• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid composition

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Quality Characteristics of Pressed Ham Containing Grape Seed Oil (포도씨유가 함유된 프레스햄의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Jeong-Ill;Jung, Jae-Doo;Lee, Jin-Woo;Ha, Young-Joo;Joo, Seon-Tae;Park, Gu-Boo;Kwack, Suk-Chun;Park, Jeong-Suk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.721-732
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    • 2008
  • Pressed ham was manufactured to investigate the effects of grape seed oil on the quality characteristics of pressed ham. Five treatments were divided based on differences in the amount of grape seed oil added into the pressed ham. For control, 10% of back fat was only added without grape seed oil. For the first treatment, 10% of grape seed oil among the lard component added into the pressed ham was replaced. For the 2nd, 3rd and 4rd treatments, 20%, 30% and 40% of grape seed oil was respectively replaced. Pressed ham manufactured using grape seed oil was vacuum packaged and then stored for 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 4℃. Samples were analyzed for shear force value, sensory properties, TBARS and fatty acid composition. In the 1, 21 and 28 days of storage, shear force value of grape seed oil treatment (T4) was significantly lower than that of control (P<0.05). No remarkable differences were found in sensory properties among control and grape seed oil treatment groups. The TBARS value was significantly higher in control than in grape seed oil treatment group(T4) at 28 days of storage (P<0.05). The TBARS of control and grape seed oil treatment groups increased significantly as the storage period increased(P<0.05). The linoleic acid(C18:2) content of grape seed oil treatment groups was significantly higher than that of control(P<0.05). But the contents of C10:0~C20:4 were decreased significantly by grape seed oil additive (P<0.05). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content of control was significantly higher than that of grape seed oil treatment groups(P<0.05). Whereas the increase level of grape seed oil additive resulted in the significantly higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content(P<0.05). Based on these findings, we conclude that the sensory properties and lipid oxidation(TBARS) of manufactured pressed ham were not affected by grape seed oil addition. Also, our results indicate that high-quality pressed ham can be manufactured with strengthen of polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

The Usefulness of the Abdominal Computerized Tomography for the Diagnosis of Childhood Obesity and Its Correlation with Various Parameters of Obesity (소아 복부비만 진단을 위한 복부 전산화 단층 촬영의 유용성과 여러 지표와의 상관성 연구)

  • Shim, Yoon Hee;Cho, Su Jin;Rhyu, Jung Hyun;Hong, Young Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.10
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    • pp.1082-1089
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Abdominal obesity is encountered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the anthropometric cut-off value to estimate the cardiovascular risk, has not been suggested. This study was designed to find the relationship between the abdominal fat and various parameters of obesity to find the cardiovascular risk factors related to abdominal obesity and to establish practical methods to measure them. Methods : Twenty seven obese Korean adolescents of moderate to severe degree and 22 healthy adolescents were enrolled. The body mass index(BMI), arm circumference and skinfold thickness were measured. Furthermore, blood lipid, sugar, insulin and four different cytokines' levels were checked and the distribution of body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat thickness by abdominal ultrasonography(US) and the total and intra-abdominal fat area by abdominal computerized tomography(CT) were measured in the obese group. Results : The most accurate method to measure abdominal fat in children is abdominal CT and the fat mass measured by bioelectrical impedance was strongly correlated with it(r=0.954). It was also correlated with arm circumference, fat thickness measured by abdominal US, BMI, aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and triglyceride level. Conclusion : Abdominal CT is the most accurate method to measure intra-abdominal fat, and it can be replaced by abdominal US for cost effectiveness. The screening methods that can be used at school or in outpatient basis include bioelectrical impedance, waist/hip ratio, and arm circumference. The cardiovascular risk factors include leptin, triglyceride and insulin level.

Comparison of the Chemical Compositions of Korean and Chinese Safflower Flower(Carthamus tinctorius L.) (한국산과 중국산 홍화꽃의 화학적 성분조성비교)

  • 박금순;박어진
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.603-608
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    • 2003
  • In approximate composition, crude protein, lipid, ash, crude fiber, and N-free extract constituted 14.70%, 3.10%, 6.90%, 18.20%, and 57.10%, respectively, in Korean safflower flowers, compared to 12.60%, 2.70%, 5.80%, 16.40% and 62.50%, respectively, in Chinese safflower flowers. This indicated that Korean safflower flowers surpassed their Chinese counterparts except in terms of N-free extract. Free sugars such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose were proven to be dominant in both domestic and Chinese safflower flowers, while little xylose was contained. For content of polyphenolic compound, Korean safflower flowers contained 13.85% water soluble extract and 9.70% MeOH extract, compared to 9.39% and 7.04%, respectively, for the Chinese variety, confirming the higher levels in the Korean variety. For fatty acids, (Ed- the following results are not presented in ratio form) saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids comprised 6.80% and 93.20% in Korean safflower flowers and 16.0% and 84.0% in Chinese safflower flowers, respectively. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids comprised 75.30%, 11.60%, and 3.40% in Korean safflower flowers, and 66.70%, 11.20%, and 6.10% in the Chinese variety, respectively. Of amino acids, essential amino acids comprised 46.67% in Korean safflower flowers and 36.79% in the Chinese variety. Moreover, total essential amino acids in Korean safflower flowers were higher than those of their counterparts. Non-essential amino acid comprised 65.17% in the Korean variety and 54.49% in the Chinese. In terms of mineral content, Korean safflower flowers contained more Ca, Cu, Fe and Mn than those of China, while Chinese safflower flowers contained more A1, Ba, Mg, K, Na, Zn, Sr and P.

