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Quality Characteristics of Kimchi with Mulberry Leaves Enzyme Liquid and its Acceptability by Middle School Students (뽕잎 발효 효소액 김치의 품질특성 및 중학교 급식 수응도 평가)

  • Lee, Young-Sook;Rho, Jeong-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.467-481
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    • 2014
  • We investigated the effects of Mulberry leaves fermented enzyme liquid(MLE) addition on the quality of Kimchi which were fermented at $5^{\circ}C$ during 30 days. MLE was added to salted cabbage at concentrations of 0%(C), 0.4%(MLE1), 0.8%(MLE2), and 1.2%(MLE3) (w/w). pH in Kimchi added upon 1.2% of MLE, was higher than that of Kimchi without MLE after 12 days of fermentation. The titratable acidity was increased by the addition of MLE, and particularly Kimchi added 1.2% of MLE showed the slowest changed level. The degree of salinity were decreased in Kimchi with MLE as well as control group. However, MLE1 showed significantly lower salinity than MLE2, MLE3 and control group (p<0.001). L, a, b values of control group indicated significantly higher than the Kimchi with enzyme liquid concentrations(MLE1~MLE3). As compared with the control group, the cutting force in treated groups were increased during the fermentation period, and especially MLE3 showed the highest value of hardness. Moreover, that growth of lactic acid bacteria and total bacteria were inhibited by the addition of MLE. In the sensory assessment, the color, taste, and overall preferences were higher in MLE2 than control group and MLE1, MLE3. The acceptability of MLE as an additive in Kimchi among middle school students was higher than in the control sample, with an optimum additive of 0.8% MLE, based on the lowest volume of leftovers. Therefore, it was confirmed that addition of 0.8% MLE appears to be an acceptable approach to enhance the quality of Kimchi without reduction of acceptability.

Effect of Enzyme and Inorganic Salts Addition and Heat Treatment on kimchi Fermentation (효소 및 염의 첨가와 순간 열처리가 김치발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Kun-Og;Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Lee, Hyung-Jae;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 1991
  • The effects of microwave heat treatment and addition of enzyme, kimchi liquid, buffer solution and several salts on the changes in pH of kimchi liquid were investigated during fermentation at $25{\sim}35^{\circ}C$. It was found that microwave heat treatment on brined chinese cabbage and enzyme addition of cellulase and amylase showed a little improvement effect, while combination of both methods significantly increased the fermentation rate. The addition of kimchi liquid having pH 4.6 was found to be very desirable for both shortening the fermentation time and flavor acceptance. Among the inorganic salts and buffer solution studied, phosphate buffer(pH 4.6), sodium nitrite and $Na_2HPO_4$ were significantly effective for reduction of kimchi fermentation rate by two to three folds.

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Effect of Chitosan-Liquid Calcium Addition on the Quality of Kimchi during Fermentation (키토산-액상칼슘 첨가 김치의 숙성 중 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Se-Young;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.715-720
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chitosan-liquid calcium (CLC) on the high-calcium kimchi fermentation. The $0.5\%$ of CLC retarded the decreasing rate of pH and the increasing rate of titratable acidity, and these effects were more conspicuous with liquid calcium. Total microbes and lactic acid bacteria counts were lower in CLC $(0.5\%)$ added kimchi during fermentation. The a-value of kimchi juice was gradually increased but the L- and b-values were decreased. The calcium content of the kimchi supplemented with $0.5\%$ of CLC was maintained in the range of $207\~228\;mg\%$. In sensory evaluation test of $0.5\%$ CLC-added kimchi, the staled flavor was decreased, the crispness was maintained and the overall taste was increased to highest level after 15-day fermentation.

A Comparative Study of Salinity in Packaged Kimchi, Bulk Kimchi and Common Foods in Korea (한국에서 시판되고 있는 포장.비포장 김치와 상용 식품의 염도 비교)

