• Title, Summary, Keyword: limiting oxygen index

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Study on the Limiting Oxygen Index of Curtain Exposed to High Temperature (고온에 노출된 커튼의 한계산소지수에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hwang-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2018
  • Curtains are used for shading in windows. Since most curtains are made of flammable materials and are installed vertically, curtains can be an important factor in fire spreading. Accordingly, it is important to predict fire behaviors in studies on the combustion characteristics of flammable interior decorations, such as curtains. In this study, to analyze the combustion characteristics of six kinds of curtains, which are widely used interior decorations, the oxygen index was measured at room temperature and higher temperature. As a result of the experiment, the oxygen index at higher temperature of all specimens was about 3%~7.5% lower than that at room temperature and difference of 0.2% of oxygen index show big differences in combustion phenomenon of specimens. Therefore, when flame retardancy is evaluated with the oxygen index value of flammable interior decorations, the oxygen index value at higher temperature should be sufficiently considered.

Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Property of Recycled Polyolefinic Plastic Composites with Hybrid fillers (폴리올레핀계 폐플라스틱/복합filler 성형체의 난연성 및 기계적 물성 연구)

  • 강영구;송종혁
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.56-63
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    • 2003
  • Flame retardancy and mechanical properties of recycled polyolefinic plastics/inorganic filler composite systems were investigated by using several inorganic flame retardants such as magnesium hydroxide and slag powder generated electro arc furnace Compatibilizer user each maleic anhydride functionalized polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) and polypropylene(PP-g-MAH) or used mixture of these. The effect of polymeric compatibilizers on the properties of composites was studied by tensile and impact test, differential scanning calorimetry, in the changed fracture mechanism. The improved adhesion was particularly reflected in the mechanical properties. The flame retardancy of composites was examined by measuring limiting oxygen index(LOI, ASTM D2863), smoke density(ASTM D2843) and vertical burning test(UL94). Regarding the flame retardant effect, the EAF slag powder is behaving as synergists as they are only active in the presence of magnesium hydroxide.

Flame Retardancy of Cellulose Fabrics Treated with 3-(Hydroxyphenyl Phosphinyl) Propanoic Acid

  • Zhang, Lianping;Kim, Sam-Soo;Lee, Jae-Woong
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2008
  • 3-(Hydroxyphenyl phosphinyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) has been one of the most commonly used durable flame retardant agents for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for many years. We intended to explore the application of HPPA to cellulose fabrics as formaldehyde-free phosphorus based flame retardants (FRs) through green chemistry process. The flame retardancy of the flame-retardant treated cellulose fabrics were characterized by using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Structural changes of the treated cellulose fabrics were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To enhance the flame retardancy of HPPA treated cellulose fibers, glycerol polyglycidyl ether (GPE), a crosslinking agent was employed. Both HPPA and GPE treated cotton fabric imparted an LOI value over 26.

A Study on Combustion Characteristics of Wood-Plastic Composites (합성목재의 연소특성에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Baeg-Woo;Song, Young-Ho;Rie, Dong-Ho;Chung, Kook-Sam
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2010
  • Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs) are one of spotlighting materials for the residential construction and the industry for furniture. At this study, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) was measured by ASTM D 2863 and the cone calorimeter test was done by ISO 5660-1 to find the combustion characteristics of WPCs. In addition, the identical test was implemented to compare the combustion characteristics between the red pine and the antiseptic wood. The result of LOI measurement showed that the LOI of WPCs was lower than that of red pine or antiseptic wood. The cone calorimeter test showed that the heat release rate (HRR) of WPCs was the highest and the Peak HRR as well as the average HRR and total heat release of WPCs was higher than those of red pine or antiseptized wood

Improvement the Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Resin by the Addition of Montmorillonite (Montmorillonite 첨가에 의한 Epoxy Resin의 난연성 개선)

  • Song, Young-Ho;Chung, Kook-Sam
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.300-304
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    • 2008
  • The flame retardancy was evaluated to present as the fundamental data to decrease the fire hazard of polymers and life losses according to the addition of clay. The combustion characteristics were examined to increase flame retardancy and to decrease smoke yield of epoxy by the addition of clay such as montmorillonite in this study. For this study, the experiments of flame retardancy were conducted the measurement of the limiting oxygen index (LOI), char yield, and smoke density. As MMT concentration increased, LOI and char yield increased. This result showed that the flame retardancy of epoxy/MMT composite was improved. On the contrary, smoke density increased.

