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A Study on American University Students' Perception and Preference for Korean Kimchi (미국 남녀 대학생의 김치에 대한 인식 및 기호도 조사)

  • 한재숙;김수연;서봉순;김영진
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.167-177
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    • 2000
  • The purposes of this study are to investigate American university students′responses to Kimchi and their preference on different kinds of Kimchi as indicated by a survey and sensory evaluation and to globalize Kimchi. About 400 Indiana University students in IN, USA participated in perception survey of Kimchi, which consisted of 64.8% of male and 35.2% of female.37.3% of all the participants knew what Kimchi was and 30.3% had eaten Kimchi before the survey. The students′responses to the 12 questions about Kimchi were measured on 5 point Likert scale. The item "Kimchi is nutritious and healthy" was totally received the highest point and "Kimchi is a good side with beer or wine" roamed the lowest. Furthermore, gender and the precious visitation to Korea laid an important part in the experiment. As the result of sensory evaluation, the American students preferred Kimchi that made out of soaking Baechu for 3 hours to 5 hours. When the Kimchi was fermented at room temperature(20~22$^{\circ}C$), the score decreased as the fermentation period was increased. However, the scores for the Kimchi preserved in the refrigeratior(5~1$0^{\circ}C$) did not vary remarkably. And the most preferred Kimchi by the students was one-day old. The dishes using Kimchi as the main ingredient are lifted according to the students preference as follows : Kimchi Ramen, Kimchi Mandu, Kimchi Hamburger, and Kimchi Bokumbap, and so on.

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A Survey of American's Perception and Preference for Korean Kimchi: Focus on Illinois and California (미국인의 김치와 김치이용음식에 대한 인식과 기호도 - Illinois주와 California주 -)

  • Han, Jae-Sook;Han, Gyeong-Phil;Lee, Jin-Shik;Han, Gab-Jo;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.499-507
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate American's perception and preference for Korean kimchi. A questionnaire was used to examine the perceptions of 126 males (40.4%) and 186 females (59.6%) residing in Illinois and California. Approximately 68% of the respondents had eaten Korean food. The perception of kimchi was the highest with a mean of 3.62. The respondents felt that the "Kimchi is a good side dish with cooked rice", "Kimchi (with garlic) prevents SARS", which was significantly different (M=3.06, p< .001), and "Kimchi prevents adult diseases" (M=3.24, p< .01). When evaluating the different kinds of kimchi, onion juice kimchi had the most preferred taste and also the highest overall acceptability (M=5.50, p< .05) of the second days. In the sensory evaluation by kimchi use, the best taste (p< .001) was in the order of kimchi pizza (M=6.58), kimchi dumplings (M=6.40), and kimchi chicken a'laking (M=6.33). The order for overall acceptability (p< .001) was kimchi dumplings (M=6.30), kimchi pizza (M=6.25), kimchi bacon roll, kimchi fried rice, and kimchi chicken a'laking (M=6.17).

Anticancer Effects of Organic Chinese Cabbage Kimchi

  • Park, Woon-Young;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.113-116
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    • 1999
  • The anticancer effect of methanol extracts from common Chinese cabbage kimchi(CC kimchi ) and organically cultivated Chinese cabbage kimchi (OC kimchi) was studied on the cell growth, MTT assay and SRB assay using AGS human gastric cancer cells. Methanol extracts from CC kimchi and OC kimchi exhibited the anticancer activites in vitro and in vivo. Methanol extract from 6 day-fermented CC kimchi and OC kimchi inhibited the growth of AGS cells by 55.2 and 60.7% , respectively. At MTT assay an dSRB assay, 6 day-fermented OC kimchi showed higher inhibition rate (MTT : 42%, SRB : 61%) than 6 day-fermented CC kimchi(MTT : 33%, SRB : 52%). Methanol extracts from 6-day fermented CC kimchi and OC reduced the tumor formation and prolonged the life span of sarcoma-180 cell injected Balb.c mouse. OC kimchi treated group resulted in the smaller tumor weight of 4.58$\pm$0.32g compared th the CC kimchi group of 5.40$\pm$0.78g and the control group of 7.50$\pm$0.54g and OC kimchi treted group (25.3 days) lived longest among control (20.2days ) and CC kimchi(23.5days) treted groups.

