg/dL$, and $43.00{\pm}8.98mg/dL$, respectively, showing that the obese subjects had significantly lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to the subjects in the other groups (p<0.05). The HDL-C/LDL-C ratios of the underweight ($0.52{\pm}0.45$) and normal weight ($0.59{\pm}0.23$) groups were higher than the ratio of the obese group ($0.41{\pm}0.06$). Total cholesterol were positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (r=0.768, p<0.01), but triacylglycerol were adversely correlated with HDL-cholesterol. In conclusion, our results show that college-aged women in Seoul should be encouraged to amend their overall dietary habits, make a dietary plan that fits their individual needs, and maintain an effective exercise schedule.

A Study of Nutritional Intake, Eating Habit, Iron Status of Urban and Rural Middle School Girls (도시와 농촌 여중생의 영양섭취상태, 식습관 및 철영양상태 연구)

  • Hong, Soon-Myung;Seo, Yeong-Eun;Hwang, Hye-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.1634-1640
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    • 2004
  • This study was designed to compare the nutritional intake and iron nutritional status between urban and rural middle school girls. Along with a questionnaire, blood samples were obtained from 311 middle school girls (urban 129 girls, rural 182 girls). Nutrient intakes were measured with a convenient method, and clinical symptoms relating anemia was investigated by 4-point Likert scale. For the nutrient intake, the total energy intake was 1722.2 kcal (82.0% of RDA) for the urban group and 1649.5 kcal (78.6% of RDA) for rural group. The rural group showed significantly lower level than the urban group in all nutrients except fat, carbohydrate and total energy intake. Regarding the food frequency, students from the rural group marked significantly lower intake of milk (p<0.00l), kimchi (p<0.05), fruit (p<0.05), tofu, bean (p<0.00l) than the urban group. For every clinical finding regarding anemia, the rural group marked higher value than the urban group but the difference was not significant. The hemoglobin concentration of urban group was 13.28 g/dL, and rural group showed 12.51 g/dL which was significantly lower than urban group (p<0.00l). The hematocrit rate was 37.82% for the urban group and 38.13% for the rural group and there was no significant difference between two groups. The red blood cell (RBC) count of the rural group was significantly lower than the urban group (p<0.00l). Evaluating with the iron deficiency standard which is less than 12 g/dL, the urban group was 6.2% and the rural group was 34.6% thus the deficiency rate was significantly higher in the rural group. This study showed that nutrient and iron status of the girls of rural group is not as good as the urban group. As middle school girls require high level of iron absorption due to blood loss which occurs during abrupt physical growth and menstruation, dietary counselling is required to enhance the iron status. When iron deficiency is serious, they need to take more positive action such as iron supplement in addition to food-iron fortification.

Nutritional Risks Analysis Based on the Food Intake Frequency and Health-related Behaviors of the Older Residents (50 Years and Over) in Andong Area (1) (안동주변 농촌지역 50세 이상 주민의 식품섭취빈도 및 건강행위에 따른 영양위험 분석 (1))

  • Lee, Hye-Sang;Kwun, In-Sook;Kwon, Chong-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.998-1008
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    • 2008
  • This study aimed to assess the nutritional status and the nutritional risks based on the food intake frequency and health-related behaviors of middle-aged and elderly people living in Andong area. Interviews were conducted with 1,384 subjects (532 males, 852 females) aged 50 years and over. Nutrient intakes, food intake frequency, and health-related behaviors including smoking, drinking, and exercise were investigated. The average energy intakes were 1410.5 kcal for males and 1279.2 kcal for females, and the percentages of the subjects consuming below the estimated energy requirement (EER) were 92.5% and 88.4%, respectively. The least consumed nutrients compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR) were riboflavin (92.5% for males, 89.6% for females), folic acid (89.7%, 88.5%), and calcium (78.9%, 85.8%), in order. According to the food intake frequency survey, the intakes of meat, fish and vegetable (except kimchi) were very poor, and this low intakes of meat and fish showed as poor status of protein, niacin, vitamin $B_6$, and zinc intakes. Health-related behaviors data showed that the ratio of cigarette smokers, especially male, was higher, while the ratio of the person exercising regularly was lower than that of the nationwide statistics, respectively. Cigarette smoking and drinking were not significantly related to the poor nutrition intake, while regular exercise positively influenced nutrient intakes in female subjects. These results showed that the nutritional status of the subjects was likely to be severely deficient and the low intakes of meat and fish to be highly related to the increase of nutritional risk. Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence of the secondary disease related to the food intake and health-related behaviors of the subjects, the proper educational program on balanced dietary intake and the correction of health-related behaviors should be developed and applied to this area.

