• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid composition

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Effect of Extruded and Moist Pellets at Different Feeding Rate on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (부상 건조사료(EP) 습사료(MP)의 만복 및 제한 공급이 넙치 치어의 성장 및 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo Joo-Young;Lee Jong Ha;Kim Gun-Up;Lee Sang-Min
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.26-30
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    • 2005
  • A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum feeding rate of two extruded pellets (EP1 and EP2) and raw fish-based moist pellet (MP) for juvenile flounder. Two replicate groups of the fish (average weight of 27 g) were fed EP and MP three times daily at different feeding rate (satiation and $85\%$ satiation). Weight gain of fish was not affected by diet, but affected by feeding rate. Weight gain with satiation feeding group showed :t tendency to higher compared to that of fish with $85\%$ satiation feeding at the same diet. Feed efficiency of fish was affected by diet, but not feeding rate. Feed efficiency of fish fed the EP1 and EP2 was higher than that of fish fed the MP at the same feeding rate. Daily feed intake was affected by diet and feeding rate. Daily feed intake of fish fed with satiation was higher than that of fish with $85\%$ satiation at same diet, and this variable of fish fed the MP was higher than that of fish fed the EP 1 and EP2. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the MP was significantly lower than that of fish fed the EP1 and EP2 regardless of feeding rate. Lipid content of whole body was affected by diet, and that of fish fed the EP2 and MP at satiation feeding was the highest. It can be concluded that satiation feeding will be good and EP is better than MP for growth of juvenile flounder grown from 27 g to 51 g.

Optimum Dietary Ratio of Raw Fish and Commercial Compound Meal in Moist Pellet for Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) (넙치용 습사료에 있어서 생사료와 분말배합사료의 적정 혼합비)

  • 지승철;정관식;유진형
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2003
  • Dietary optimum ratio of frozen raw fish and commercial compound meal (CCM) in moist pellet (MP) were investigated to improve the growth rate, and feed and economical efficiency in the flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Experimental fish (average body weight, about 48 g) were divided into 6 groups and each group was fed with raw fish (FRF), and MPs (ratio of raw fish and CCM=9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 and 5:5) for 10 weeks. The 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5 groups showed no significant difference in weight gain as 203.5~217.3%, while the FRF group showed significantly low growth rate as 183.1%(P<0.05). The feed efficiency gradually increased with the increase in the ratio of CCM and was the highest in the 5:5 group as 89.7%. As a result of analysis of body composition after the experiment, moisture was significantly low in the 7:3 group (P<0.05) and crude protein was significantly low in the 9:1 group (P<0.05). The crude lipid increased as the ratio of raw fish increased, and it was the highest in the raw fish group (8.3%) and the lowest in the 5:5 group (4.6%). There were no significant difference in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor(CF) among the experimental groups. Visceralsomatic index (VSI) increased with the increase in the ratio of raw fish and was significantly high in the raw fish group as 5.49 (P<0.05). For the unit cost of feed, it was found that raw fish was economical when mackerel, a source of raw feed, was 400 won/kg, while the ratio of 5:5 was economical when it was more than 500 won/kg. Results of this study concluded that sole use of raw feed is not desirable in view of growth, environment and economy, and the 5:5 group showed highest effect under the least use of raw feed.

