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Consciousness and Sensory Characteristics on Commercial Kimchi (시판김치에 대한 의식과 관능적 특성)

  • Park Young-Hee;Jung Lan-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2006
  • He purpose of this study was to provide basic data for improvement commercial kimchi quality. To examine the consciousness of commercial kimchi, college students residing in the Jeonnam area were selected and asked to questionnaires. Commercial kimchi samples used included a total of 7 kinds which were fermented for 2 week at $4^{\circ}C$. A sensory characteristics included 10 items with a 5-score scale: color, savory taste, carbonated taste, sour taste, hot taste, salty taste, bitter taste, off-flavor, texture, and overall preference. 76% of the whole student liked kimchi, especially well-fermented kimchi(43.2%) and kimchi with fermented fish(48.6%). Participants liked savory(21.6%), hot(17.1%), and crispy(14.4%) taste. Their most favorite kimchi was the whole cabbage kimchi(26.1%), wild lettuce kimchi(0.9%) and watery kimchi made of sliced radishes(1.8%) were low in preference. 56.8% of participants had no experience in making kimchi. They mainly bought commercial kimchi in grocery stores(37.8%) or shopping malls(29.7%). They pointed out the addition of artificial sweeter(35.1%), insanitation, and discredit of kimchi materials(21.6%) as problems of commercial kimchi. The sensory characteristics of commercial fresh kimchi was significantly different in color($2.6{\sim}4.1$), and hot($2.3{\sim}3.8$), and salty($2.6{\sim}3.5$) with p<0.001. The sensory characteristics of $4^{\circ}C$-fermented commercial kimchi for 2 week was significantly different in color($2.7{\sim}3.9$), and salty($2.1{\sim}4.0$) with p<0.001. It was found that color, and hot, and salty taste had the greatest effect on the overall preference in non-fermented kimchi, and color and salty taste, in 2 week fermented kimchi

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Preference and Dietary Behavior for Kimchi among Elementary School Students in Chungnam (충남 일부지역 초등학생의 김치에 대한 기호도 및 식행동 조사)

  • Oh, Su-Jin;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.203-212
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the preference, intake frequency and eating behavior for kimchi as well as analyze the differences by gender among fourth to sixth grade students (n=410) in a Chungnam region. Approximately 64% of the students liked the spicy taste of kimchi, 75.9% liked the saltiness, and 48.5% liked well-fermented kimchi. The disliking factors of kimchi were its sour taste (38.5%), strong scent (20.1%), and salty taste (15.4%). The most preferred type of kimchi was Baechukimchi, followed by Kkakduki, Yeolmukimchi, and Chonggakkimchi. Further, the most frequently consumed type of kimchi was Baechukimchi, followed by Kkakduki, Chonggakkimchi and Yeolmukimchi. Oisobaki, welsh onion kimchi, sesame leaf kimchi, Gatkimchi, Nabakkimchi and Baekkimchi were rarely consumed. About 34% of the students consumed 5 to 7 pieces of kimchi per meal, and 84.1% enjoyed eating kimchi, mostly because of its good taste (61.3%). The reason for not eating kimchi was because other side dishes are more delicious (30.2%). About 80% of the students responded that they prepared kimchi at home. Moreover, 74.3% of the students eat kimchi much more at home than at school. Improvements to be made for kimchi at school were as follows: less salty (34.9%), less spicy (27.6%), and sweet (22.5%). In conclusion, students enjoyed eating kimchi because of its good taste. Further, they showed preference for Baechukimchi, Kkakduki, and Yeolmukimchi and consumed them frequently. Because kimchi appears to be more preferred and more frequently consumed, it is necessary to develop a menu using kimchi along with the proper eating guidance for helping students consume various types of kimchi at school or at home.

Comparative quality analysis of kimchi products manufactured in Korea, Japan, and China (한국, 일본, 중국 김치의 품질 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Hyejin;Jeong, Suyeon;Kim, Jaehwan;Yoo, SeungRan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.967-976
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    • 2016
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in quality of kimchi products produced in Korea, Japan, and China. Kimchi products from kimchi-producing countries with high consumer consumption such as Japan and China along with local products from Korea, where exporting has not yet started, were collected. Product pH, acidity, salinity, package pressure, gas production were assessed, and microbiological analyses and sensory evaluations were performed on kimchi products that were stored at either $4^{\circ}C$ for 63 d or $15^{\circ}C$ for 20 d. The pH and acidity results showed that as Japanese and Chinese kimchi had higher pH and lower acidity than that of Korean kimchi, which was determined to be indicative of insufficient microbial fermentation following kimchi production. Japanese kimchi had different microbial properties than those of Korean kimchi, which is due to differences in their manufacturing processes. Overall preferences derived from sensory evaluations were: Korean kimchi>Chinese kimchi>Japanese kimchi. The results of this study demonstrate the sensory superiority of Korean kimchi and may be useful when predicting consumers' acceptance level of Korean kimchi exported to other countries.