Sodium and Potassium Content of School Meals for Elementary and Junior High School Students in Daegu, Masan, Gwangju, and Jeju (대구, 마산, 광주, 제주지역 학교급식의 나트륨 및 칼륨 함량 분석)

  • Lim, Hyeon-Sook;Ko, Yang Sook;Shin, Dongsoon;Heo, Young-Ran;Chung, Hae-Jung;Chae, In-Sook;Kim, Hwa Young;Kim, Mi-Hye;Leem, Dong-Gil;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.1303-1317
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content of school meals served in elementary and junior high school in Korea. In this study, 872 kinds of school meal dishes were collected from twelve elementary and twelve junior high schools located in four different cities in Korea (Daegu, Masan, Gwangju, and Jeju). The dishes were classified into three main categories; staple dish, subsidiary dish, and dessert. Each main category was further sub-classified into 4 kinds of staple dishes, 15 kinds of subsidiary dishes, and 5 kinds of dessert dishes. The Na and K content of dishes were then analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Na content of individual dishes showed considerable differences, ranging from 9 to 2,717 mg/100 g. Among the staple dishes, cooked rice contained relatively less Na, but other staple dishes such as a la carte, noodle, and rice-gruel contained considerably high amounts of Na. Regarding the subsidiary dishes, the Na content of salad was low, but those of Jangachi, stir-fried dishes, and kimchi were considerably high. Among the dessert dishes, beverages, fruit, and milk/dairy products contained relatively low amount of Na, while rice cakes and baked goods, and snacks contained noticeably high amounts of Na. Unlike the Na content, the K content between the dishes did not show much variability. Cooked rice and rice cakes contained relatively low amounts of K, similar to other dishes, and ranged from 104 to 220 mg/100 g. The Na/K ratio was especially high in rice cakes and Jangachi, while of the ratio in beverages, milk/dairy products, salad, and fruit were pretty low. The total content of Na and K and the Na/K ratio of elementary school meals were 974 mg, 378 mg and 2.7, respectively, and those in junior high school meals was 1,466 mg, 528 mg and 3.0. The results show that most school meals provide a significant amount of Na but significantly small amounts of K, as suggested by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans.

A survey of foodservice satisfaction and menu preference of high school boarding students in Jeju (제주지역 고등학생의 기숙사급식 만족도 및 급식메뉴 기호도 조사)

  • Kim, Kyung-Ja;Chae, In-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study analyzed the foodservice satisfaction and menu preference of 506 high school boarding students in Jeju surveyed from July 2-30, 2012 with the aim of providing basic data for improving the quality of boarding food-service management. Methods: The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficients, using the SPSS Win program (version 12.0). Results: Regarding satisfaction with dormitory foodservice, the satisfaction scores for service and hygiene were 3.46 (out of 5 scales), whereas the score for menu quality was 3.26 points. In terms of satisfaction by meal, dinner showed the highest score, at 3.70 (out of 5 scales). The satisfaction scores for breakfast were significantly higher in girls (3.36) than boys (2.93). Regarding intake of meals provided, dinner showed the highest score, at 3.96 (out of 5 scales), whereas breakfast showed the lowest score, at 3.63 points. Intake of lunch and dinner was significantly higher in boys (4.12, 4.17, respectively) than girls (3.72, 3.76, respectively). Regarding the requirements of subjects for dormitory foodservice, 43.4% of subjects selected improvement of food taste and 36.6% of girls chose menu diversity. In terms of menu preferences for main dishes, the students preferred noodles (4.06) and one-dish cooked rice (3.92) to cooked rice (3.66). The subjects preferred beef rib soup (4.10) and Kimchi stew (3.99) in soups and stews. With regard to the menu preferences for side dishes, steamed foods showed the highest score, at 3.95 (out of 5 scales), whereas seasoned foods showed the lowest score, at 2.89 points. The students preferred beef, pork, and chicken to fish and vegetables. The students preferred dessert the most with fruit juices (4.52). Bread and rice cake were more favored by girls, showing significant differences between boys and girls (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Development of a systematic nutrition education program that can encourage practice of proper eating habits is needed. In addition improvement of the quality of boarding school meals through the service of various menus is needed.