Chemical Properties and Biological Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Shoots (마늘종의 화학적 특성 및 생리활성)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Yoon, Hwan-Sik;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical properties and functional characteristics, such as general composition and bioactivity compounds contents of fresh and blanched (at $95^{\circ}C$, for 5min) garlic shoot from Namhae. Also, evaluated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water and ethanol extract of fresh and blanched garlic shoot. The moisture content of fresh garlic steam was $ 85.14{\pm}0.35%$, crude protein and crude lipid were $0.79{\pm}0.26%$ and $2.96{\pm}0.03%$ respectively. Vitamin C content was higher in fresh garlic shoot ($7.07{\pm}0.84mg/100g$) than blanched. Total phenol and total chlorophyll contents were respectively $16.93{\pm}1.17mM/g$ and $6.70{\pm}0.46mg/g$ in fresh garlic shoot. Allicin content of blanched garlic shoot was $128.63{\pm}1.59mM/g$. This content was 1.82 times higher than the fresh garlic shoot. Total pyruvate content was higher in fresh garlic shoot ($24.63{\pm}1.59mM/g$), but thiosulfinate was higher in fresh garlic shoot. Total flavonoide was the highest in water extract of blanched garlic shoot ($3.67{\pm}0.00mM/g$). ABTS radical scavenging activity of water extract form blanched garlic shoot was $85.09{\pm}0.28%$, which was higher than the other extracts. NO radical scavenging activity of ethanol extract from blanched garlic shoot was significantly higher than the extracts from fresh garlic shoot. Antibacterial activity to S. aureus, S. enterica, B. cereus and E. coli was only indicated in water extract of fresh garlic shoot.

Spatial Variation in the Reproductive Effort of Mania Clam Ruditapes philippinarum during Spawning and Effects of the Protozoan Parasite Perkinsus olseni Infection on the Reproductive Effort (여름철 산란기에 있어 바지락 번식량의 공간적 변이와 기생 원생생물 Perkinsus olseni 감염이 바지락 번식에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hyun-Sil;Hong, Hyun-Ki;Yang, Hyun-Sung;Park, Kyung-Il;Lee, Taek-Kyun;Kim, Young-Ok;Choi, Kwang-Sik
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2015
  • Spatial variation in the reproductive effort of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is often closely associated with variation in the seawater temperature and food availability, which determines gonad maturity and the quantity of gamates produced during spawning. Previous studies also have reported that severe infection by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni exerts a negative impact on clam reproduction, retarding gonad maturation or decreasing the reproductive effort. In the present study, we investigated impacts of P. olseni infection on the reproductive condition of Manila clam during a spawning season. Histology revealed that 54% of female clams in Wando off the south coast were in spawning, while only 10% of the female from Gomso and 0% of the female from Seonjaedo in Gyeonggi bay off the west coast were engaged in spawning at the end of May in 2004. Ray's fluid thioglycollate media (RFTM) assay was applied to assess P. olseni infection and indicated that the infection intensity in Wando ($3,608,000{\pm}258,000cells/g$ wet tissue) was significantly higher than the levels in Gomso ($1,305,000{\pm}106,000cells/g$ wet tissue) and Seonjaedo ($1,083,000{\pm}137,000cells/g$ wet tissue, p < 0.001). The size of the ripe female follicle determined from histology was significantly smaller in Wando ($0.032mm^2$) compared to the sizes in Gomso ($0.059mm^2$) and Seonjaedo ($0.052mm^2$, p < 0.05). Accordingly, the number of ripe eggs in the follicle was significantly fewer among clams in Wando (14) compared to the numbers determined in Gomso (23) and Seonjaedo (22). The absolute quantity of egg in ripe clams from Wando (31.01 mg) was also significantly smaller than Seonjaedo (61.79 mg) and Gomso (133.3 mg). Quantity of total protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in the tissue in the Wando samples was significantly smaller than the quantities determined in Gomso and Seonjaedo (p < 0.001). The observed poor reproductive condition and proximate tissue composition of the females in Wando were, in part, explained by the extremely high level of the parasites, sapping the ability to store energy in the host tissues, which is used in tissue growth and the egg production.