The Study of Nano-vesicle Coated Powder (나노베시클 표면처리 분체의 개발연구)

  • Son, Hong-Ha;Kwak, Taek-Jong;Kim, Kyung-Seob;Lee, Sang-Min;Lee, Cheon-Koo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2006
  • In the field of makeup cosmetics, especially, powder-based foundations such as two-way cake, pact and face powder, the quality of which is known to be strongly influenced by the properties of powder, surface treatment technology is widely used as a method to improve the various characteristics of powder texture, wear properties, dispersion ability and so on. The two-way cake or pressed-powder foundation is one of the familiar makeup products in Asian market for deep covering and finishing purpose. In spite of the relent progress in surface modification method such as composition of powders with different characteristics and application of a diversity of coating ingredient (metal soap, amino acid, silicone and fluorine), this product possess a technical difficulty to enhance both of the adhesion power and spreadability on the skin in addition to potential claim of consumer about heavy or thick feeling. This article is covering the preparation and coating method of nano-vesicle that mimic the double-layered lipid lamellar structure existing between the corneocytes of the stratum corneum in the skin for the purpose of improving both of two important physical characteristic of two-way cake, spreadability and adhering force to skin, and obtining better affinity to skin. Nano-vesicle was prepared using the high-pressure emulsifying process of lecithin, pseudo ceramide, butylene glycol and tocopheryl acetate. This nano-sized emulsion was added to powder-dispersed aqueous phase together with bivalent metal salt solution and then the filtering and drying procedure was followed to yield the nano-vesicle coated powder. The amount of nano-vesicle coated on the powder was able to regulated by the concentration of metal salt and this novel powder showed the lower friction coefficient, more uniform condition of application and higher adhesive powder comparing with the alkyl silane treated powder from the test result of spreadability and wear properties using friction meter and air jet method. Two-wav cake containing newly developed coated powder with nano-vesicle showed the similar advantages in the frictional and adhesive characteristics.

Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Grain after Milling (곡류 도정에 따른 지방산 조성 변화 연구)

  • Cho, Young-Sook;Kim, Yu-Na;Kim, Su-Yeonk;Kim, Jung-Bong;Kim, Heon-Woong;Kim, Se-Na;Kim, So-Young;Park, Hong-Ju;Kim, Jae-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.409-413
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Cereals, especially rice is the staple food of oriental nations and because it is very important for Korean food, to determine the extent of nutrient losses due to milling, we analyzed the fatty acid using by GC-FID(Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector). Experimented rice cereals were rice, glutinous rice, Heuinchalssalbori, Seodunchalbori, Saessalbori, Keunalbori No.1, barnyard millet produced in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: After milling, the contents of fatty acids in the rice, glutinous rice, Heuinchalssalbori, and Seodunchalbori, Keunalbori No.1 rather decreased, but in the Saessalbori, and barnyard mille increased. Particularly, fatty acid content of the rice decreased from 24.8 mg/g to 6.4 mg/g, glutinous rice decreased from 29.4 mg/g to 11.7 mg/g after milling. There were also significant changes in the compositions of fatty acid among samples. Stearic acid ($C_{18:0}$) increased from 5% to 15%, but oleic acid ($C_{18:1}$) and linoleic acid ($C_{18:2}$) decreased in the rice after milling. CONCLUSION(s):In the brown rice, 11 different types of fatty acids were detected, and its highest content was found in grains. However, milled grain was observed only seven fatty acids in the case of rice. This result insisted that a portion of the lipid layer was significantly lost during the milling operation in rice.

