• 제목, 요약, 키워드: linear time-varying system

검색결과 284건 처리시간 0.038초

Local Drug Delivery System Using Biodegradable Polymers

  • Khang, Gil-Son;Rhee, John M.;Jeong, Je-Kyo;Lee, Jeong-Sik;Kim, Moon-Suk;Cho, Sun-Hang;Lee, Hai-Bang
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.207-223
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    • 2003
  • For last five years, we are developing the novel local drug delivery devices using biodegradable polymers, especially polylactide (PLA) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) due to its relatively good biocompatibility, easily controlled biodegradability, good processability and only FDA approved synthetic degradable polymers. The relationship between various kinds of drug [water soluble small molecule drugs: gentamicin sulfate (GS), fentanyl citrate (FC), BCNU, azidothymidine (AZT), pamidronate (ADP), $1,25(OH)_2$ vitamin $D_3$, water insoluble small molecule drugs: fentanyl, ipriflavone (IP) and nifedipine, and water soluble large peptide molecule drug: nerve growth factor (NGF), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)], different types of geometrical devices [microspheres (MSs), microcapsule, nanoparticle, wafers, pellet, beads, multiple-layered beads, implants, fiber, scaffolds, and films], and pharmacological activity are proposed and discussed for the application of pharmaceutics and tissue engineering. Also, local drug delivery devices proposed in this work are introduced in view of preparation method, drug release behavior, biocompatibility, pharmacological effect, and animal studies. In conclusion, we can control the drug release profiles varying with the preparation, formulation and geometrical parameters. Moreover, any types of drug were successfully applicable to achieve linear sustained release from short period ($1{\sim}3$ days) to long period (over 2 months). It is very important to design a suitable formulation for the wanting period of bioactive molecules loaded in biodegradable polymers for the local delivery of drug. The drug release is affected by many factors such as hydrophilicity of drug, electric charge of drug, drug loading amount, polymer molecular weight, the monomer composition, the size of implants, the applied fabrication techniques, and so on. It is well known that the commercialization of new drug needs a lot of cost of money (average: over 10 million US dollar per one drug) and time (average: above 9 years) whereas the development of DDS and high effective generic drug might be need relatively low investment with a short time period. Also, one core technology of DDS can be applicable to many drugs for the market needs. From these reasons, the DDS research on potent generic drugs might be suitable for less risk and high return.

Control of pH Neutralization Process using Simulation Based Dynamic Programming in Simulation and Experiment (ICCAS 2004)

  • Kim, Dong-Kyu;Lee, Kwang-Soon;Yang, Dae-Ryook
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.620-626
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    • 2004
  • For general nonlinear processes, it is difficult to control with a linear model-based control method and nonlinear controls are considered. Among the numerous approaches suggested, the most rigorous approach is to use dynamic optimization. Many general engineering problems like control, scheduling, planning etc. are expressed by functional optimization problem and most of them can be changed into dynamic programming (DP) problems. However the DP problems are used in just few cases because as the size of the problem grows, the dynamic programming approach is suffered from the burden of calculation which is called as 'curse of dimensionality'. In order to avoid this problem, the Neuro-Dynamic Programming (NDP) approach is proposed by Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis (1996). To get the solution of seriously nonlinear process control, the interest in NDP approach is enlarged and NDP algorithm is applied to diverse areas such as retailing, finance, inventory management, communication networks, etc. and it has been extended to chemical engineering parts. In the NDP approach, we select the optimal control input policy to minimize the value of cost which is calculated by the sum of current stage cost and future stages cost starting from the next state. The cost value is related with a weight square sum of error and input movement. During the calculation of optimal input policy, if the approximate cost function by using simulation data is utilized with Bellman iteration, the burden of calculation can be relieved and the curse of dimensionality problem of DP can be overcome. It is very important issue how to construct the cost-to-go function which has a good approximate performance. The neural network is one of the eager learning methods and it works as a global approximator to cost-to-go function. In this algorithm, the training of neural network is important and difficult part, and it gives significant effect on the performance of control. To avoid the difficulty in neural network training, the lazy learning method like k-nearest neighbor method can be exploited. The training is unnecessary for this method but requires more computation time and greater data storage. The pH neutralization process has long been taken as a representative benchmark problem of nonlin ar chemical process control due to its nonlinearity and time-varying nature. In this study, the NDP algorithm was applied to pH neutralization process. At first, the pH neutralization process control to use NDP algorithm was performed through simulations with various approximators. The global and local approximators are used for NDP calculation. After that, the verification of NDP in real system was made by pH neutralization experiment. The control results by NDP algorithm was compared with those by the PI controller which is traditionally used, in both simulations and experiments. From the comparison of results, the control by NDP algorithm showed faster and better control performance than PI controller. In addition to that, the control by NDP algorithm showed the good results when it applied to the cases with disturbances and multiple set point changes.

