• Title, Summary, Keyword: lead poisoning

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Successful Treatment of Lead Poisoning in a Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and a Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Korea

  • Kim, Hee-Jong;Park, Sung-Jun;Lee, Hae-Beom;Park, Young-Seok;Kim, Moon-Jung;Kim, Young-Jun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.474-477
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    • 2017
  • We described the successful treatment of cases of lead poisoning in a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) and a Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Korea. The swan and vulture rescued were diagnosed with lead poisoning based on clinical signs, the presence of suspected lead-like particles in the ventriculus detected by radiography and elevated blood lead levels. Endoscopic retrieval for the swan and gastric lavage for the vulture were used to remove the lead respectively. After the removal of lead particles, a course of chelation treatment was administrated. This would be the first report of successfully treating wild birds with lead poisoning in Korea.

Change of Laboratory Parameters during Treatment of Lead Poisoning (연중독치료시 혈중연, 뇨중연, 뇨중 Coproporphrin, 뇨중 ${\delta}$-Aminolevulinic acid의 변화)

  • Yoo, Byoung-Kook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 1978
  • In order to study the change of laboratory parameters of lead poisoning, 8 persona who had not been treated previously for lead poisoning (Group 1 and 6 persons who had been inadequately treated for few months for chronic lead poisoning at local clinic (Group 2) were examined. They had occupational exposure to lead for 3 to 18 years (mean, 7.6). In group 1 blood lead, urine lead, urine coproporphyrin and ${\delta}$-aminolevulinic acid levels before our treatment exceeded the critical levels of lead poisoning. In group 2 urine lead level exceeded but blood lead, urine coproporphyrin and ${\delta}$-aminolevulinic acid levels were within normal limits. All of them were treated with D-penicillamine for 4 months as inpatients at Industrial Accident Hospital. The dose of D-penicillamine was the same in all patients; 600 mg per day p.o. and the chelating agent was administer every other week. For laboratory analysis, 24 hour urine and 10 gm of whole blood were collected every 1 month on last day of non-administration period. The results were as follows: 1. It was found that urine lead level was decreased below the cirtical level of lead poisoning after 4 month's treatment with D-penicillamine and blood lead level was decreased more progressively below the critical level after 1 month treatment. 2. Urine coproporphyrin and ${\delta}$-aminolevulinic acid levels were decreased progressively to normal range after 1 month treatment. 3. Two months after treatment, blood lead, urine lead, urine coproporphyrin and ${\delta}$-aminolevulinic acid levels showed some increasing trends. 4. Urine lead level should be checked in a person who had been inadequately treated with chelating agents because blood lead, coproporphyrin and ${\delta}$-aminolevulinic acid might be in normal range.

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Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"

  • Riva, Michele Augusto;Lafranconi, Alessandra;D'orso, Marco Italo;Cesana, Giancarlo
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2012
  • Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline.

Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range

  • Kang, Kyung Wook;Park, Won-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1713-1716
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    • 2017
  • In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of $64{\mu}g/dL$; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit ($0.015-0.387mg/m^3$). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to $9.7{\mu}g/dL$ and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history.

Curative and Protective Effects of Garlic on Lead Poisoning (납중독에 대한 마늘의 치료와 방어효과)

  • Lee, Yong-Hwan;Park, Myung-Ho;Choi, Myung-Won;Chun, Bong-Kwon;Hur, Bang;Tak, Hyo-Jung;Hwang, In-Chul
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.543-553
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    • 2001
  • Lead poisoning is currently one of the major public health problems in industrialized countries. Several chelating agents have been developed and used to treat the lead poisoning. It was recently proposed that garlic, having a large quantity of S-S compounds, may react readily with lead, producing various sulfur componds, and thus provide curative and protective effects on the lead toxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate this possibility in experimental animals. The garlic treatment on rats pre-exposed to lead significantly enhanced urinary excretion of lead at a garlic dose of 500 mg/kg and decreased the bloon level of lead at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. The administration of grilic 500mg/kg along with lead significantly alleviated the renal histological alterations induced by lead. These results suggest that garilic has a curative as well as a protective effect against lead poisoning , thus it may act as a chelator of lead.

