• Title, Summary, Keyword: lateral stiffness

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Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Structure Strengthened by Steel Grid Shear Wall using Nonlinear Static Analysis (비탄성 정적해석을 이용한 격자강판 전단벽 보강 RC구조물의 내진성능평가)

  • Park, Jung Woo;Lee, Jae Uk;Park, Jin Young;Lee, Young Hak;Kim, Heecheul
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2013
  • The effects of earthquakes can be devastating especially to existing structures that are not based on earthquake resistant design. This study proposes a steel grid shear wall that can provide a sufficient lateral resistance and can be used as a seismic retrofit method. The pushover analysis was performed on RC structure with and without the proposed steel grid shear wall. Obtain the performance point that the target structure for seismic loads applied to evaluate the response and performance levels. The capacity spectrum at performance point is nearly elastic range, so satisfied the performance objectives(LS level). And response modification factor(R factor) were calculated from the pushover analysis. The R factor approach is currently implemented to reflect inelastic ductile behavior of the structures and to reduce elastic spectral demands from earthquakes to the design level. The R factor increases from 2.17 to 3.25 was higher than the design criteria. As a result, according to reinforcement by steel grid shear wall, strength, stiffness, and ductility of the low-rise RC structure has been appropriately improved.

Comparison of Behavior of Connections between Modular Units according to Shape of Connector Plates (연결 강판 형상에 따른 모듈러 유닛 간 접합부의 거동 비교)

  • Lee, Sang Sup;Bae, Kyu Woong;Park, Keum Sung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.467-476
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    • 2016
  • For the connections between modular units in modular buildings, the bolted joints with connector plates are used commonly. The strength of structure is determined by the weakest part of structure and the connections may be weaker than the members being joined. Therefore, to check the safety of modular building, the structural performance of connections between modular units as well as that of beam-to-column connections should be evaluated. In this study, the behavior of module to module connection with straight and cross shaped connector plates is investigated by lateral cyclic tests according to KBC2009 0722.2.4 which shall be conducted by controlling the story drift angle in the width and the longitudinal direction respectively. All of test results generally show the stable ductile behavior up to 0.04rad drift levels and the tests in longitudinal direction show a superior energy dissipation per cycle in each of the load steps. However, the straight shaped connector plates have the degradation of stiffness with cyclic loading and the larger drift angle of column than the cross shaped connector plates.

Vibration Reduction Effect and Structural Behavior Analysis for Column Member Reinforced with Vibration Non-transmissible Material (진동절연재로 보강된 기둥부재의 진동저감효과 및 구조적 거동분석)

  • Kim, Jin-Ho;Yi, Na-Hyun;Hur, Jin-Ho;Kim, Hee-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.94-103
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    • 2016
  • For elevated railway station on which track is connected with superstructure of station, structural vibration level and structure-borne-noise level has exceeded the reference level due to structural characteristics which transmits vibration directly. Therefore, existing elevated railway station is in need of economical and effective vibration reduction method which enable train service without interruption. In this study, structural vibration non-transmissible system which is applied to vibroisolating material for column member is developed to reduce vibration. That system is cut covering material of the column section using water-jet method and is installed with vibroisolating material on cut section. To verify vibration reduction effect and structural performance for structural vibration non-transmissible system, impact hammer test and cyclic lateral load test are performed for 1/4 scale test specimens. It is observed that natural period which means vibration response characteristics is shifted, and damping ratio is increased about 15~30% which means that system is effective to reduce structural vibration through vibration test. Also load-displacement relation and stiffness change rate of the columns are examined, and it is shown that ductility and energy dissipation capacity is increased. From test results, it is found that vibration non-transmissible system which is applied to column member enable to maintains structural function.

A Study on the Structure Behavior of Dry-assembled Wall with Concrete Blocks subjected to Cyclic Lateral Load (콘크리트블록으로 건식조립된 벽체의 수평반복하중에 대한 구조거동 연구)

  • Lee, Joong-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.440-447
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    • 2020
  • Masonry structures are used as bearing walls in small buildings, but they are generally considered non-bearing walls. They are used as partition walls that divide the interior spaces of the frame structures of buildings. In addition, wetting techniques that use mortar as an adhesive between blocks or bricks in construction are vulnerable to climatic conditions, especially cracks in mortar, which can cause conduction collapse of the walls in seismic loading. The purpose of this research was to propose a dry concrete block construction method that complements the weak axial shear stiffness and improves the weakness of the wet construction method as well as to investigate its structural behavior. In this study, the material properties of concrete blocks were examined, and the seismic performance of the proposed dry assembly structure was verified by structural behavior tests on horizontal cyclic loads. First, in these study results, concrete blocks can be applied to the dry block construction method instead of wet construction methods because they secure more than C-type blocks in KS regulations. Second, the structural performance of the wall against a horizontal cyclic load indicates that the resisting force of the assembly block wall is increased by increasing the horizontal length of the wall, forming several diagonal cracks. Finally, the proposed dry block wall structure requires a seismic performance assessment considering that the ratio of the shape of the wall by height and length is considered a major influence variable on the structural behavior under a horizontal load.

