• Title, Summary, Keyword: lactation sows

Search Result 74, Processing Time 0.041 seconds

Dietary supplementation with different types of fiber in gestation and lactation: effects on sow serum biochemical values and performance

  • Weng, Ruey-Chee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1323-1331
    • /
    • 2020
  • Objective: Three types of dietary fiber were fed to sows during gestation and lactation stages to monitor their physiological and metabolic adaptations during the pre-partum period and to determine how these effects may influence the lactation period and sow performance. Methods: Soon after breeding, 54 sows were selected and were fed with 20% supplementation as fed of wheat bran (WB), soya hulls (SH), or rice hulls (RH) in diets during gestation and lactation. Sows were weighed, backfat thickness was measured ultrasonically and jugular blood samples were collected from all sows. The litter size was equalized to 10, by fostering piglets from sows on the same treatment. Results: Sows gained 22.0, 21.8, and 25.5 kg of net maternal body weight during gestation (for WB, SH, and RH sows, respectively; p = 0.007). There was no treatment effect on the body weight change during lactation (p = 0.158), however RH sows consumed an average of 133.66 kg of feed, WB sows took 121.29 kg and SH sows took 126.77 kg during lactation (p<0.001). The SH litters gained an average of 59.34 kg of weight during lactation, while other litters gained 51.58 and 49.98 kg (for WB and RH litters, respectively; p<0.001). Exception for aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, measured serum biochemical values were broadly in agreement with earlier reports. Despite the use of additional vegetable oil to balance the energy level, RH sows still had lower concentrations of serum triglycerides in late gestation. Conclusion: Different types of fibrous ingredients in the gestation diet influenced most of the investigated reference values for sows. The values of serum biochemical parameters were generally not affected by fiber type during the lactation stage. The SH supplementation for sows is an effective approach to give heavier litters at birth and weaning and to increase voluntary feed intake in early lactation.

Effects of Carbohydrase Supplement on Lactation Performance of Primiparous Sows Fed Corn-Soybean Meal Based Lactation Diet

  • Ji, F.;Kim, S.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.533-537
    • /
    • 2004
  • The experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplementing diets of lactating first parity sows with a mixture of carbohydrases (CS) improves lactation performance and second parity reproductive performance. The CS used in this study contained 7 units/g of $\alpha$-1,6-galactosidase, 22 units/g of $\beta$-1,4-mannanase, $\beta$-1,4-mannosidase and trace amounts of other enzymes. Twenty primiparous sows (Newsham Hybrid) were allotted to either the control group (no CS supplement) or the CS group (0.1% CS supplement) and fed the experimental diets during 21 d lactation period. Sows and nursing pigs were weighed at birth and weekly until weaning. Days of weaning-to-estrus were recorded. Sows had free access to feed and water. Feed intake of sows was measured daily. During the second parity gestation and lactation, all the sows were fed the same gestation and lactation diets and their reproductive performance was measured. During the second parity, there were 14 sows (7 sows per group) remained productive. For the first lactation, maternal body weight loss of the CS group was smaller (p<0.05) than that of the control group. There was no difference in litter weight gain between two groups. Voluntary feed intake of sows did not differ between the two groups. Days of weaning-to-estrus of the CS group were smaller (p<0.05) than those of the control group. In the second parity, there was no difference in the reproductive performance between the two groups. In conclusion, supplementing CS in the diet of lactating sows during the first parity decreased body weight loss and days of weaning-to-estrus of sows. However, these effects of the CS supplementation in the first parity were not successfully carried over to the second parity.