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A Survey on Singapore University Students' Perception and Preference for Korean Kimchi (싱가포르 대학생의 김치에 대한 기호도)

  • Han, Jae-Sook;Han, Gyeong-Phil;Han, Gab-Jo;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.780-788
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and preference for Korean Kimchi in Singapore. A questionnaire was answered by both male 236(43.0%) and female 313(57.0%) college students residing in Singapore. The results were as follows : the nationality of Kimchi as Korean was given by 86.9% of the participants, and 48.7% had eaten Kimchi. For their perceptions on Kimchi, the highest answer at a mean of 3.95 was 'Kimchi is a good side dish with cooked rice'. It was significantly different than 'Kimchi is delicious'(M=3.14, p<.05). In the evaluation of different kinds of Kimchi, taste was highest for anchovy dachi Kimchi(M=5.50) on the fourth day of fermentations, and overall acceptability was also highest for the anchovy dachi Kimchi(M=6.18) on the fourth day(p<.001). In the sensory evaluation by Kimchi use, the best taste was in the order of Kimchi Salad(M=6.10), Kimchi Bacon Roll(M=6.00) and Kimchi Croquette(M=5.67), and the order for overall acceptability was Kimchi Salad(M=6.10), Kimchi Bacon Roll(M=6.00) and Kimchi Croquette(M=5.92).

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Kimchi Preference and Intake Pattern of College Students in Taejon (대전지역 대학생들의 김치섭취실태 및 기호분석)

  • Koo, Nan-Sook;Kim, Ji-Hae
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate the intake pattern and the experience on the kimchi-making, and to analyze the taste preference of kimchi. The questionnaires have been collected from 473 college students in Taejon. Most students had taken baechu-kimchi, kkakduki, yeolmu-kimchi, dongchimi, and cheonggak-kimchi. They liked baechu-kimchi best, and then cheonggak-kimchi. Twenty-seven percent of students took kimchi every meal time and 53 % once a day. The rest 19.4% replied that they could take meals without kimchi. The male students ate more kimchi than the female(p<0.01). Sixty-five percent of them had tried the foreign foods made with kimchi and female had more experience than male(p<0.01). The taste of kimchi-japchae and kimchi-woodong was indicated as edible or taste very good by over two thirds of the students. Kimchi-pizza, kimchi-hamburger, and kimchi-spaghetti were evaluated as edible or taste good by the over half. The aging of kimchi was believed to be the most important factor to determine the taste. Students preferred kimchi which was weak in salty, sweet, and jot-kal taste, strong in hot taste, and proper in sour taste(well-fermented). Compared with the male, the female enjoyed kimchi having stronger sour and weaker jot-kal taste(p<0.01). More female students(43.5%) had experenced kimchi-making than the male(26.5%)(p<0.001). Three-fourth of them had made kimchi with their mother. Baechu-kimchi, cheonggak-kimchi, and dongchimi were recommended as the global food.

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Antiobesity Effect of Baek-Kimchi (Whitish Baechu Kimchl) in Rats Fed High Fat Diet

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Jung, Keun-Ok;Kim, So-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2004
  • Baek-kimchi (whitish baechu kimchi) was evaluated for anti-obesity properties and effects on triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol in blood and adipose tissues in rats fed a high fat (20 %) diet, and compared to the similar effects of baechu kimchi. Baek-kimchi does not use red pepper powder but contains higher levels of sliced radish and pear than baechu kimchi. SD rats were raised for four weeks on either a normal diet (ND, based on the AIN-93M diet), high fat diet (HFD, supplemented with 16% lard oil in the ND), or HFD containing 5 % baek-kimchi or 5 % baechu kimchi. Feed consumption was not different among the groups, but weight gains were significantly lower in the groups fed either the normal diet or HFD with baek-kimchi or baechu kimchi diets than the group fed HFD alone. The weights of liver and epididymal and perirenal fat pads in baek-kimchi and baechu kimchi diet groups were lower than those of the HFD groups, but the baek-kimchi diet group had lower epididymal and perirenal fat pad weights than the baechu kimchi diet group (p<0.05). The baechu kimchi dietary group also had significantly lower triglyceride and cholesterol contents in liver and epididymal and perirenal fat, reversing the higher levels seen in HFD. Baek-kimchi and baechu kimchi diets were also effective in lowering serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p<0.05). These results suggest that baek-kimchi and baechu kimchi consumption can reverse the effects of HFD on weight gain and blood and tissue lipids, and that baek-kimchi is more effective than baechu kimchi. The greater effect is probably due to the higher content of radish and pear used in baek-kimchi.