Foaming Properties and Flame Retardancy of the Foams Based on NBR/GTR Compounds (니트릴고무/타이어고무분말(GTR)를 이용한 발포체의 발포 및 난연 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Sung-Chul;Jo, Byung-Wook;Choi, Jae-Kon
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2002
  • The improvement of flame retardancy of the foams based on NBR/GTR compounds was conducted by formulating various materials i.e. NBR, GTR, inorganic and phosphorus containing flame retardants, foaming agent, cross-linking agent and activator. The foaming properties, morphology, smoke density and flame retardancy of the specimens were investigated using SEM, LOI tester, smoke density control system and cone calorimeter. The phosphorus containing flame retardant reduces heat release rate, increases the limiting oxygen index and a char formation. The inorganic flame retardant increases the limiting oxygen index and reduces heat release rate with an increased CO yield by char formation, and smoke suppressing effect. The formed char seemed to intercept the oxygen transport and heat transfer into the core area. When the composition ratios of the compounds of NBR/GTR were $100{\sim}80/0{\sim}20 wt.%$, and the ratios of the rubbers/flame retardants were $1/1.55{\sim}3.60 wt.%$, we could developed foams with low heat release rate, high limiting oxygen index($28.0{\sim}39.3$), closed or semi-closed cell of uniformity and reasonable expandability($225{\sim}250 %$).

Flame Retardant Finishing for Nylon Fabric with Phosphate Compound (인 화합물에 의한 나일론 직물의 방염가공)

  • 김수창
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 1998
  • The need for the effective flame retardant finishing for synthetic fiber Is required. This paper is focussed on the analysis of physical properties of nylon 6 fabric treated with tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate(TCEP) in comparision with the untreated fabric. In order to evaluate the flame retardance effect, limiting oxygen index and burn rate were determined. Above 20% add-on of TCEP on nylon 6 fabric, reasonable flame retardancy was observed. Thermal stability of the treated nylon 6 fabric was evaluated by TGA. It seems that TCEP acts via a condensed phase mechanism. Tenacity and moisture regain of the treated fabrics were not changed and washfastness of those was excellent.

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Evaluation of Combustion Characteristics of Outdoor Advertisement Materials (옥외 광고물 소재의 연소특성 평가)

  • Eom, Sang-Yong;Kim, Kyoung-Jin;Lee, Su-Kyung
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2012
  • Combustion characteristics of outdoor advertisement materials were evaluated for fire risk assessment about fire expanding. At this study, the flame retardancy and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) was measured by UL 94 and ASTM D 2863 respectively. At the result of flame retardancy, foamex was V-0 grade and those of others were out of grade. LOI measurement showed that the LOI of foamex was highest in the samples. The cone calorimeter test was done by ISO 5660-1 to find the combustion characteristics. The cone calorimeter test showed that the outdoor advertisement materials were not good to prevent of fire expanding. The time to ignition (TTI) of flex was the fastest and the peak heat release rate (PHRR) as well as the total heat release (THR) of acrylic panel was higher than those of others.

Effect of the Freshwater Discharge on Seawater and Sediment Environment in a Coastal Area in Goheung County, South Korea

  • Nguyen, Hoang Lam;Jang, Min-Seok;Cho, Hyeon-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2014
  • Seasonal characteristics of water and sediment qualities and potential effects of the freshwater discharge from a small tide embankment interior in a coastal area in Goheung county were investigated from May to September in 2012. Chemical oxygen demand values (COD) were mostly higher than 2 mg/L in summer ebb tide, which exceed the standard value of water quality criteria II of acceptable level for aquaculture activities. Nitrogen and phosphorus were found as the limiting nutrients for algae growth in summer and fall and in spring, respectively. Nitrogen was the limiting nutrient for diatom growth in the whole studied period. The sudden high values of COD, ammonia, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) were found in water sample collected from station 5 which located in front of the tide embankment sluice gate during spring ebb tide. The freshwater discharge form the tide embankment interior maybe affected the survey areas during a short time interval. Mean values of eutrophication index of the surveyed coastal region in spring, summer and fall were all bigger than 1. Water quality was mostly considered at level II which acceptable for aquaculture activities. Sediment quality in this study was generally in the range of standard for fisheries environment.