The Comparative Understanding between Red Ginseng and White Ginsengs, Processed Ginsengs (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (홍삼과 백삼의 비교 고찰)

  • Nam, Ki-Yeul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2005
  • Ginseng Radix, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer has been used in Eastern Asia for 2000 years as a tonic and restorative, promoting health and longevity. Two varieties are commercially available: white ginseng(Ginseng Radix Alba) is produced by air-drying the root, while red ginseng(Ginseng Radix Rubra) is produced by steaming the root followed by drying. These two varieties of different processing have somewhat differences by heat processing between them. During the heat processing for preparing red ginseng, it has been found to exhibit inactivation of catabolic enzymes, thereby preventing deterioration of ginseng quality and the increased antioxidant-like substances which inhibit lipid peroxide formation, and also good gastro-intestinal absorption by gelatinization of starch. Moreover, studies of changes in ginsenosides composition due to different processing of ginseng roots have been undertaken. The results obtained showed that red ginseng differ from white ginseng due to the lack of acidic malonyl-ginsenosides. The heating procedure in red ginseng was proved to degrade the thermally unstable malonyl-ginsenoside into corresponding netural ginsenosides. Also the steaming process of red ginseng causes degradation or transformation of neutral ginsenosides. Ginsenosides $Rh_2,\;Rh_4,\;Rs_3,\;Rs_4\;and\;Rg_5$, found only in red ginseng, have been known to be hydrolyzed products derived from original saponin by heat processing, responsible for inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ was also formed in red ginseng and was shown to exhibit vasorelaxation properties, antimetastatic activities, and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Recently, steamed red ginseng at high temperature was shown to provide enhance the yield of ginsenosides $Rg_3\;and\;Rg_5$ characteristic of red ginseng Additionally, one of non-saponin constituents, panaxytriol, was found to be structually transformed from polyacetylenic alcohol(panaxydol) showing cytotoxicity during the preparation of red ginseng and also maltol, antioxidant maillard product, from maltose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose, amino acid derivative, from arginine and maltose. In regard to the in vitro and in vivo comparative biological activities, red ginseng was reported to show more potent activities on the antioxidant effect, anticarcinogenic effect and ameliorative effect on blood circulation than those of white ginseng. In oriental medicine, the ability of red ginseng to supplement the vacancy(허) was known to be relatively stronger than that of white ginseng, but very few are known on its comparative clinical studies. Further investigation on the preclinical and clinical experiments are needed to show the differences of indications and efficacies between red and white ginsengs on the basis of oriental medicines.

Studies on the Quality Characteristics and Shelf-life of Maejackwa Containing Nuts and Seeds Prepared by Baking Method (굽는 방법으로 제조한 견과종실류 첨가 매작과의 품질특성 및 저장성에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Hai-Jung;Kim, Sung-Joon;Baek, Jung-Eun;Sung, Dae-Kyung;Song, Hwa-Youn;Lee, Jin-Young;Kim, Gyu-Heun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.811-817
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking method on the quality and shelf-life of Maejakgwa containing nuts and seeds. Four different types of nuts and seeds (almond, cashewnut, coconut, and sunflower seed) were added to flour, and baking method was applied to prepare the Maejakgwa, physicochemical properties of which were then evaluated. The proximate composition analysis demonstrated that crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were higher in the Maejakgwa containing nuts and seeds than in the control group. The lightness (L) value of the control Maejakgwa was lower than that observed in the groups containing nuts and seeds. Maejakgwa made with cashewnut, coconut, and sunflower seed evidenced higher yellowness (b) values than were recorded in the control and coconut groups. The incorporation of cashewnut, coconut and sunflower seed into the Maejakgwa lowered the hardness values (p<0.05). Our consumer test demonstrated that Maejakgwa prepared with almond was the most highly preferred, and the control group was the least favored. After 30 days of storage at $60^{\circ}C$, the peroxide value of the Maejakgwa containing sunflower seed was substantially higher than in any other groups, thereby suggesting that the addition of sunflower seeds resulted in accelerated lipid oxidation. No noticeable changes in peroxide values were observed in the groups prepared with coconut and cashewnut during storage time. The acid value increased with increasing storage time, and the addition of sunflower seed evidenced the highest values as compared to other groups.

