• Title, Summary, Keyword: lactic acid-fermented garlic

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Organosulfur Compounds in Fermented Garlic Extracts and the Effects on Alcohol Induced Cytotoxicity in CYP2E1-Transfected HepG2 Cells (유산균발효마늘의 유기황화합물과 CYP2E1-Transfected HepG2 Cell에서 알코올 유발 세포독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Eun-Bong;Choi, Ji-Hwi;Yu, Heui-Jong;Kim, Ki-Ho;Lee, Sung-Ku;Hwang, Young-Il;Lee, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we investigated changes in the organosulfur compounds of garlic (by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria) and the effects of these fermented garlic extracts on alcohol-induced cytotoxicity in CYP2E1-transfected HepG2 cells. Lactobacillus plantarum has the highest growth rate in a garlic medium and the S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) in fermented garlic extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus were significantly higher compared to other lactic acid bacteria strains (p<0.05). The SAC, S-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl cysteine (SMC) in garlic extracts were all increased by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. However, alliin in the fermented garlic extracts with lactic acid bacteria strains was lower than the original garlic extract and the contents of cycloalliin in the garlic extracts did not change with fermentation (p<0.05). The electron donating ability of the fermented garlic extracts increased with dose. The electron donating ability of the fermented garlic extract with L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus was over 90% efficient at 5 mg/g. The fermented garlic extracts (with lactic acid bacteria) and garlic extract were not influenced, up to $100{\mu}g/mL$, in CYPE1-transfected HepG2 cells. The CYPE1-transfected HepG2 cell viabilities were 92.60% and 92.23% when treated with both alcohol (200 mM) and fermented garlic extract ($100{\mu}g/mL$) with lactic acid bacteria respectively, for 6 days.

Effect of Kimchi and Its Ingredients on the Growth of Helicobacter pylori

  • Jung, Keun-Ok;Kil, Jeung-Ha;Kim, Kwang-Hyuk;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 2003
  • Effects of kimchi and its ingredients, vitamin C and $\beta$-sitosterol on the growth of Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Three kimchi variations were studied: a standard recipe (kimchi I) and two functional variations for cancer prevention and treatment made with organically grown ingredients (kimch II and III). Methanol extracts and juices from kimchi I and III did not inhibit the growth of H. pylori. However, 10 mm and 12 mm inhibition zones were formed by methanol extract and juice from kimchi II, which had higher concentrations of red pepper powder (RPP) than those of kimchi I and III. Among the major kimchi ingredients, methanol extracts of RPP, garlic and ginger substantially inhibited the growth of H. pylori. The maximal inhibition zone (30 mm) was attained with garlic treatment. Inhibitory effects of the RPP, garlic and the sub-ingredient mixture (prepared with radish, garlic, RPP, ginger, green onion, sugar and fermented anchovy juice) on H. pylori were decreased by lactic acid bacteria fermentation. Neither the fermented garlic nor the fermented sub-ingredient mixture inhibited the growth of H. pylori. But, the inhibition Bone of fermented RPP was 12 mm, which was less than the 16 mm inhibition zone formed by the non-fermented RPP. Vitamin C and $\beta$-sitosterol which are known to be functional active compounds of kimchi also showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori after 3 days of incubation. Further study is needed to determine why the inhibitory effect is removed or decreased by lactic acid fermentation, and to determine if fresh kimchi and lactic acid bacteria of kimchi can inhibit the growth of H. pylori.

Biological Activities of Solid-fermentation Garlic with Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lactic acid bacteria를 이용한 마늘 고체 발효에 따른 생리활성)

  • Lee, Jung-Bok;Joo, Woo-Hong;Kwon, Gi-Seok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.446-452
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    • 2016
  • Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its extracts have been used in a wide range of applications, including as folk medicines in many Asian countries. This traditional herb has several functional properties and strong biological activities, making it useful as a functional food material. This study investigated the biological activities of solid-garlic after fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Several solid-garlic fermentation strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Korean traditional fermented food or obtained from the Korean Collection for Type Cultures. Lactic acid bacteria showed selective growth in garlic extracts on MRS media. Fermentation of solid garlic (heated 121℃, 15 min or not heated) by lactic acid bacteria gave total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of 731.0-845.2 g/g and 92.68-413.58 g/g, respectively. The DPPH scavenging activities and SOD like activities were measured as 7,584% and 9499%, respectively. These activities were relatively higher than a positive control, vitamin C. Measurement of antidiabetic activity using α-glucosidase inhibition assay showed that solid garlic fermented with lactic acid bacteria gave a higher activity than the control, acarbose. Fermentation of solid garlic with lactic acid bacteria may therefore help to alleviate adverse biological activities, as well as provide functional food materials.