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Two Cases of Lead Poisoning due to Herb Medicinal Pills (환약으로 제조된 한약에 의한 급성 납중독 2례)

  • Choi, Seong Hwan;Park, Eun Young;Shim, Jung Yeon;Kim, Deok Soo;Shim, Jae Won;Jung, Hye Lim;Park, Moon Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.9
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    • pp.1009-1015
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    • 2005
  • We encountered two children with lead poisoning who were administered herb medicinal pills recommended by their clergyman. These patients presented anemia and severe coliky abdominal pain, but no neurologic symptoms. For this reason, they were initially misdiagnosed with gastrointestinal hemorrhagic disease. However, we got a clue that they took herb medicinal pills. Finally, based on the assay of blood lead level, we made a correct diagnosis of lead poisoning in these patients. These patients underwent chelating therapy. Subsequently, the concentration of blood lead was decreased. Finally, we drew a conclusion that the possibility of lead poisoning must be considered in children who complained of colicky abdominal pain accompanying anemia. Here, we report two pediatric cases of lead poisoning with a review of literature.

Occupational Health Management in the Lead Industry: The Korean Experience

  • Lee, Byung-Kook
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2011
  • In 1967, the problem of occupational lead exposure came to public attention in Korea. Since then, regular progress has been made in lowering workplace lead exposures, instituting new workplace controls, and implementing health examinations of exposed workers. Past serious lead poisoning episodes made it possible to introduce biological monitoring programs on a voluntary basis in high-lead-exposure facilities in Korea. Industry-specific occupational health services for lead workers in Korea during the last 22 years can be categorized into three phases. During the first phase (1988-1993), efforts were directed at increasing awareness among workers about the hazards of lead exposure, biological monitoring of blood zinc protoporphyrin began, and a respiratory protection program was introduced. During the second phase (1994-1997), a computerized health management system for lead workers was developed, blood-lead measurement was added to biologic monitoring, and engineering controls were introduced in the workplace to lower air-lead levels to comply with air-lead regulations. Finally, during the third phase (1998-present), a new biomarker, bone-lead measurement by X-ray fluorescence, was introduced. Bone-lead measurement proved to be useful for assessing body burden and to demonstrate past lead exposure in retired workers. Occupational health service practice for lead workers, including the industry-specific group occupational health system, has brought considerable success in the prevention of lead poisoning and in reducing the lead burden in Korean lead workers during the last several decades. The successful achievement of prevention of lead poisoning in Korea was a result of the combined efforts of lead workers, employers, relevant government agencies, and academic institutes.

Lead Pollution and Lead Poisoning among Children in China

  • Zheng, Yuxin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.24-25
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    • 2003
  • Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment as a result of industrialization. China's rapid industrialization and traffic growth have increased the potential for lead emissions. Lead poisoning in children is one of the most common public health problems today, and it is entirely preventable. Children are more vulnerable to lead pollution and lead in their bodies can affect their nervous, circulatory, and digestive systems. Children are exposed to lead from different sources (such as paint, gasoline, and solder) and through different pathways (such as air, food, water, dust, and soil). Although all children are exposed to some lead from food, air, dust, and soil, some children are exposed to high dose sources of lead. Significant sources of lead for China's children include industrial emissions (often close to housing and schools), leaded gasoline, and occupational exposure that occurs when parents wear lead-contaminated clothing home from work, burning of coal for home heat and cooking, contaminated food, and some traditional medicines. To assess the blood lead level in children in China, a large-scale study was conducted in 19 cities among 9 provinces during 1997 to 2000. There were 6502 children, aged 3-5 years, were recruited in the study The result indicates that the mean blood lead level was 8.83ug/dl 3-5 year old living in city area. The mean blood lead level of boys was higher than that of girls (9.1l ug/dl vs 8.73ug/dl). Almost 30 percent childrens blood lead level exceeded 10ug/dl. The average blood lead level was higher than that of in 1985 (8.83ug/dl vs 8.lug/dl). An epidemiological study was carried on the children living around the cottage industries recycling the lead from battery. Nine hundreds fifty nine children, aged 5-12 years, living in lead polluted villages where the lead smelters located near the residential area and 207 control children live in unpolluted area were recruited in the study. The lead levels in air, soil, drinking water and crops were measured. The blood lead and ZnPP level were tested for all subjects. The results show that the local environment was polluted. The lead levels both in the air and crops were much higher than that of in control area. In the polluted area, the average blood level was 49.6ug/dl (rang 19.5-89.3ug/dl). Whereas, in the unpolluted area, the average blood level was 12.4ug/dl (rang 4.6-24.8ug/dl). This study indicates that in some countryside area, some cottage industries induce seriously lead pollution and cause children health problem. For the introducing of unleaded gasoline in some large cities, such as Beijing and Shanghai, the blood lead level showed a declined trend since 1997. By 2000, the use of leaded gasoline in motor vehicles has been prohibited in China. The most recent data available show that levels of lead in blood among children in Shanghai decreased from 8.3ug/dl in 1997 to 7.6ug/dl in 1999. The prevalence rate of children lead poisoning (blood lead >10ug/dl) was also decreased from 37.8% to 24.8%. In children living in downtown area, the blood lead level reduced dramatically. To explore the relationship between gene polymorphisms and individual susceptibility of lead poisoning, a molecular epidemiological study was conducted among children living in lead polluted environment. The result showed that the subjects with ALAD2 allele has higher ZPP level, and the subjects with VDR B allele has larger head circumference than only with b allele. In the present study, we demonstrated that ALAD genotypes modify lead effects on heme metabolism and VDR gene variants influence the skull development in highly exposed children. The polymorphism of ALAD and VDR genes might be the molecular inherited factor modifying the susceptibility of lead poisoning. Recently, Chinese government pays more attention to lead pollution and lead poisoning in children problem. The leaded gasoline was prohibited used in motor vehicles since 2000. The government has decided to have a clampdown on the high-polluted lead smelters for recycling the lead from battery in countryside. It is hopeful that the risk of lead poisoning in children will be decreased in the further