Effects of Supplementation of Rice Bran and Roasted Soybean in the Diet on Physico-chemical and Sensory Characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo Steers (사료 내 생 미강과 볶은 대두의 첨가가 거세한우 등심의 이화학적 특성과 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Il;Jung, Keun-Ki;Kim, Duck-Young;Kim, Jin-Yeoul;Choi, Chang-Bon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.451-459
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    • 2011
  • We investigated melting points and sensory characteristics by adding rice bran and roasted soybean to the finishing diet of Hanwoo steers. Thirty-six Hanwoo steers (average age, 20.92 mon-old; average weight, 599.89 kg) were assigned to either Control, Treatment 1 (rice bran) or Treatment 2 (roasted soybean) groups (12 steers/group), considering body weight and age. Supplementation levels of rice bran and roasted soybean were determined to meet total 5% crude fat in the concentrates, and the experimental animals were fed for 314 d until they reached 31.2 mon old. No significant differences were found in the moisture and crude fat content among groups. Melting points of lipid extracted from M. longissimus dorsi, subcutaneous fat, and perirenal fats were 25.83-26.17, 17.26-18.53 and $32.40-33.15^{\circ}C$, respectively, resulting in remarkable differences depending on fat depots. Contents of free amino acids in M. longissimus dorsi related to sweet taste were 39.48 mg/100 g for Treatment 1, which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those for Control (32.24 mg/100 g), whereas those related to bitter taste were 25.93 mg/100 g for Treatment 2, which was the lowest (p<0.05) among the groups. Fatty acid composition, such as $C_{14:0}$, $C_{16:0}$, $C_{16:1}$, $C_{18:0}$, and $C_{18:1}$, in M. longissimus dorsi was not different among the groups. Results of a panel test on M. longissimus dorsi showed that Treatment 1 scored the highest (p<0.05) in juiciness, and both Treatments 1 and 2 scored higher (p< 0.05) in overall palatability than the Control group. $C_{18:1}$ showed a positive (+) relationship with tenderness (r = 0.650; p<0.05), and $C_{18:0}$ with flavor (0.698; p<0.05). The results suggest that rice bran and roasted soybean are beneficial for improving M. longissimus dorsi sensory characteristics, whereas no significant differences were found in the physico-chemical characteristics among the groups.

Quality Comparison of Chuncheon Dakgalbi Made from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers (토종닭과 육계로 만든 춘천닭갈비의 품질비교)

  • Lee, Sung-Ki;Choi, Won-Hee;Muhlisin, Muhlisin;Kang, Sun-Moon;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Ahn, Byoung-Ki;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.731-740
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate a quality comparison between Chuncheon Dakgalbi made from Korean native chickens (KNC) and that made from commercial broilers. Two Korean native chickens including Woorimatdag (KNCWoori) and Hanhyup3 (KNC-Hanhyup), and two commercial broilers including grades of 18 (Broiler-18) and 13 (Broiler-13) were slaughtered at 110, 70, 38, and 31 d of ages. Chuncheon dalkalbi was prepared by mixing/dipping the meat in chili pepper sauce; it was then packed with air-packaging (Air-P) and 30% $CO_2$-MAP (0% $O_2$/30% $CO_2$/70% $N_2$), and stored at $5^{\circ}C$ for 10 d. The results showed that the KNC group had a lower pH but a higher cooking loss compared with the broiler group (p<0.05). In a texture analysis, KNC-Woori had the highest shear force value among the breeds (p<0.05). For the fatty acid composition of the thigh, the KNC-Woori contained more total saturated acids, myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid, but less total unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid than other breeds (p<0.05). Also, the n6/n3 ratios of the KNC group (19.24 and 16.77) were higher than those of the broiler group (14.02 and 14.77) (p<0.05). The total acceptability scores of Dakgalbi made from the KNC group were decreased by sensory panelists. The Dakgalbi with 30% $CO_2$-MAP delayed the protein deterioration (Volatile basic nitrogen) and lipid oxidation during storage. However, no clear evidence was observed of $CO_2$-MAP on the effect of different chicken materials. It is suggested that 30% $CO_2$-MAP instead of Air-P is used for methods for Chuncheon Dakgalbi. Furthermore, it might be unfavorable to use Korean native chickens as raw material for Chuncheon Dakgalbi from a practical quality point of view.

Long-term Evaluation of Muscle Quality of the Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Fed with Extruded Pellet (배합사료로 장기간 사육된 넙치의 육질평가)

  • Kim, Kang-Woong;Kang, Yong-Jin;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Choi, Se-Min;Lee, Jong-Yun;MoonLee, Hae-Young;Bai, Sung-Chul C.
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the muscle quality of the olive flounder fed on extruded pellet (EP) diets compared with a raw fish moist pellet (MP) diet for olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in a commercial scale for a year. The sensory and physical qualities and palatable compounds were compared for evaluation of muscle quality in fish. Four diets were formulated for this experiment: two experimental EP diets (EP 1 and 2), one commercial EP diet (CEP) and MP diet. Crude lipid of fish fed EP1 and EP2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish fed CEP, but not significantly different from that of fish fed MP (P>0.05). In the palatable compounds, the free amino acids composition were much alike in that of all the diets. Proline, glycine and alanine from fish fed diet EPs were the most abundant compound among amino acid compositions. There was little difference in the free amino acid compositions of all flounder from localities and the growing conditions between wild and cultured fishes. Taurine of fish fed EP1 was dominantly high over that of fish fed EP2, CEP and MP. In all nucleotides and their related compounds, ATP and IMP from fish fed EP diets were higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed MP. In the sensory score, overall-acceptability of fish fed EP2 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of fish fed EP1, CEP and MP. Hardness of physical properties from fish fed EP2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of fish fed CEP (P<0.01). These results strongly suggest that diets EP could be developed to replace MP diet for the grow-out stage of olive flounder without adverse effect on growth performance.