  • Rho, Sook-Nyung;Yun, Mi-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2009
  • To determine the salinity of packaged Kimchi, bulk Kimchi and other common foods, we collected samples of foods from the Gyeonggi province area in October 2006 and determined the salinity levels in one serving portion. The average salinity of all foods was 0.226${\pm}$0.212%. The average salinity of all Kimchi samples was 0.401${\pm}$0.260. The average salinities of soups, stews, protein containing side dishes, vegetable side dishes and drinks were 0.153${\pm}$0.085%, 0.691${\pm}$0.213%, 0.151${\pm}$0.102%, 0.209${\pm}$0.121% and 0.080${\pm}$0.016%, respectively. The average salt intake of one serving of Kimchi was 0.125${\pm}$0.041 g, while the average salt intakes of one serving of the soups, stews, protein containing side dishes, vegetable side dishes and drinks were 0.306${\pm}$0.170 g, 1.382${\pm}$0.426 g, 0.094${\pm}$0.061 g, 0.146${\pm}$0.089 g, and 0.159${\pm}$0.152 g, respectively. The salinity of packaged Kimchi was significantly higher than the salinity of the bulk Kimchi (p < 0.01). In addition, the salinity of the liquid and solid stem portions of the packaged Kimchi was significantly higher than the salinity of the same sized portions of the bulk Kimehi (p<0.01). Furthermore, the salinity in the liquid and solid stern portions of the packaged mustard leaf Kimchi were significantly higher than the salinities of other types of Kimchi (p < 0.0001). The salinity of all Kimchi is higher than that of soup, protein containing side dishes, vegetable side dishes or drinks, but the salt content of one serving of Kimchi is lower than those of the soups or stews or vegetable side dishes or drinks (because one serving size of Kimchi is usually smaller than that of the other foods).

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Effects of Main Raw Material and Jeot-Kal (Fermented Fish Sauce) on Formation of N-nitrosamines During Kimchi Fermentation (김치 숙성중 니트로스아민의 생성에 대한 주원료 및 젓갈의 영향)

  • 신효선;김준환
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 1997
  • The effects of kind of vegetables and of the kind and amounts of fermented fish sauce on the formation of nitrosamine (NA) during kimchi fermentation were investigated. Kimchies made of Chinese cabbage, cucumber, and radish with fermented shrimp, anchovy and liquid sauces were fermented at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 6 weeks and the changes in the content of nitrate, nitrite, trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA) and NA were studied. Nitrate content in kimchies made of Chinese cabbage, cucumber, and radish increased at the initial period of fermentation, but it decreased at the later period. Nitrite was not detected at the later period of kimchi fermentation. Overall, there have not been great changes in the contents of nitrite and nitrate. However, there have been considrable changes in the contents of TMA and DMA as fermentation progressed. Only nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the level of 0.5~10.3 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg was formed in three kinds of kimchies. More NDMA was formed in radish and cucumber kimchies than in Chinese cabbage kimchi. The pH was lowered faster in radish and cucumber kimchies than in Chinese cabbage kimchi. More NDMA was formed in Chinese cabbage kimchi made with fermented shrimp sauce than those with anchovy or liquid sauces. Shrimp sauce contained higher amount of DAM than anchovy and liquid sauces. The contents of NDMA tended to increase as the amount of shrimp sauce increased. The kind and amount of fermented fish sauce used for kimchi preparation may be an important factor affecting the formation of NDMA.

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The Physico-chemical Changes and Sensory Characteristics of Kimchi Added with the Mashed Red Pepper (마쇄고추를 첨가한 김치의 이화학적 성분 변화 및 관능적 특성)

  • Hwang, Sung-Yeon;Park, So-Hee;Kang, Geun-Ok;Lee, Hyun-Ja;Bok, Jin-Heuing
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 2005
  • We investigated the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of Kimchi made with red pepper that was washed and mashed. The pH of juice from Kimchi made with red pepper powder was the highest on the day of Kimchi preparation. In the case of Kimchi made with mashed red pepper, the pH of juice and liquid was lower than that of other samples. A similar decrease in pH of juice and liquid was observed up to the second week of fermentation, but the significant difference between both samples wasn't found. The total acidity of Kimchi with mashed red pepper was significantly increased during early fermentation, but was similar during the second week, compared with that of Kimchi with red pepper powder. From the third week of storage, both juice and liquid from Kimchi made with red pepper powder was relatively increased. L and a value of liquid was highest in the case of Kimchi made with mashed red pepper, but b value was lowest during fermentation. In the case of organic acids, acetic acid and lactic acid contents were increased in Kimchi made with mashed red pepper while fermentation progressed. In addition, citric acid content was constant up to the second week in Kimchi made with mashed red pepper but from the third week wasn't detected in both Kimchi made with mashed red pepper and Kimchi made with red pepper powder. In the case of QDA(Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) profiles, the values of Kimchi made with mashed red pepper were significantly higher than those of Kimchi made with red pepper powder in respect to redness, pungency and fresh flavor immediately after the preparation of Kimchi and during the second week of fermentation, but during the fifth week the values were higher in respect to redness and fresh flavor of Kimchi. Appearance and overall acceptability was remarkably increased in Kimchi made with mashed red pepper, compared with that of Kimchi made with red pepper powder immediately after pickling, during the second and the fifth week of fermentation. Therefore, these results indicate that mashed red pepper increased more citric acid content, L and a value of Kimchi in comparison with red pepper powder, resulting in the good effects on overall acceptability due to the significant increase of redness and fresh flavor.