A Survey on Americans' Area Perceptions for Korean Commercial Kimchi (미국인의 김치에 대한 지역별 인식 조사)

  • Han, Jae-Sook;Han, Gyeong-Phil;Lee, Jin-Shik;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.681-689
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was conducted to investigate the perception of Korean kimchi among Americans' living in different areas in the United States. A questionnaire was given to males 126 (40.4%) and females 186 (59.6%) residing in Illinois and California. The results were as follows: 86.0% of the participants answered that kimchi was Korean in origin, and 84.1% reported that they had eaten kimchi. Additionally, 56.8% and 52.3% of the respondents in Illinois and California had purchased commercial kimchi at home-made. Among the kimchi they had experienced, out of the total respondents, 92.4% had eaten baechu kimchi, 45.5% had eaten mu kimchi and 42.4% had eaten oi kimchi (When the responses from the residents of Illinois were evaluated: 100.0% of the respondents had eaten baechu kimchi, while 47.7% had eaten mu kimchi, and 40.9% had eaten bak kimchi. Evaluation of the responses of residents from California revealed that: 88.6% had eaten baechu kimchi, 45.5% had eaten oi kimchi, and 44.3% had eaten mu kimchi respectively). For evaluation of the their kimchi preference of the overall population revealed that, 71.0% preferred baechu kimchi, 9.2% oi kimchi, and 8.4% mu kimchi (Of the respondents in Illinois: 69.8% preferred baechu kimchi, 14.0% mu kimchi and 7.0% bak kimchi, while for Californians: 71.6% preferred baechu kimchi, 11.4% oi kimchi and 8.0% bak kimchi, respectively). Regarding the primary reason they purchased commercial kimchi, 64.9% responded 'its taste' (67.4% in Illinois and 63.6% in California), additionally, 40.0% stated of the package they purchased was 200g (51.2% in Illinois and 34.5% in California). After having eaten kimchi, 45.5% answer reported that it tasted good, and the their primary reason for liking kimchi was its, 'spicy and hot taste' (51.3%), The main reasons for not liking kimchi were the odor (garlic, ginger, anchovy juice, etc) and it being too spicy, respectively. Regarding improvements for its expanded consumption, 25.0% answered 'not to improve', 22.7% answered 'reduce the strength of the strong seasoning', and 20.5% answered 'to allow over-ripening'.

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The Quality Characteristics of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi around Masan Area (마산 지역 배추김치의 품질특성)

  • 박우포;김종현;조재선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.535-538
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    • 1996
  • To investigate the quality characteristics of kimchi around Masan area, home made and commercial kimchi samples were collected from December 1994 to June 1995. The weight of a head of Chinese cabbage was 3.0kg after purchasing and reduced to 2.36kg after salting. Home made kimchi showed a little higher pH and titratable acidity than those of commercial kimchi in winter. Salt concentration of home made kimchi in winter was 3.69%, and higher than that of commercial kimchi. Color of home made kimchi was higher in L, a and b than that of commercial kimchi in winter and spring. The pH of commercial kimchi was lower about 0.3 than that of home made kimchi in spring. Home made kimchi in spring showed about 0.3% higher salt concentration than that of commercial kimchi.

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A Survery of High School Students' Awareness of and Uses for Kimchi in Taegu Area (대구지역 고등학생들의 김치에 대한 인식 및 이용실태에 관한 연구)

  • 한재숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 1998
  • The main purpose of this study is to provide a basic knowledge of Kimchi preferred by high school students and to improve high school students' Kimchi intake. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students in Taegu area. The results were as follows: 82% of the students had an affirmative opinion of Kimchi intake and they regarded Kimchi as one of our traditional, healthful and nutritious foods. The most well known Kimchi is as follows: Kkaktugi, Baechu Kimchi, Mul Kimchi, Chonggak Kimchi, Pa Kimchi, Dongchimi, Kkaennip Kimchi and Buchu Kimchi. The students preferred the white stems of the Chinese cabbage. Boy students preferred taste of fresh prepared Kimchi but girl students more preferred properly fermented Kimchi than the other. Their favorite ingredients were Korean radishes, oysters, green onion and carrots, also their favorite spices were red pepper powder, anchovies sauce, garlic and sugar in the order. Among those spices, boy students more preferred anchovies sauce than girl students. The students regarded market Kimchi as one of convenient and time-saving, but less quality and insanitary foods.

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Starter Cultures for Kimchi Fermentation

  • Lee, Mo-Eun;Jang, Ja-Young;Lee, Jong-Hee;Park, Hae-Woong;Choi, Hak-Jong;Kim, Tae-Woon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.559-568
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    • 2015
  • Kimchi is a traditional Korean vegetable product that is naturally fermented by various microorganisms present in the raw materials. Among these microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation process. Natural fermentation with unsterilized raw materials leads to the growth of various lactic acid bacteria, resulting in variations in the taste and quality of kimchi, which may make it difficult to produce industrial-scale kimchi with consistent quality. The use of starter cultures has been considered as an alternative for the industrial production of standardized kimchi, and recent trends suggest that the demand for starter cultures is on the rise. However, several factors should be carefully considered for the successful application of starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. In this review, we summarize recent studies on kimchi starter cultures, describe practical problems in the application of industrial-scale kimchi production, and discuss the directions for further studies.