Oxidative stress status and reproductive performance of sows during gestation and lactation under different thermal environments

  • Zhao, Yan;Kim, Sung Woo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.5
    • /
    • pp.722-731
    • /
    • 2020
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted using 28 healthy multiparous sows to evaluate the oxidative stress status and reproductive performance of sows during gestation and lactation under different thermal environments. Methods: Fourteen multiparous sows were used in Exp. 1 under a high thermal environment, and the other 14 multiparous sows were used in Exp. 2 under a moderate thermal environment. In both experiments, reproductive performances of sows were recorded. Plasma samples were collected on d 35, 60, 90, and 109 of gestation, and d 1 and 18 of lactation for malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine, immunoglobulin g (IgG), and IgM analysis. Results: For sows in Exp. 1, plasma malondialdehyde concentration on d 109 of gestation tended to be greater (p<0.05) than it on d 18 of lactation. Plasma concentration of protein carbonyl on d 109 of gestation was the greatest (p<0.05) compared with all the other days. Plasma concentrations of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine on d 109 of gestation was greater (p<0.05) than d 18 of lactation in Exp. 1. For sows in Exp. 2, there was no difference of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl concentration during gestation and lactation. In both Exp. 1 and 2, litter size and litter weight were found to be negatively correlated with oxidative stress indicators. Conclusion: Sows under a high thermal environment had increased oxidative stress during late gestation indicating that increased oxidative damage to lipid, protein, and DNA could be one of the contributing factors for reduced reproductive performance of sows in this environment. This study indicates the importance of providing a moderate thermal environment to gestating and lactating sows to minimize the increase of oxidative stress during late gestation which can impair reproductive outcomes.

Effects of saccharin (sweetener) supplementation on growth performance, fecal moisture and litter performance of lactating sows

  • Liang, Xiangxue;Lee, Sang In;Lee, Il Seok;Cho, Jin Ho;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.44 no.2
    • /
    • pp.228-234
    • /
    • 2017
  • Feed intake (FI) of sows during lactation is a serious problem because sows require a large amount of energy for high milk production during lactation. Providing a palatable diet is important for lactating sows to cope with the stress of breast-feeding. Palatability can be increased by adding sweeteners to diets. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of saccharin (sweetener) on growth performance, fecal moisture, and litter performance of lactating sows. Sixteen sows were randomly allotted to one of two dietary treatments in a 27-day trial starting from lactation. The two dietary treatments were supplemented with 0 and 0.2% saccharin (sweetener), respectively. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased (p < 0.05) and back fat loss (BFL) was decreased (p < 0.05) in sows fed saccharin supplementation diets compared with sows fed control diet during lactation. However, sows' body weight loss, body condition score (BCS), fecal score, and the number of piglet survival were not different (p > 0.05) among dietary treatments. The two dietary treatments also had no significantly different effect (p > 0.05) on litter weight and average daily gain (ADG) of piglets. Taken together, saccharin has no significant effect on growth performance of piglets but it can increase FI and reduce BFL of lactating sows.

Effects of different parities on productive performance of lactating sows (산차가 비유모돈의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Minho;Kim, Do-Myung;Choi, Kyu-Myung;Seo, Seongwon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.39 no.3
    • /
    • pp.365-369
    • /
    • 2012
  • Fast recovery of feed intake and milk production are very important in the management of lactating sows because they are directly related to sow and litter performance. It is also known that parity is one of factors affecting feed intake and milk yield during lactation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different parities on productive performance of lactating sows fed diets containing different levels of DDGS. A total of 245 sows were divided into 3 parity groups of 1 to 2, 3 to 5, and over 5 parities. Within each parity group, sows were allottedto 1 of 4 dietary treatments that were prepared by inclusion of 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS in lactation diets. Diets were fed to sows during lactation. Sows with parities 1-2 had lower (p < 0.05) initial sow body weight, sow feed intake, sow weight change, and sow backfat change during lactation than sows with parities 3-5 as well as parities over 5. However, sows with parities over 5 had lower (p < 0.05) litter size at weaning, litter birth weight, litter weaning weight, and piglet average daily gain and higher pre-weaning mortality than sows with parities 1-2 as well as parities 3-5. In conclusion, parity influences productive performance of lactating sows.

Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on physiological responses, reproductive performance, blood profiles, and milk composition in primiparous sows

  • Hong, Jinsu;Fang, Lin Hu;Kim, Yoo Yong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.62 no.3
    • /
    • pp.334-347
    • /
    • 2020
  • The adequate intake of energy and lysine for primiparous sows are necessary for maternal growth of sows and growth of their progeny. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on primiparous sows and their progeny. A total of 48 gilts (Yorkshire × Landrace), with an initial body weight (BW) of 168.1 ± 9.71 kg and at day 35 of gestation, were allotted to eight treatment groups with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The first factor was metabolizable energy levels in diet (3,265 or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was lysine levels in diet (gestation 0.55%, 0.65%, 0.75%, 0.85%, lactation 0.70%, 0.85%, 1.00%, 1.15%). The BW gain (p = 0.07) and backfat thickness (p = 0.09) in the gestation period showed a tendency to be increased in sows fed the high-energy diets. In the lactation period, sows fed the high-energy diets tended to be greater BW (p = 0.09) and less BW loss (p = 0.05) than those of sows fed the low-energy diets. Sows fed high-energy diets had a tendency of greater piglet weight at day 21 of lactation and greater piglet weight gain (p = 0.08 and p = 0.08, respectively). Although the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was increased linearly as dietary lysine level increased at day 110 of gestation (Linear, p = 0.03), the BUN was decreased linearly as dietary lysine level increase at day 21 of lactation (Linear, p < 0.01). In the composition of colostrum, sows fed high-energy diets had greater casein, protein, total solid, solid not fat, and free fatty acid concentrations than those of sows fed low-energy diets (p < 0.05). Supplementation of total lysine 0.75% for gestation and 1.00% for lactation with 3,365 kcal of ME/kg energy level could be applied to the primiparous sows' diet to improve performance of sows and growth of their progeny.

Effects of Yeast Culture Supplementation to Gestation and Lactation Diets on Growth of Nursing Piglets

  • Kim, Sung Woo;Brandherm, Mike;Freeland, Mike;Newton, Betsy;Cook, Doug;Yoon, Ilkyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.21 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1011-1014
    • /
    • 2008
  • A total of 335 sows at a commercial operation (Hitch Pork Producers Inc, Guymon, OK) was used to determine dietary effects of yeast culture supplementation ($XPC^{TM}$, Diamond V Mills) on litter performance. Sows were grouped by parity (parity 1 to 12). Pigs within a group were then allotted to treatments. Treatments consisted of: CON (no added yeast culture) and YC (12 and 15 g/d XPC during gestation and lactation, respectively). Sows were housed individually and fed their assigned gestation and lactation diets from d 35 of gestation to d 21 of lactation. Sows were fed 2.0 kg/d during gestation and ad libitum during lactation. Voluntary feed intake was measured daily during lactation. At farrowing, numbers of pigs born total and alive were measured. Weights of litters were measured at birth and weaning on d 21 of lactation. Litter weight gain of the YC treatment was 6.9% greater (p<0.01) than that of the CON. However, voluntary feed intake of sows and litter size did not differ between treatments. This study indicates that dietary yeast culture supplementation benefits sow productivity by improving litter weight gain. At present, it is not confirmed if improved litter weight gain was due to milk production, which remains to be investigated.