Change of Harmful Micnoorganisms in Pickling Process of Salted Cabbage According to Salting and Washing Conditions (배추김치의 절임공정 조건에 따른 위해미생물 변화)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Lee, Yu-Keun;Yang, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2011
  • Salted Cabbage products purchased from different companies at 4 different districts in South Korea were detected in this study. Cabbage and salt are the main materials for kimchi manufacture. The results of general bacteria contaminated in the samples were $1.4{\times}10^5$, $6.4{\times}10^5$, $1.7{\times}10^7$, $3.6{\times}10^7$ CFU/g in cabbage and $2.7{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in salt, respectively. The results of coliforms were detected as $2.4{\times}10^4$ CFU/g, and there was no Escherichia coli in any sample. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in cabbage as $9.9{\times}10^2$, $8.0{\times}10^1$, and $3.0{\times}10^3$ CFU/g, Bacillus cereus was also found in cabbage as $4.1{\times}10^3$ and $1.0{\times}10^1$ CFU/g. The results of Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio paraheamolyticus were $2.4{\times}10^6$ and $1.0{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in cabbage, respectively. $1.0{\times}10^3$ CFU/g for Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in salt. In case of Listeria monocytogenes, the results were $1.5{\times}10^1$, $1.1{\times}10^2$, and $4.5{\times}10^1$ CFU/g in cabbage. Total batcteria ranged from $1.4{\times}10^1$ to $4.4{\times}10^5$ CFU/g were detected in salting solution, from $1.5{\times}10^4$ to $1.2{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage, from $9.4{\times}10^4{\sim}1.3{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in minced salted-cabbage. The results of E. coli in samples from different companies were different from one to anther. The results of the contamination of S. aureus and B. cereus showed positive in salting solution and dehydrated salted-cabbage at a portion of companies. V. paraheamolyticus was detected in salting solution. The contamination of Y. enterocolitica ranged from $9.5{\times}10^2$ to $1.8{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in salting solution, from $1.7{\times}10^1$ to $2.7{\times}10^2$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage, from $1.2{\times}10^2$ to $1.3{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in minced salted-cabbage. The contamination of L. monocytogenes ranged from $8.0{\times}10^2$ to $1.7{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in salting solution, from $2.8{\times}10^2$ to $1.2{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage. During the manufacture processing of Kim chi, microorganisms were detected in cabbages salted in different concentrations of salt solution at 8%, 10%, 12% and 15% for 5-20 hours. As the results, $3.5{\times}10^5-1.7{\times}10^6$, $3.4{\times}10^5-2.5{\times}10^6$, $5.4{\times}10^5-2.3{\times}10^6$, $4.0{\times}10^5-2.3{\times}10^6$ CFU/g were detected for E. coli in samples at different treatment conditions. $1.9{\times}10^4-4.1{\times}10^4$, $4.1{\times}10^3-2.8{\times}10^4$, $1.5{\times}10^3-7.8{\times}10^3$, $2.2{\times}10^4-6.6{\times}10^4$ CFU/g were detected for S. aureus in samples at different treatment conditions. Salmonella typhimurium was detected in salted cabbage with various salt concentration after salting for 5 hrs, the result ranged from $2.5{\times}10^5$ to $3.8{\times}10^6$ CFU/g, and change of microorganism was the smallest in salted cabbage under the concentration of salting solution at 10% for 15 hours. The cabbage salted in 10% salting solution for 15 hours were washed with water for 2 and 3 times, with chlorine for 3 times, and with acetic acid for 3 times. E. coli was detected in the samples washed with water for 2 and 3 times, washed with chlorine for 3 times. The contamination of S. aureus was $3.0{\times}10^5$ CFU/g in the samples washed with water for 2 times, $5.6{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in the samples washed with acetic acid for 3 times, $3.6{\times}10^5$ CFU/g in the samples washed with water for 3 times and same amount in the samples washed with chlorine for 3 times. According to the results, the contamination of S. aureus was $5.6{\times}10^3$ CFU/g lower in samples washed with chlorine and acetic acid than that in samples washed with water. In case of S. typhimurium, it has been detected in samples washed with water and chlorine, $3.0{\times}10^1$ CFU/g as the lowest concentration among all the samples was measured in the samples washed with acetic acid for 3 times.

The Evaluation of Food Service Menus in an Immigration Detention Center (외국인 보호소 급식 식단 품질에 대한 인식 및 만족도)

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Kim, Woon Joo;Lee, Young Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.286-305
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the recognition and satisfaction with the menu quality of food services in an immigration detention center. The survey was conducted from January 22, 2010 to April 22, 2010 by questionnaires. A survey with 265 respondents was conducted and data analyzed by the SAS Program. In analyzing leftovers, the most common was kimchi (37.61%), followed by breads (21.52%), and beans/bean curd (17.99%). The common cause for leftover were undesirable taste (31.84%), sickness or a lack of desire for eating (19.85%). In terms of cooking methods, stir-frying, broiling, and frying were highly preferred to steaming, boiling, and salting. In the analysis of preferences in the taste and satisfaction of food service, there were significant differences in hot, sour, bitter, and light tastes (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Satisfaction was low with hot and light tastes, whereas sour and the bitter tastes showed a high degree of satisfaction. In the opinions for quality improvement, most immigrants wanted a tastier food supply (58.69%), a diverse food supply (40.54%), and clean utensils (36.68%). In the analysis of the gap between importance and performance, food taste, variety, and sanitation were recognized as poorly performed, causing major dissatisfaction with the food. The overall satisfaction score was 'average' (3 points out of 5 points) with 3.26 points. The satisfaction score showed insignificant difference depending on religions and duration of stay in Korea, but showed significant differences depending on nationality (p<0.001).