Processing and Quality Properties of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Cutlet (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus) 커틀렛 제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • YOON, Moon-Joo;LEE, Jae-Dong;KWON, Soon-Jae;PARK, Si-Young;KONG, Cheong-Sik;JOO, Jong-Chan;KIM, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder (Parlichthys olivaceus) is a large carnivorous fish that live at coastal area and shallow seas in Korea. It was good texture and clean taste because of a high collagen content and low lipid content. More than 70% of olive flounder annual production was traded alive, consequently processing food product from olive flounder is rare to be towed. This study was conducted to investigate the best method of olive flounder cutlet processing. Clean fillet (headless, skinless and contain no viscera part) of olive flounder were divided into 5 portion. Every 100 g of olive flounder meat was wrapped with vinyl then flatten with meat hammer. Flatten fillet then was coated with wheat flour, and seasoned with salt and pepper. These were then coated with egg wash and bread crumbs. Two different method of processing was to make this olive flounder cutlet. Cutlet-1 was fried for 1 min in olive oil, then kept in polyethylene film vacuum packaging ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$) and stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. After 7 days the cutlet was thawed and heat up in microwave for 2 min (Sample-1). The other proup is cutlet-2, which is directly stored in polyethylene film vacuum packaging at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days then thawed and fried for 1 min in olive oil (Sample-2). The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder cutlet (Sample-1, Sample-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Sample-2 showed a little high scores than Sample-1. But there was no significant differences in color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptance between Sample-1 and Sample-2 products.

Processing and Property of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Steak (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus)스테이크제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • Yoon, Moon-Joo;Kwon, Soon-Jae;Lee, Jae-Dong;Park, Si-Young;Kong, Cheong-Sik;Joo, Jong-Chan;Kim, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.98-107
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder contains rich amount of lysine which is required for children's growth. Moreover, it is good foodstuffs for elderly, convalescent and diabetics because of low lipid content and high digestibility. This study was investigated for the purpose of obtaining basic data which can be applied to the processing of olive flounder steak. Olive flounder 100 g were chopped, mixed with vegetable (onion 20%, celery 10%, carrot 15%, garlic 1% of chopped olive flounder meat) and ingredient (bread crumbs 20 g, onion 15 g, celery 10 g, egg 1 ea, tarragon 1/2 t, blanc sauce 20 g, fresh cream 20 mL, salt and pepper pinch). Mixed dough was molded into steak shape ($12{\times}7cm$) and was processed by two types of products, Steak-1 {Roasting for 2 minutes in a frying pan wrapped with olive oil and then vacuum packaging in polyethylene film ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$), and then storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days, next thawed and warmed by microwave for 2 minutes} and Steak-2 {vacuum-packaging in polyethylene film ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$), and then storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days, after thawed, roasted during 2 minutes in a frying pan wrapped with olive oil}. The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder steak (Steak-1, Steak-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Steak-2 showed a bit more high scores than Steak-1 but it was difficult to distinguish significant difference (color, odor, taste, texture and acceptance) between Steak-1 and Steak-2 products.

Food Component Characteristics of Red-tanner Crab (Chionoecetes japonicus) Paste as Food Processing Source (식품가공소재로서 게 페이스트의 식품성분 특성)

  • Kim, Hye-Suk;Park, Chan-Ho;Choi, Seung-Geal;Han, Byung-Wook;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Shim, Nam-Hyuk;Oh, Hyeon-Seok;Kim, Jin-Soo;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1077-1081
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the components and nutritional quality of red-tanner crab (Chionoecetes japonicus) paste in order to explore possibility for food processing source such as surimi gel containing crab paste. Yield of crab paste was $30\%$ from whole body after crushing and dehydrating. Crude protein contents $(9.5\%)$ of crab paste was lower than that $(13.1\%)$ of crab muscle, but fat $(0.5\%)$ and ash contents $(8.0\%)$ of paste were higher than $0.2\%\;and\;1.3\%$ of crab muscle, respectively. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content of the crab paste was lower than those of the edible parts. Total amino acid content (9,497mg/l00g) of paste was lower than that (12,980mg/100g) of muscle. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and leucine were the predominant amino acids in the protein fraction. The calcium content (6,539mg/l00g) was higher than those of phosphorus (579mg/100g), and potassium (793mg/100g) while manganese and iron were present in trace amounts. Major fatty acids of total lipid were 16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and no difference of composition between paste and muscle. Sensory evaluation showed that scores of color and flavor of $15\%$ substituted surimi gel increased significantly when compared to surimi gel without crab paste (p<0.05). From the above results, the addition of crab paste enhanced nutrition and functionality of surimi gel.

