• Title, Summary, Keyword: last digit

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ON THE LAST DIGIT AND THE LAST NON-ZERO DIGIT OF nn IN BASE b

  • Grau, Jose Maria;Oller-Marcen, Antonio M.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.1325-1337
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    • 2014
  • In this paper we study the sequences defined by the last and the last non-zero digits of $n^n$ in base b. For the sequence given by the last digits of $n^n$ in base b, we prove its periodicity using different techniques than those used by W. Sierpinski and R. Hampel. In the case of the sequence given by the last non-zero digits of $n^n$ in base b (which had been studied only for b = 10) we show the non-periodicity of the sequence when b is an odd prime power and when it is even and square-free. We also show that if $b=2^2{^s}$ the sequence is periodic and conjecture that this is the only such case.

Online Digit Recognition using Start and End Point

  • Shim, Jae-chang;Ansari, Md Israfil
    • Journal of Multimedia Information System
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 2017
  • Communication between human and machine is having been researched from last few decades and still it's a challenging task because human behavior is unpredictable. When it comes on handwritten digits almost each human has their own writing style. Handwritten digit recognition plays an important role, especially in the courtesy amounts on bank checks, postal code on mail address etc. In our study, we proposed an efficient feature extraction system for recognizing single digit number drawn by mouse or by a finger on a screen. Our proposed method combines basic image processing and reading the strokes of a line drawn. It is very simple and easy to implement in various platform as compare to the system which required high system configuration. This system has been designed, implemented, and tested successfully.

THE WIN-WIN SOLUTION FOR MOBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

  • Lee Inwon;Park Eunmi;Lee Joo-heon
    • Proceedings of the KOR-KST Conference
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 1998
  • The current increases in fuel price contribute to reducing level of congestion and air pollution. In this paper, this measure is compared with the congestion toll charge and the 10 'buje'(a $10\%$ demand control measure of registered vehicle i.e. each vehicle can not operate when its plate's last digit matches the last digit of the date). The purpose of our study is to give a priority order to various measures and to propose the win-win solution of Seoul for policy makers. We recommend the congestion toll charge coupled with some metering measures is the win-win solution for Seoul. Also we conclude a priority order such as metering; congestion toll charge; increase in parking fee; increase in fuel price; the 10 'buje' must be acceptable for implementation. Various ITS subsystems needed to support the proposed win-win solution are identified and field operational tests for them are introduced in this paper.

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Studies on the Nomenclature of Korean Fermented Foods (한국 발효식품의 분류법에 관한 연구)

  • Mheen, Tae-Ick;Kwon, Tai-Wan;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.237-240
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    • 1981
  • A nomenclature method for Korean fermented foods was developed in order to apply this to the international nomenclature system for fermented foods. It is made by a four digit number; the first digit indicates the major ingredient used, the second for fermentation method, the third for major type of microorganism, and the last digit for the type of consumption. Following the nomenclature number, a detailed description of product is given. Examples of application of the nomenclature system to Korean fermented foods are shown.

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A Study on Koreans ISDN/NSN Numbering Plan (한국의 ISDN/NSN 번호전환계획 구상)

  • Heo, Sung;Jong, Sang-Gug;Chin, Yong-Ohk
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.115-127
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    • 1991
  • In this paper. we dIscussed wIth the ISDN numberIng system of Korea 2digIt of NDC(National Destination Code)is assigned to the common carrier indenttification and an other the service network identification code as conbining the flIst and second dIgIt. The last ot NDC is applicable to for each area code. Resulty. we become 10 digit number for toll system vice 7 digit for local numbering. It is satisfactory to CCITT recommandtion and also. We has been suggested that existing network the mobile. pagget, FAX, TELEX and public networks are able to be connetcted to the ISDN. Near the 1994. we guess that it is fully occupied with 7 digit number to the metropolitan area to solve this problem, after divide to 3 part provincial area southern. nothem and mid-Korea. We suggested that special number system are reorganized with the new and existing service numbers plan. Although, we don't deal with the SA of ISDN numbering systems. Resultly, know that we are to design efficiently number system as 3 digit code for ISDN/NSN.

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A case of polydactylic polymelia with an extra pelvic limb attached at the left pelvic region in a fowl (발가락과다증(polydactyly)인 1개의 여분의 뒷다리가 왼쪽 둔부위에 부착된 닭의 다리과다증(polymelia) 1례)

  • Kim, Chong-sup;Won, Chung-kil;Ha, Jeung-key;Yeon, Seong-chan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2001
  • The abnormal female fowl (Arbor Acres broiler) of 40-day-old, which was polymelia with polydactyly was observed macroscopically and radiographically. An extra pelvic limb was attached at the left pelvic region. The extra pelvic limb consisted of an underdeveloped and malformed Os coxae like bone, femur like bone, tibia and fibula like bones, tarsal and metatarsal like bones, and five digits. The tarsal bones of two normal pelvic limbs and one extra pelvic limb were not fused with tibia and metatarsal bones respectively. The metatarsus of extra pelvic limb consisted of a single bone derived from several components. In a case of normal, first metatarsal bone remains independent. However in this case. all of metatarsal bones were fused. The extra pelvic limb was polydactyly. The digits consisted of the first and extra digit of three. the second and third of four. and the fourth of five phalanges. In each toe the last phalanx was pointed and formed the claw. The first and the second digits were polyphalangia [hyperphalangia]. The extra digit was microdactylia and brachydactyly.