Changes of Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Compounds in Kimchis Fermented with Different Ingredients (재료의 종류에 따른 김치의 유기산 및 휘발성 향미 성분의 변화)

  • Ryu, Jai-Yeon;Lee, Hye-Seong;Rhee, Hei-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1984
  • The changes of the content of organic acids, carbon dioxide, alcohols and carbonyl compounds of the various Kimchis which were made of cabbage with green onion, garlic, ginger or red pepper and fermented at $12^{\circ}C-16^{\circ}C$ were investigated. Nonvolatile organic acids identified were lactic, succinic, fumaric and malic acid. Volatile organic acids identified were acetic, formic, propionic, butyric, valeric, n-caproic and n-heptanoic acid. Carbonyl compounds identified were acetaldehyde and acetone. The content of lactic acid was increased with fermentation, and higher in Kimchis containing red pepper, garlic and green onion. The content of acetic acid was increased with fermentation, especially in Kimchi containing garlic. The content of carbon dioxide was higher in Kimchi containing garlic. Alcohols identified in all Kimchis was only ethanol. Carbonyl compounds had no direct effect on off-flavor of Kimchi.

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Changes of Index Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria of Korean Fermented Vegetables (Kimchi) during the Ripening and Fermentation-Part 1 (김치의 숙성 및 발효중 오염지표미생물과 유산균의 변화-제1보)

  • Kim, Jong-Gyu;Yoon, Joon-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2005
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the changes of index microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria of traditional Korean fermented vegetables (kimchi) during the ripening and fermentation period. A type of kimchi, baechoo-kimchi, was prepared and stored at $10^{\circ}C$ for 8 days. The numbers of the total aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and Escherichia coli in the kimchi and also in raw materials of the kimchi (Chinese cabbage, green onion, ginger, garlic, and red pepper) were counted using appropriate media. The highest number of aerobic bacteria was detected from ginger, then red pepper, then garlic, then Chinese cabbage, and lowest number from green onion. The highest number of psychrotrophilic bacteria was detected from red pepper, then Chinese cabbage, then garlic, then ginger, and the lowest number from green onion. Coliforms and E. coli were not detected from all of the raw materials of kimchi. Total aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria of the kimchi showed gradually increasing during ripening and fermentation. The number of psychrotrophilic bacteria showed a similar level in the kimchi. Coliform bacteria were detected at the 3rd, 4th, and 5th day of the kimchi fermentation period, although they were not detected from the raw materials of the kimchi. However, the bacteria were not detected in the kimchi after 6 days. E. coli was not detected in all kimchi samples. The pH value of the kimchi gradually decreased, and acidity increased over fermentation period. This study indicates that there was contamination of coliform bacteria during the process of kimchi preparation, and lactic acid bacteria proliferated in the kimchi during fermentation inhibited the growth of coliforms. More research is needed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of each raw materials of kimchi.

Inhibition of Yeast Film Formation in Fermented Vegetables by Materials Derived from Garlic Using Cucumber Pickle Fermentation as a Model System

  • Le-Dinh, Hung;Kyung, Kyu-Hang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.469-473
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    • 2006
  • Film-forming yeasts generate an undesirable yeasty flavor in fermented vegetables such as kimchi in the presence of oxygen. Antimicrobial materials including garlic oil (GO), heated garlic (HG), and allyl alcohol (AA) were investigated for use as alternative natural food preservatives to inhibit the growth of film-forming yeasts in fermented vegetables. Using the fermentation of cucumber pickles as a model system, GO, HG, and AA were effective in preventing film formation at concentrations of 0.006, 3.0, and 0.02%, respectively. The effectiveness of HG in preventing the growth of a film yeast, Hansenula anomala, was not influenced by pH, while that of potassium sorbate, a typical anti-yeast food preservative, was highly dependent on pH. All tested materials were effective when added at the beginning of fermentation due to their negligible inhibitory activity toward lactic acid bacteria.