The Comparison of the Behavior between Miniature Pigs and Conventional Sows during Gestation to Lactation Period (미니돼지 및 일반 돼지의 임신기, 분만 및 포유기 중의 모돈의 행동학적 특성 비교)

  • Kang, Kyung-Won;Choi, Young-Hwan;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Yoo-Yong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.52 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-64
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to compare the aspects of behavior between miniature pigs and conventional sows during gestation and lactation periods. Miniature pigs and conventional sows at 3 parity were used in this experiment with 4 pigs per treatment. The behavioral patterns and stereotyped behaviors were observed on day 60 and 90 of gestation, at farrowing, and on day 10 of lactation before and after the feeding. On 60 and 90 days of pregnancy, both treatments showed the tendency of frequent lateral lying rather than other postures. On ventral lying, eating and drinking, miniature pigs spent more time than conventional pigs at day 90 of gestation (P<0.01, P=0.0539, P<0.05, respectively). The occurrence of stereotyped behaviors included bar biting and bar mouth chewing. At 90 day of pregnancy was observed, conventional pigs was higher than miniature pigs (P<0.05). At farrowing, miniature pigs spent more time on ventral lying, standing and walking than conventional sows (P<0.05), however, there were more frequency of drinking and eating. And on day 10 of lactation, there was no significant difference in stereotyped behaviors between miniature pigs and conventional sows. In conclusion, miniature pigs were generally more sensitive than conventional sows although sows were reared in stall during gestation and lactation period and the behavioral pattern during lactating period showed the similarity between miniature pigs and conventional sows for protection of nursing pigs. In consideration of the general reproductive performance of conventional sows, the high sensitivity and stress of miniature pigs did not affect the reproductive performance of miniature pigs.

Factors Affecting Reproductive Performance in the Nepalese Pakhribas Pig: Effects of Nutrition and Housing during Lactation

  • Shrestha, N.P.;Edwards, S.A.;English, P.R.;Robertson, J.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.644-649
    • /
    • 2003
  • The effects of housing and nutrition on the performance of first lactation sows of the Nepalese Pakhribas breed were investigated. A total of 36 sows, from a previous experiment on nutrition during gilt rearing, were allocated according to a factorial design with 2 levels of nutrition, 60 or 80% of the calculated lactation requirement, and two types of housing, traditional or improved. The mean live weight loss of sows during lactation was reduced to a slightly greater extent by improved housing (p<0.05) than by better nutrition (p<0.10). There was also a significantly lower loss of $P_2$ backfat thickness (p<0.05) and mean body condition score (p<0.05) for sows on the higher plane of nutrition. Piglet weight gain in early and mid lactation was influenced by gestation feeding of the gilt (p<0.10) and by housing (p<0.05). Late lactation gain was influenced only by lactation feeding (p<0.05). In consequence, piglet weight at 42 day weaning was increased to a similar extent by improved housing (p<0.05) and better lactation nutrition (p<0.01). Significantly more sows were remated by day 10 after weaning from a higher level of rearing nutrition ($x^2=13.57$, p=0.001), and from improved housing and improved lactation (both $x^2=4.57$, p=0.033). It is concluded that, under Nepalese village conditions, improvements in housing may be a more cost effective way of improving sow performance than expenditure on additional feed resources.

Evaluation of seasonal effects on production performance of lactation sows reared in two different environments in South Korea

  • Yin, Jia;Yan, Lei;Kim, Inho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.46 no.3
    • /
    • pp.417-426
    • /
    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to evaluate seasonal effects on production performance of lactation sows reared in two different environments in South Korea. A total of 76 sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) from the Dankook University experimental farm and 120 sows ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$) from a commercial farm were collected. In the current study, reduced (p < 0.01) feed intake and energy intake during lactation were observed in warm season compared with cool season in both farms. Sows in cool season had higher backfat thickness at weaning but lower back fat loss (p < 0.01) than those in warm season. The weaning to estrus interval was lower (p < 0.01) in cool season than in warm season. Piglets weaned in warm season had lower (p < 0.01) body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and average daily gain (ADG) at weaning than did those weaned in cool season on the Dankook University farm, whereas the reduction effect was only observed during 0 - 21 d on the commercial farm (p < 0.01). Moreover, piglets weaned in cool season had higher BW, BWG, and ADG (p < 0.05) on both farms. In conclusion, our results indicate that warm season had very negative effects on feed intake and production performance of lactating sows and piglets.