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Kinetic Investigation of CO2-CH4 Reaction over Ni/La2O3 Catalyst using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

  • Oh, Hyun-Jin;Kang, Jin-Gyu;Heo, Eil;Lee, Sung-Han;Choi, Joong-Gill
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.2615-2620
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    • 2014
  • Ni/$La_2O_3$ with a high dispersion was prepared by reduction of $La_2O_3$ perovskite oxide to examine the catalytic activity for the $CO_2-CH_4$ reaction. The Ni/$La_2O_3$ catalyst was found to be highly active for the reaction. The ratios of $H_2$/CO were measured in a flow of the reaction mixture containing $CO_2/CH_4$/Ar using an on-line gas chromatography system operated at 1 atm and found to be varied with temperature between 0.66 and 1 in the temperature range of $500-800^{\circ}C$. A kinetic study of the catalytic reaction was performed in a static reactor at 40 Torr total pressure of $CO_2/CH_4/N_2$ by using a photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. The $CO_2$ photoacoustic signal varying with the concentration of $CO_2$ during the catalytic reaction was recorded as a function of time. Rates of $CO_2$ disappearance in the temperature range of $550-700^{\circ}C$ were obtained from the changes in the $CO_2$ photoacoustic signal at early reaction stage. The plot of ln rate vs. 1/T showed linear lines below and above $610^{\circ}C$. Apparent activation energies were determined to be 10.4 kcal/mol in the temperature range of $550-610^{\circ}C$ and 14.6 kcal/mol in the temperature range of $610-700^{\circ}C$. From the initial rates measured at $640^{\circ}C$ under various partial pressures of $CO_2$ and $CH_4$, the reaction orders were determined to be 0.43 with respect to $CO_2$ and 0.33 with respect to $CH_4$. The kinetic results were compared with those reported previously and used to infer a reaction mechanism for the Ni/$La_2O_3$-catalyzed $CO_2-CH_4$ reaction.

선택적 최적화 변수(Selectable Optimization Parameters)에 따른 부피적조절회전방사선치료(VMAT)의 선량학적 영향 (Dosimetric Effect on Selectable Optimization Parameters of Volumatric Modulated Arc Therapy)

  • 정재용;신영주;손승창;김연래;민정환;서태석
    • 한국의학물리학회지:의학물리
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2012
  • 부피적조절회전방사선치료(VMAT)의 정도관리를 TG-119에서 제시된 권고안을 통해 평가하고자 하였다. 또한 선택적 최적화 변수에 따른 치료계획의 평가와 그에 따른 선량학적 특성을 평가하고자 하였다. Varian사의 iX선형가속기와 Nucletron사의 Oncentra MasterPlan 치료계획장치를 결합하여 VMAT 치료계획을 수립하였다. TG-119에 제시된 5가지의 구조세트를 이용하여 아크 수, 겐트리 간격, 치료 시간 등의 선택적 최적화 변수(selectable optimization parameters)를 변화하여 치료 계획의 평가와 선량검증을 통해 정확성을 평가하였다. 치료계획의 평가는 선량체적히스토그램을 이용하여 표적과 위험장기의 평균값과 표준편차를 이용하였으며 선량검증은 이온 전리함과 $Delta^{4PT}$ bi-planar diode array를 이용하였다. 치료계획의 평가에서 싱글 아크의 경우 C-shape (hard)를 제외한 다른 구조세트에서 목표한 선량에 근접하는 결과를 보였으며 듀얼 아크의 경우에는 C-shape (hard)를 제외한 다른 구조세트에서 제시한 목표 선량에 도달하였다. 또한 선택 변수에 대한 평가에서는 전립선과 같은 간단한 구조 세트에서는 아크 수에 따른 치료계획의 차이는 거의 나타나지 않았으나, 두경부와 같은 복잡한 구조에서는 듀얼 아크가 위험장기에 대하여 좀 더 우수한 결과를 나타내었다. 겐트리 간격의 크기 변화에 의한 선량분포는 $6^{\circ}$에 비해 $4^{\circ}$의 겐트리 간격이 우수하였으나 $2^{\circ}$ 간격과는 거의 차이가 없었다. 점선 량의 정확성 평가에서는 표적과 위험장기에 대한 점선량의 측정값과 계산값의 평균오차는 싱글 아크와 듀얼 아크 모두 3% 이내였으며, 신뢰구간은 싱글아크와 듀얼 아크가 4% 내로 허용범위 안에 포함되었다. 겐트리 간격의 크기에 따른 점선량의 정확성 평가에서는 $2^{\circ}$, $4^{\circ}$, $6^{\circ}$ 모두 3% 이내였으며, 표적과 위험장기에 대한 신뢰한계(Confidence limit)는 5% 내로 허용범위 안에 포함되었다. $Delta^{4PT}$를 이용한 싱글 아크와 듀얼 아크의 선량분포 측정에서는 허용기준 3 mm/3%를 통과하는 감마인덱스는 평균 $98.72{\pm}1.52%$$98.30{\pm}1.50%$이었으며 신뢰한계는 2.99%와 3.74%로 허용범위 내에 포함되었다. 겐트리 간격의 크기에 따른 선량의 정확성은 간격이 적을수록 우수한 결과를 나타냈다. 본 연구에서는 VMAT의 정도관리를 TG-119에서 제시된 시험을 수행하였으며 제시된 모든 구조 세트에 대하여 허용기준을 모두 만족하였다. 또한 사용자가 선택할 수 있는 최적화 변수의 변화에 대한 치료계획과 선량학적 영향을 분석하였으며 각 상황에 따른 임상적 특성에 맞는 변수를 선택하는 것이 중요하다고 사료된다.