Studies on the Kimchi Pasteurization -Part 1. Method of Kimchi Pasteurization with Chinese Cabbage Kimchi and its Effect on the Storage- (김치의 순간살균방법(瞬間殺菌方法) -제1보(第-報). 배추 김치의 순간살균방법(瞬間殺菌方法)과 살균효과(殺菌效果)-)

  • Lee, Nam-Jin;Chun, Jae-Kun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 1981
  • A Kimchi pasteurizer consisting of preheating, holding, cooling and liquid separation sections was built with copper tubing coil and glasses. The liquid portion of a Chiness Cabbage Kimchi prepared with 3% NaCl solution was preheated and held for 3 minutes at sterilization temperature. Thereafter it was cooled momentarily and recombined with the untreated solid part of Kimchi At four different temperatures of $68^{\circ}$, $75^{\circ}$, $81^{\circ}$ and $85^{\circ}C$ Kimchi was sterilized and examined for the sterilization effects by measuring acid and pH changes of the Kimchi when stored at $15^{\circ}C$. The shelf-life of sterilized Kimchi was prolonged by two folds compared with the untreated one. When Kimchi was sterilized at different maturing stages. the less cured one prolonged its shelf-life more effectively.

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Determination of the Calcium Contents of Vegetables Sprayed with Liquid Calcium Fertilizer and Fermentation Characteristics of Kimchi using Ca-treated Korean cabbage (액상 칼슘비료 시비 농작물의 칼슘 함유량 조사 및 칼슘시비 배추를 이용한 김치의 발효특성)

  • Shin, Hyun-Jae;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Kim, Bok-Hee
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.255-259
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    • 2007
  • Liquid calcium fertilizer evenly dispersed has been prepared using calcium carbonate powder and several surfactants. The calcium contents of nine fruits and vegetables were compared after spraying the liquid fertilizer onto the leaf of them six times for 2 months. The calcium contents of cabbage and potato increased to 155% and 154%, respectively. In addition, by virtue of the relatively high contents of calcium, rigidities of the texture were also increased, which would result in higher value-added vegetables. Kimchi was prepared using a Korean cabbage sprayed with the liquid calcium fertilizer and its fermentation characteristics were analyzed. A sensory evaluation has been performed to give the best result for a calcium Kimchi fermented for 14 days.

Inhibitory Effect of Korean Fermented Vegetable (Kimchi) on the Growth and Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus parasicitus-Part 1.

  • Kim, Jong-Gyu;Lee, Kyung-Min
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.190-194
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    • 2007
  • Aflatoxin $B_1$ is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and is a human carcinogen. This study was performed to investigate reduction of growth and aflatoxin production of A. parasiticus by kimchi. A. parasiticus was grown in a modified APT broth with the juice of kimchi (at a concentration of 7%) at $28^{\circ}C$ for 9 days. Aflatoxin $B_1$ was determined by use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The addition of the juice of kimchi significantly reduced mycelial growth and aflatoxin production during the incubation period (p<0.05). Reduction of mycelial growth of A. parasiticus as the result of addition of the juice of kimchi was observed to range between 64.8 to 83.4% while reduction of aflatoxin production ranged from 62.2 to 73.0%. This study indicates that kimchi could be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin production although mycelial growth may be permitted. More research is needed to study the inhibitory effects of the metabolites of kimchi.

Biosynthesis of L-Ascorbic Acid by Microorganisms in Kimchi Fermentation Process

  • Cheigh, Hong-Sik;Rina Yu;Park, Hyun-Jeong;Jun, Hong-Ki
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-40
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    • 1996
  • Kinchi is and important source of various vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, organic acids and other nutrients. In order to get a basic information for developing vitamins-rich funtional kimchi, we investigated microorganisms which are capable of synthesis of vitamin C in Kimchi system. Microorganisms isolated from aliquots of kimchi were screened and cultured by using MRS or nutrient agar medium. L-Ascorbic acid produced by microorganism in medium was measured with high performance liquid chromatography. As the result, we isolated two bacteria strins N7 and N5202 preducing L-ascorbic acid from the kimchi system. Morphological and Gram staining experiment showed that N7 was Gram positive bacilli, while N5202 was Gram negative. There were also several bacteria that were considered to synthesizs erythorbic acid which is an analog of ascorbic acid. These results suggested that vitamin C-rich functional food could be developed by using the kimchi microorganisms.

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