A Research on Kimchi culture for the Koreans in CIS(II) -The General Characteristics on Preparation and Preservation of Kimchi- (구 소련(독립국가연합) 거주 한인들의 김치 이용 실테에 관한 조사 (II) -김치 담금과 저장에 관한 사항-)

  • 신애숙;김영희;김영숙;이경임
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 1997
  • This research follows the previous research on Kimchi Culture for the Koreans in Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS) and the purpose of this research was to investigate the habits with Kimchi of the Koreans in CIS. The research was carried out with items of the preparation and the preservation of Kimchi. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Abut 95% of above 30 years old of the respondents prepared Kimchi for their family. But 51.9% of under 30 years old and the forth generation of the respondents got Kimchi without self preparation. 2. All the respondents argued that the procedure of Kimchi preparation of the present indifferent from that of the past. 3. 40.2% of the respondents used to take Kimchi after 2~3 days from the preparation and 29.1% used to take after 1~2 days. 52.8% of the respondents would like to eat the well-matured Kimchi and 45.2% to eat Kimchi which was immediately prepared. 4. The most popular container for keeping was the enamel pot and the most popular places for keeping was the refrigerator. The popular keeping containers were a wooden box(61.2%), a earthen vessel(20.1%), a plastic vessel(14.7%) and the popular keeping places were a underfloor(37.9%), veranda (25.0%), underearth(22.9%) in order.

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Brining Property and Antimutagenic Effects of Organic Chinese Cabbage Kimchi

  • Park, Woon-Young;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 1998
  • Brining property and antimutagenic effects of organically cultivaged Chinese cabbage kimchi (OC kimchi) and common Chinese cabbage imchi (CC kimchi) were studied. The salt absorption rate of leaves was faster than that of stems of the Chinese cabbages. Due to the large portion of leaf in organic Chinese cabbage, organic Chinese cabbage(OC) was much faster in terms of salt absorption rate than common Chinese cabbage(CC). The antimutagenic effects of methanol extracts of CC kimchi and OC kimchi were studied against aflatoxin B1(AFB1) using Ames test on Samonella typhimurium TA 100 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) using SOS chromotest. Methanol extract from 6 -day fermented OC kimchi at 15 $^{\circ}C$ showed 80% inhibition rate against the indirect mutage, aflatoxin B1 induced mutagenicit where as that from 6-day fermented CC kimchi at 15 $^{\circ}C$ showed 54% inhibition rate in the Ames test. Methanol extracts from 6-day fermented CC kimchi and OC kimchi showed 27 % and 58 % inhibition rate against direct mutagen , N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced mutagenicity, respectively in SOS chormotest, thus OC kimchi exhibited higher antimutagenic activity than kimchi.

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Influence of Capsaicinoids Content on the Microbial Community during Kimchi Fermentation

  • Park, Boyeon;Yang, Ji-Su;Moon, Eun Woo;Seo, Hye-Young;Ha, Ji-Hyoung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1580-1590
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    • 2019
  • Capsaicinoids in red pepper powder are known to show anti-bacterial effects; however, their effects during kimchi fermentation are not known. This study aimed to investigate the effects of various concentrations of capsaicinoids on kimchi fermentation. Five sets of kimchi samples were prepared using 0 mg/kg (control), $98.34{\pm}5.34mg/kg$ (mild), $243.47{\pm}3.71mg/kg$ (medium), $428.63{\pm}30.78mg/kg$ (hot), and $1,320.49{\pm}28.27mg/kg$ (extreme) capsaicinoid. The characteristics of each kimchi sample, including pH, acidity, organic acid, sugars, sugar alcohol, capsaicinoid content, and microbial community were periodically investigated during fermentation. Kimchi with red pepper powder shows significantly higher acidity than control kimchi, whereas pH values were the same. Organic acid in kimchi with red pepper powder was higher than in control kimchi, probably caused by higher lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in kimchi samples with red pepper powder. Our results show that addition of red pepper powder decreased Leuconostoc spp. counts in the bacterial community. In particular, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc gelidum counts increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder added to kimchi. Overall, the results of this study indicate that physicochemical properties and LAB such as L. sakei and L. gelidum are influenced by capsaicinoid content. However, further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of the percentage of red pepper powder in kimchi on fermentation to provide practical guidelines for producing standardized kimchi.