Development of Spaghetti Sauce with Adductor Muscle of Pearl Oyster (진주조개 패주 스파게티 소스의 개발)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, In-Soo;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Hye-Suk;Jee, Seung-Joon;Park, Tae-Bong;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.1484-1490
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to prepare spaghetti sauce with adductor muscle of pearl oyster (SSAM) and to compare with commercial spaghetti sauce (CSS). From the results of organic acid, pH, hunter color value and sensory evaluation, the optimal addition ratio of adductor muscle of pearl oyster was 11% based for preparing SSAM and reasonable $F_0$ value was about 4 min for keeping storage of SSAM. The proximate composition of SSAM was 69.8% for moisture, 3.7% for protein, 4.2% for crude lipid and 3.4% for crude ash. SSAM was superior in sensory flavor and texture to CSS. There was, however, no significant difference (p<0.05) in sensory color between CSS and SSAM. The total amino acid content (3,033.4 mg/100 g) of SSAM was higher than that (2,305.7 mg/100 g) of CSS and the major amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine. Calcium and phosphorus contents in SSAM were 48.5 mg/100 g and 27.1 mg/100 g, respectively. Calcium level based on phosphorous was 1.78, which was a good ratio for absorbing calcium. The free amino acid content and taste value of SSAM were 989.4 mg/100 g and 141.04 mg/100 g, respectively These results suggested that the major taste active compounds among free amino acid were glutamic acid and aspartic acid.

Quality Characteristics of Jocheong Containing Various Level of Letinus edodes Extracts (표고버섯 추출액을 이용한 조청의 품질특성)

  • Park, Jung-Suk;Na, Hwan-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1082-1090
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    • 2005
  • Jocheong was prepared by adding Lentinus edodes extract to improve its quality and to give some functional properties. Contents of crude protein, ash and crude lipid were similar to those of control, while carbohydrate content was decreased. Total mineral content were $1,916.03\~2,674.24mg/kg$ that was no difference between test samples. From HPLC determination of free sugars, Jocheong was found to contain maltose as the highest sugar, followed by glucose and fructose. In amino acid analysis, seventeen amino acid were identified and quantified. Glutamic acid in Jocheong was major amino acid. The major fatty acids in Jocheong $(0\%,\;control)$ were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and caproic acid. There was no significant differences in fatty acid composition, pH and reducing sugar content among the Jocheong samples. The viscosity and solid contents tended to decrease with the addition of Lentinus edodes extract. Increasing the ratio of mushroom extract in Jocheong tended to decrease the lightness, yellowness and redness in Hunter's color value. Although sensory value decreased with increasing Lentinus edodes extracts, use of mushroom extracts (7: 3; saccharification liquids: Lentinus edodes extracts) is recommended for making Jocheong.

Food Component Characterization of Muscle around Pectoral Fin, Salmon Fillet Processing By-products (연어 Fillet 부산물인 가슴지느러미 부근 근육의 식품성분 특성)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Lee, Dong-Ho;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Yoon, Min-Seok;Park, Kwon-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.70-75
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    • 2009
  • For the effective use of salmon processing by-products, the food components of muscle around pectoral fin (MAPF) were investigated and compared with those of salmon fillet muscle (SFM). The proximate composition of MAPF was 64.4% for the moisture, 17.2% for the crude protein, 16.2% for the crude lipid and 1.4% for the ash. The pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content and yield of MAPF were 6.73, 7.8 mg/100 g and 7.4 (g/100 g SFM), respectively. The trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble-N content of MAPF was 479 mg/100 g, which was lower than that (612 mg/100 g) of SFM. The Hunter value of MAPF was 54.86 for L value, 22.08 for a value, 22.41 for b value and 52.35 for ${\Delta}$E value, which were similar to those of SFM. The total content in amino acids of MAPF was 17.1 g/100 g, its major amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine. The major fatty acids of MAPF were 16:0, 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. No differences were found in the major fatty acids and the major amino acids between MAPF and SFM. The calcium and phosphorus contents of MAPF were 19.1 mg/100 g and 211.7 g/100 g, respectively. These results suggested that MAPF could be used as seafood resources.