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Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Patients with Shunted Hydrocephalus

  • Bakar, Emel Erdogan;Bakar, Bulent
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2010
  • Objective : This study is planned to determine the neurocognitive difficulties of hydrocephalic adults. Methods : The research group contained healthy adults (control group, n : 15), and hydrocephalic adults (n : 15). Hydrocephalic group consisted of patients with idiopathic aquaduct stenosis and post-meningitis hydrocephalus. All patients were followed with shunted hydrocephalus and not gone to shunt revision during last two years. They were chosen from either asymptomatic or had only minor symptoms without motor and sensorineural deficit. A neuropsychological test battery (Raven Standart Progressive Matrices, Bender-Gestalt Test, Cancellation Test, Clock Drawing Test, Facial Recognition Test, Line Orientation Test, Serial Digit Learning Test, Stroop Color Word Interference Test-TBAG Form, Verbal Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Visual-Aural Digit Span Test-B) was applied to all groups. Results : Neuropsychological assessment of hydrocephalic patients demonstrated that they had poor performance on visual, semantic and working memory, visuoconstructive and frontal functions, reading, attention, motor coordination and executive function of parietal lobe which related with complex and perseverative behaviour. Eventually, these patients had significant impairment on the neurocognitive functions of their frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. On the other hand, the statistical analyses performed on demographic data showed that the aetiology of the hydrocephalus, age, sex and localization of the shunt (frontal or posterior parietal) did not affect the test results. Conclusion : This prospective study showed that adult patients with hydrocephalus have serious neuropsychological problems which might be directly caused by the hydrocephalus; and these problems may cause serious adaptive difficulties in their social, cultural, behavioral and academic life.

A Study on the Development of the Interfacing Unit between PSTN and Interphone Network (PSTN과 인터폰망사이의 자동접속장치의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Woon-Geun;Lee, Choong-Woong
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.157-160
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    • 1988
  • This paper describes the development of the Interfacing unit between PSTN and interphone network. The designed and realised system detects the ring signal from PSTN and makes off-hook condition when it is detected. Then the caller can hear the response tone from the unit and the tones of the interphone network condition. The developed system receives the interphone number to which the caller wants to connect by MFC tones and drives Interphone switch matrix. Thus, a call is connected to the interphone user directly. The caller may press the interphone number up to 10 digits and the last two of which are recognized as valid ones. The caller must press the first digit within 20 seconds after system response.

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Implementing Special Transportation Management Zone System for Dongdaemoon Garment District (동대문 의류밀집상가 교통혼잡특별관리구역 사례연구)

  • 황기연;엄진기;이종운;조용학
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.7-17
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    • 2000
  • The Purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of Special Transportation Management Zone system (TZ) when it is applied to Dongdaemoon commercial zone located in downtown Seoul. The study consists of two Parts ; the legal components of TZ and the case study on Dongdaemoon district. The case study includes the analysis of current traffic situation on the study zone, the design of implemention alternative for each component of TZ, the framework of impact analysis system, and the analysis results. The study finds, if 2,000 won mandatory parking fee on drivers parking in the buildings only with over 10 parking spaces and over 3.000$m^2$ in floor area, strong illegal parking enforcement, and Pro-hibition of parking passenger cars whose last digit plate number matches with the last digit of date, are implemented in the zone simultaneously, the traffic speed increases to 20.56km/h which is above the target set in the zone. In conclusion, we find that TZ2 can be an effective tool relieving traffic congestion in Seoul, and that it is necessary for introducing TZ in Seoul that relevant laws should be revised and expecting problems should be overcome.

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Digital Replantation Using Autogenous Vein Graft (자가 정맥 이식을 이용한 수지 접합술)

  • Kim, Yong-Jin;Kim, Hyung-Kun;Kim, Hyung-Ju;Park, Jin-Chul
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 1998
  • We carried out 107 replantations of amputated digits since last 1988. Among them, clean Gillotine amputation was 19 digits, mild crush amputation was 51 digits, severe crush amputation was 28 digits and avulsion type amputation was 9 digits. Vein grafts were used on 24 of these cases. The donor site of the vein graft was the volar aspect of the ipsilateral wrist or lower forearm. The average length of the vein graft was 1.8cm(1.0-3.0cm) and the average diameter of the vein graft was 1.5mm(1.0-2.0mm). Sixty-one of 107 digits were successfully replanted for an 57% success rate. The survival rate of the replantation using the vein graft was 66.7%. We analysed the functional results of the successfully replanted digits according to Nakamura and Tamai's criteria. The functional results of the replantated digits using vein graft were better than that of without using vein graft(more than fair results, 81.2% vs 73.3%). We conclude that the jucidious use of autogenous vein grafts in digital replantation surgery will improve the survival rate and promote the functional result.

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