Anticlastogenic Effect of Bcechu (Chinese cabbage) Kimchi and Buchu (leek) Kimchi in mitomycin C-induced micronucleus formations by supravital staining of mouse peripheral reticulocytes (Mitomycin C 유도 소핵 생성 유발에 대한 배추김치 및 부추김치 추출물의 마우스 말초혈에서의 억제 효과)

  • 류재천;박건영
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2001
  • Kimchi is a major Korean traditional fermented food, as a supplying source of vitamin and minerals which is prepared with various vegetables and condiments such as red pepper, garlic and salted fish etc. There are many types of Kimchi depending on the ingredients and preparation methods used. To investigate the clastogenicity and anticlastogenicity of Baechu (Chinese cabbage) Kimchi and Buchu (leek, Allium odorum) Kimchi in mouse, it was performed acridine orange supravital staining of micronucleus (AOSS-MN) assay using mouse peripheral reticulocytes. Baechu Kimchi and Buchu Kimchi were cultivated by organic agricultural technique, and Kimchi samples were prepared by methanol extraction and lyophilization. First of all, it was studied the clastogenicity of two Kimchi samples themselves (250-1,000 mg/kg) after oral adminstration in mouse. And also to study the anticlastogenic effect of oral administration of Kimchi samples, mitomycin C (MMC, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as micronucleus inducing agent in this study. Dosing scheme was performed as simultaneous (co-treatment), 3 hr before (pre-treatment) and 3 hr after (post-treatment) with MMC treatment. Two Kimchi samples in the range of 250-1,000 mg/kg did not reveal any clastogenic effect in AOSS-MN assay in mouse. They also revealed anticlastogenic effects in post-treatment of Baechu Kimchi (1,000 mg/kg), and in pre-treatment of Buchu Kimchi (500 and 1,000 mg/kg) with statistical significance. The anticlastogenic effect revealed 1 and 6 hr after treatment of Baechu Kimchi, and Buchu Kimchi with 3 and 6 hr pretreatment. Consequently, it is suggested that antimutagenic and anticlastogenic mechanisms of Baechu and Buchu Kimchi in vivo attributed to sipindle formation and kinetic behavior of mutagens such as absorption and metabolism etc.

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A Study on the Texture and Taste of Kimchi in Various Saltings (절임정도에 따른 배추김치의 질감과 맛에 관한 연구)

  • 우경자;고경희
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 1989
  • The effects of salting degree of cabbage on the chemical, microbiological, textural changes and taste of Korean whole cabbage Kimchi fermented at $21^{\circ}C$ was studied. Low salted Kimchi (1.8% NaCl, soaking for 2 hr. in 20% brine) was showed higher total acdity than high salted Kimchi II(3.1% NaCl, Soaking For 8 hr in 20% brine) and III(2.9% NaCl, no soaking in 20% brine). The changes in growth of lactic acid bacteria was relevant to the salt content of whole cabbage Kimchi. Kimchi I was showed higher growth rate of Lactic acid bacteria and slower death rate constant of Lactic acid bacteria than that of Kimchi II and III. In palatability test, salty taste of Kimchi II, III was more salty than that of Kimchi I ($p{\leqq}0.01$) and total evaluation of Kimchi I, II was more palatable than Kimchi III ($p{\leqq}0.05$) at 3rd's day (optimum taste). Cutting force by Rheometer was well correlated with the salt content of Kimchi.

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Quality Changes of Rosemary-Added Onion Kimchi during Storage by Packaging Conditions (로즈마리 첨가 양파 김치의 저장 중 품질 특성)

  • 박인덕;정동옥;정해옥
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.522-528
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    • 2002
  • The effects of packaging materials, Ny/PE, PET/PE/Al, PET/PE/LDPE/CPP, and PET/Al/Ny/CPP, and packaging methods, atmospheric and vacuum packaging on physicochemical properties of onion Kimchi and rosemary-onion Kimchi were investigated. The maximun swelling days of packaging materials were increased more in rosemary-onion Kimchi than in onion kimchi, and they were in the order of PET/Al/Ny/CPP, PET/PE/Al, PET/PE/LDPE/CPP, and Ny/PE. The pH and reducing sugar contents of onion Kimchi and rosemary-onion Kimchi were decreased during storage. and those of lion Kimchi and rosemary-onion Kimchi packaged in PET/Al/Ny/CPP were higher than those in different packaging materials. Titratible acidity and vitamin C content of rosemary-onion Kimchi were lower than those of onion Kimchi, but there were no differences in the L and b values between two groups.

The Nutritional Evaluation, and Antimutagenic and Anticancer Effects of Kimchi (김치의 영양학적 평가와 항돌연변이 및 항암효과)

  • 박건영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.169-182
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    • 1995
  • The nutritional evaluation, and antimutagenic and anticancer effects of Kimchi were reviewed. Kimchi contains high levels of vitamins including vitamin C, $\beta$-carotene, vitamin B complex, niacin, and of minerals such as calcium, potassium, iron and phosphorous, etc. Kimchi is a low energy food, byt contains high quantities oforganic acids, dietary fiber and lactic acid bacteria in addition to the vitamins and minerals. Thus Kimchi could be developed as a protective food as it contains the various regulatory nutrients. The levels of NO3, NO2 and nitrosamines in Kimchi ingredients and Kimchi during theripening are not significant. However, high level of NaCl that could be used when prepared Kimchi in the warm region can be a problem, since high concentraitons of NaCl(>9.5%) in Kimchi could be comutagenic to themutagen of MNNG. The methanol extract of Kimchi, red pepper powder, garlic and lactic bacteria revealed antimutagenic or anticancer activities. The Kimchi extract also inhibited the growth of various human cancer cells.

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