Comparative Biomechanical Study of Stiffness on Ligamentous Attached Sites of Distal Femur - Experimental Laboratory Study on Cadaver Femora - (원위 대퇴골 인대 부착부의 강도 비교 - 사체의 대퇴골에 행한 실험적 연구 -)

  • Kwak, Ji-Hoon;Sim, Jae-Ang;Yang, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Hee;Lee, Beom-Koo
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was performed to compare the strength of ligamentous attached sites of cadaveric distal femur and to obtain reliable biomechanical data to use in ligamentous reconstruction or augmentation. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cadaveric distal femurs were used for this study. After measuring the bone density, 5.0 mm cannulated screw (Experiment 1) or reconstructed porcine ligament (Experiment 2) was inserted into the each ligamentous attached sites of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). In experiment 2, reconstructed porcine graft was fixed with bioabsorbable screw in ligamentous insertion sites. And we measured the maximal pullout force of each ligamentous attached sites of cadaveric distal femur. Results: Average bone mineral density was $1.205{\pm}0.137\;g/cm^2$ in experiment 1, $1.236{\pm}0.089\;g/cm^2$ in experiment 2, which showed no statistically significant differences. In experiment 1, average pull-out strength of ACL, PCL, MCL and LCL group were $519.1{\pm}111.7$ N, $638.9{\pm}144.4$ N, $169.7{\pm}56.0$ N, $225.6{\pm}61.5$ N respectively. In experiment 2, the average pull-out strength were $310.6{\pm}31.0$ N, $379.9{\pm}47.4$ N, $104.0{\pm}14.4$ N, $131.5{\pm}21.9$ N respectively. In experiment 1, there was no significant difference between ACL and PCL group and between MCL and LCL group. However, the maximal pullout strength of MCL and LCL group were significantly lower than that of ACL and PCL group (p<0.01). Experiment 2 showed the same results of experiment 1. Conclusion: Because stiffness of MCL and LCL attached sites are much lower than that of ACL and PCL attached sites, we may consider augmented fixation in ligamentous reconstructions of MCL and LCL.

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Influence of Column Aspect Ratio on the Hysteretic Behavior of Slab-Column Connection (슬래브-기둥 접합부의 이력거동에 대한 기둥 형상비의 영향)

  • Choi, Myung-Shin;Cho, In-Jung;Ahn, Jong-Mun;Shin, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.515-525
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    • 2007
  • In this investigation, results of laboratory tests on four reinforced concrete flat plate interior connections with elongated rectangular column support which has been used widely in tall residential buildings are presented. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an effect of column aspect ratio (${\beta}_c={c_1}/{c_2}$=side length ratio of column section in the direction of lateral loading $(c_1)$ to the direction of perpendicular to $c_1$) on the hysteretic behavior under earthquake type loading. The aspect ratio of column section was taken as $0.5{\sim}3\;(c_1/c_2=1/2,\;1/1,\;2/1,\;3/1)$ and the column perimeter was held constant at 1200mm in order to achieve nominal vertical shear strength $(V_c)$ uniformly. Other design parameters such as flexural reinforcement ratio $(\rho)$ of the slab and concrete strength$(f_{ck})$ was kept constant as ${\rho}=1.0%$ and $f_{ck}=40MPa$, respectively. Gravity shear load $(V_g)$ was applied by 30 percent of nominal vertical shear strength $(0.3V_o)$ of the specimen. Experimental observations on punching failure pattern, peak lateral-load and story drift ratio at punching failure, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation in the hysteresis loop, and steel and concrete strain distributions near the column support were examined and discussed in accordance with different column aspect ratio. Eccentric shear stress model of ACI 318-05 was evaluated with experimental results. A fraction of transferring moment by shear and flexure in the design code was analyzed based on the test results.

Mid-Term Results of Fixed Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up (고정형 슬관절 단일 구획 치환술의 중기 추시 결과: 최소 5년 추시)

  • Oh, Jeong Han;Joo, Il-Han;Kong, Dong-Yi;Choi, Choong-Hyeok
    • Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.498-504
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes, and the complications of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) using a fixed bearing prosthesis after 5-year follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six knees (25 patients) that underwent fixed bearing UKA between May 2003 and August 2011 were included. The subjects were 3 males (3 knees) and 22 females (23 knees), and the average age was 63.5 years. The preoperative diagnosis was osteoarthritis (23 knees) and osteonecrosis (3 knees). The mean follow-up duration was 67 months (from 60 to 149 months). The clinical evaluation included pre- and postoperative American knee society knee and function score, and range of motion. The radiology evaluation included standing antero-posterior, lateral view, and fluoroscopic film to analyze the postoperative alignment and osteolysis. Results: The mean American Knee Society knee score and function score were improved from 42.0 and 57.5 to 87.9 and 85.0, respectively (p<0.001). The mean preoperative and postoperative range of motion was $132.9^{\circ}$ and $132.5^{\circ}$, respectively. The mean femorotibial angle were varus $0.5^{\circ}$ preoperatively and valgus $2.2^{\circ}$ postoperatively. A radiolucent line was observed in 2 knees; one knee had a stable implant, while in the other knee, patellofemoral arthritis was identified during UKA. Diffuse pain of the knee joint with tenderness of the medial joint line was identified at the follow-up, so conversion to total knee arthroplasty was recommended. No other complications, such as osteolysis, infections, postoperative stiffness, and dislocation, were encountered. Conclusion: The midterm results of fixed bearing UKA were clinically and radiologically satisfactory.