Effect of Garlic Powder on Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Yogurt (마늘 분말의 첨가가 요구르트의 제조와 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Ja-Rae;Kim, Ju-Hee;In, Man-Jin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.48-52
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    • 2007
  • Yogurt base was prepared from skim milk supplemented with 0.2-1.0% (w/v) garlic powder and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (the mixed strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum and Streptococcus thermophilus) at 40$^{\circ}C$ for 18 h. Quality characteristics of the prepared yogurt were evaluated for acid production (pH and titratable acidity), number of viable cells, viscosity and sensory properties. The addition of garlic powder inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria and decreased the acid production. After 18 h incubation, titratable acidity of garlic yogurt was 1.28-1.08% and was lower than that (1.35%) of yogurt made with only skim milk. However, the viscosity of yogurt was remarkably increased by the addition of garlic powder. The sensory score of yogurt added with 0.2% garlic powder was similar to ordinary yogurt in flavor and overall acceptability. According to sensory score and fermentation characteristics, the optimum concentration of garlic powder was around 0.2%.

Characteristics of Seasoning Soy Sauce with Added Saccharina japonica Powder Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (유산균 발효 다시마(Saccharina japonica) 분말이 첨가된 조미간장의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, In-Seon;Song, Ho-Su
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.613-622
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated changes in the quality and antioxidant activity of soy sauce with added Saccharina japonica powder (FSP). Soy sauce was prepared with acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce, brewed soy sauce, honey, ginger, garlic, dried red pepper, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched sea tangle fermented in lactic acid, and 1% or 3% S. japonica powder by soy sauce volume. The color, pH, microbiology, amino nitrogen, free amino acids, antioxidant activity, and sensory qualities of the soy sauce were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the general characteristics or antioxidant activity. However, the addition of FSP to the soy sauce enhanced the delicate flavor. Furthermore, soy sauce containing FSP had higher levels of GABA (50 mg/100 mL), a biofunctional ingredient. Therefore, the development of seasoning soy sauce with enhanced functionality seems possible.

Hepatoprotective Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Garlic Extracts on Fatty Liver-Induced Mouse by Alcohol (알코올성 지방간을 유발시킨 마우스에서 유산균 발효 마늘추출물의 간 보호 효과)

  • Choi, Ji-Hwi;Kim, Min-Seok;Yu, Heui-Jong;Kim, Ki-Ho;Lee, Hee-Seop;Cho, Hong-Yon;Lee, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1642-1647
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of garlic extracts fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum on alcohol-induced fatty liver damage in C57BL/6J mice. The weight of liver tissue of the lactic acid-fermented garlic extract (LAFGE) diet groups decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to that of the normal diet group. The activities of typical serum enzymes such as ALT, AST, and ALP were low in the LAFGE 200 mg/kg administered group. The LAFGE 200 mg/kg administered group significantly decreased values of TBIL and DBIL, which are an important index of liver damage. LAFGE also ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in histological analysis dose-dependently. In addition, total GSH and reduced GSH levels in LAFGE-treated groups were gradually recovered up to normal levels. The present study revealed that LAFGE improved unique tastes and odors of raw garlic through lactic acid fermentation technology and thus could be a commercially potential material for hepatoprotective functional foods against alcoholic fatty liver.

Ameliorating Effects of Lactic Acid-fermented Garlic Extracts on Oleic Acid-induced Hepatic Steatosis (유산균 발효 마늘 추출물의 oleic acid로 유도된 비알코올성 지방간에 대한 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Hee-Seop;Lim, Won-Chul;Choi, Ji-Hwi;Yu, Heui-Jong;Kim, Ki-Ho;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Cho, Hong-Yon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.762-768
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the ameliorating effects of lactic acid-fermented garlic extract (LAFGE) on non-alcoholic fatty liver were investigated using oleic acid-induced steatotic HepG2 cells. The ameliorating mechanism was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Treatment with 1 mg/mL LAFGE decreased intracellular lipid accumulation approximately 1.5-fold, compared to that achieved with non-fermented garlic extract. LAFGE reduced fatty acid influx into hepatocytes through down-regulation of FAT/CD36 mRNA expression in the steatotic HepG2 cells. $PPAR{\alpha}$ and CPT-1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by LAFGE treatment of HepG2 cells as a consequence of activation of beta oxidation. Additionally, the treatment with 1 mg/mL LAFGE highly down-regulated mRNA expression of SREBP-1c and FAS to 51% and 35%, respectively. LAFGE showed concentration-dependent down-regulation patterns in protein expression of SREBP-1c and FAS, as determined by Western blot. These results suggest that LAFGE treatment improves hepatic steatosis triggered by the imbalance of hepatic lipid metabolism owing to oleic acid treatment.