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Selective Toxicity to Central Serotonergic Nervous System in Prenatally and Postnatally Lead-Exposed Rats

  • 서동욱;정은영;정재훈;신찬영;오우택;고광호
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.335-335
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    • 1994
  • Possibility whether lead ingestion can cause selective toxicity to central serotonergic nervous system in rats was tested. Three groups of wistar rats; 1)Control, 2) Low dose and 3) High dose groups, were prepared. In prenatally lead-exposed rats, until parturition from dams, rat pups were intoxicated via placenta of mother rats having received drinking water containing either 0%(control ), 0.05%(low dose) or 0.2%(high dose) of lead acetate respectively, In postnatally lead-exposed rats, right after parturition from dams rat pups received drinking water containing either 0% (control), 0.05%(low dose) or 0.2%(high dose) of lead acetate. At 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activity and Na$\^$+//K$\^$+/-ATPase activity were measured in 4 areas of rat brain; Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Midbrain and Pons/Medulla. TPH activities were assayed by modified method of Beevers et al. (1983) using L-(5-$^3$H)-tryptophan as substrate. TPH activity was determined as a criterion of lead poisoning to central serotonergic nervous system and Na$\^$+//K$\^$+/-ATPase activity as a criterion of non specific lead poisoning to any kinds of tissues. Selective toxicity of lead poisoning to central serotonergic nervous system was evaluated by the changes of TPH activities without concomitant changes of Na$\^$+//K$\^$+/-ATPase activities. In prenatally lead-exposed rats. this selectivity was found in Telencephalon (2 weeks of age), Diencephalon/Midbrain (2 weeks of age), Midbrain (4 and 6 weeks of age), Pons/Medulla (2, 4 and 6 weeks of age) In rats exposed to low dose of lead and Pons/Medulla (2 weeks of age) to high dose of lead. In postnatal Iy lead-exposed rats, this selectivity was found in Telencephalon (8 weeks of age), Diencephalon(8 weeks of age), Pons/Medulla (6 and 8 weeks of age) in rats exposed to low dose of lead and Pons/Medulla (8 weeks of age) to high dose of lead. These results suggest that lead poisoning may exhibit selective toxicity to central serotonergic nervous system.

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Effect of oral D-penieillamine in Urinary excretion of lead (D-Penicillamine 이 연 배설농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chung-Yill
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1976
  • In order to study the chelating action of d-penicillamine on lead and the possibility of its application to the provocation test for diagnosis of lead poisoning, urinary excretion of lead was measured from 24-hour urine samples before, during and after administration of d-penicillamine by oral route for 5 days on 18 lead workers. The results were as follows: 1. Oral d-penicillamine 600 mg/day raised the excretion of urinary lead by approximately 3 times as compared with initial urinary lead level. 2. Initial urinary lead level was the better indicator of urinary lead excretion in d-penicillamine administration than initial blood lead ${\delta}-ALA$ and hemoglobin level. 3. Oral d-penicillamine may be quite useful in provocation test for lead poisoning.

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